An updated geological and dynamic model for a giant Middle East carbonate reservoir was constructed and history matched with the objective of creating an alternative model which is capable of replicating the reservoir production mechanisms and improving predictability, allowing optimizing the field development plan and water injection strategy. Giant Middle East carbonate fields often have long production history and exhibit high reservoir heterogeneity. It is always challenging to get a robust history matched model aligned with geological concepts and dynamic behavior understanding.
The objective of this paper is to present an improved and integrated reservoir characterization, modeling and history matching procedure for a giant Lower Cretaceous carbonate reservoir in the Middle East. The applied workflow integrates all available geological data (stratigraphy, depositional facies, and diagenesis), petrophysical data (RCA and minipermeameter data, Petrophysical Group definition, cut-off definition) and the extensive database of dynamic data (long production history, well test, RST, open-hole log saturation over more than 40 years of development drilling, and MICP). The process was initiated with the reservoir review by means of a fully integrated study that allowed having better understanding of the reservoir behavior and production mechanisms. The key heterogeneities (high permeability and intra-dense layers) which control the flow behavior were identified during this process. Geological trend maps were generated to control the distribution of high permeability and intra-dense in the model. Well test data, open-hole logs from development wells and time-lapse saturation logs from observation wells were used to calibrate the trend and permeability log data. A phenomenological model was constructed to test the main factors impacting the production mechanism as identified during the reservoir review. Multiple iterations were performed between the static and dynamic models in a way that allowed a quick and efficient work that is consistent with all disciplines assumptions.
Such continuous loop between the dynamic and geological models, with focus on the geological heterogeneities driving the dynamic reservoir behavior, has led to a more robust model capable of replicate the production mechanisms, which represents a major improvement compared to previous model in term of predictability.