Kumar, Kamlesh (Petroleum Development Oman) | Awang, Zaidi (Petroleum Development Oman) | Azzazi, Mohamed (Petroleum Development Oman) | Hamdi, Abdullah (Petroleum Development Oman) | Hughes, Brendan (Petroleum Development Oman) | Abri, Said (Petroleum Development Oman)
The microporous rock types in Upper Shuaiba are low permeability ( 1mD) rocks occurring in thin (2-5 m) formations within the extensive Upper Shuaiba carbonate formations in Lekhwair. These microporous rocks constitute a significant volume of hydrocarbon in-place. Unlike the higher quality rudist-rich and grainstone rock types, appraisal pilots in the microporous areas have shown poor performance with waterflood development, which is the preferred development concept in the entire Lekhwair field. Two work streams are active in parallel to identify a technically and commercially feasible development option: Phase 1, technology trials to enable a successful waterflood implementation, and Phase 2, further studies to screen the potential of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques and other light tight oil development. The technology trial work stream, initially considered four initiatives targeting injectivity improvement. To date, trials are complete for abrasive jetting and designer acid stimulation, early results are available for Directional Acid Jetting, and evaluation of Fracture Aligned Sweep Technology (FAST) is ongoing with hydraulic fracturing evaluation accelerated to Phase 1 due to synergies with the FAST evaluation.
Kumar, Kamlesh (Petroleum Development Oman) | Azzazi, Mohamed (Petroleum Development Oman) | Hamdi, Abdullah (Petroleum Development Oman) | Awang, Zaidi (Petroleum Development Oman) | Nicholls, Christopher (Petroleum Development Oman) | Lawati, Yousuf (Petroleum Development Oman) | Huseini, Hamood (Petroleum Development Oman) | Abri, Said (Petroleum Development Oman) | Sharji, Hamed (Petroleum Development Oman)
The Upper Shuaiba reservoirs in Lekhwair consist of carbonate formations extending over a very large area (40 km × 40 km). Earlier development projects identified thicker, well-appraised formations, resulting in successful waterfloods. In contrast, challenges have been encountered in some of the waterflood pilots attempting to unlock future development areas. An integrated evaluation of these poor performing areas led to the development of a rock type catalogue that mapped out different rock types and their properties. Initial developments were mostly in high permeability rock types (Rudist Rich and Grainstone) whilst the underperforming pilots are associated with microporous rock characterized by low permeability (~1 mD) and thin formations (2-5m). These microporous rocks are associated with a large hydrocarbon volume in place. Resolving this development challenge is critical in maintaining the company's long-term production targets.
Waterflood is the preferred development concept as it is in line with the existing facilities and infrastructure. The existing pilots demonstrate that low water injectivity/throughput is the key challenge to waterflood feasibility. Conventional acid stimulation does not work in these formations. Four different initiatives, in addition to injection water quality monitoring and improvements, are being tried to ensure successful maturation of microporous resources: Abrasive Jetting: used to create small tunnels up to 3m into the reservoir. Controlled Directional Acid Jetting: using acid to create multiple small laterals (up to 12 m in length) into the reservoir. Designer Acid: acid tailored to improve conventional acid stimulation. Fracture Aligned Sweep Technology (FAST) as implemented in Halfdan field; which creates longitudinal fractures along the length of the well.
Abrasive Jetting: used to create small tunnels up to 3m into the reservoir.
Controlled Directional Acid Jetting: using acid to create multiple small laterals (up to 12 m in length) into the reservoir.
Designer Acid: acid tailored to improve conventional acid stimulation.
Fracture Aligned Sweep Technology (FAST) as implemented in Halfdan field; which creates longitudinal fractures along the length of the well.
The outcome of this study includes identification and mapping of the different rocktypes across the entire Upper Shuaiba; waterflood performance assessment of microporous rocks and new technology trials to accelerate the development of microporous resources. Whilst abrasive jetting has achieved limited success in improving injectivity, result from designer acid stimulation was disappointing. The other two trials are still under evaluation. In case all the initiatives fail to establish the feasibility of waterflood, alternate developments mechanisms are proposed as Phase 2 in the strategy.
This paper highlights how integration between different disciplines can help in maturation of a large resource volume, whilst accelerating its development by standardization of designs.
Majority of oil wells operated by Petroleum Development Oman (PDO) are produced by beam-pumps (BP). Average water cut in a number of fields in South of Oman reaches 95%. Increasing water production overloads processing facilities leading to handling and disposal constrains requiring wells to be shut-in.
BP completions are not surveillance friendly making production logging to identify water entry for optimization (water shut-off) a challenge. The current technique to acquire production logs requires recompletion to dual-string completion to allow logging: BP short-string and surveillance conduit long-string. This is resource intensive, high cost, restricts production and limited to 9-5/8in. cased wells. Moreover, new wells are completed with dual 9-5/8in. x 7in. casing for well life-cycle integrity management.
A novel solution was developed and part-funded by PDO consisting of a jet-pump (JP), 1in. inside 2in. concentric-coiled tubing (CCT) strings, power cable and production logging tools (PLT). This cost-effective real-time surveillance technique will facilitate routine production logging in BP wells, significantly reducing well intervention time and cost (50% reduction) as only the rod string is retrieved by light-hoist in preparation for logging.
Wells completed with dual-string completions, which have previously been production logged were selected for field trial. These existing logs were used as a baseline for new log comparison. The technique was successfully deployed in a 3 well field trial campaign for the first time in southern oilfields (industry first). The new production logs compared very well to existing logs (same water signature observed), proving the techniques robustness to identify water entry in different production environments.
We preset advantages of the new technique over conventional, candidate selection, logging tool options, interpretation methodology, field trial results and comparison logs. This new system is being deployed across PDO and is applicable to other fields being produced by BP, progressing-cavity pump (PCP) or electrical submersible pump (ESP) to identify water entry for production enhancement or reservoir monitoring.