Lu, Cong (Southwest Petroleum University) | Li, Junfeng (Southwest Petroleum University) | Luo, Yang (SINOPEC Southwest Oil & Gas field Company) | Chen, Chi (Southwest Petroleum University) | Xiao, Yongjun (Sichuan Changning Gas Development Co. Ltd) | Liu, Wang (Sichuan Changning Gas Development Co. Ltd) | Lu, Hongguang (Huayou Group Company Oilfied Chemistry Company of Southwest) | Guo, Jianchun (Southwest Petroleum University)
Temporary plugging during fracturing operation has become an efficient method to create complex fracture network in tight reservoirs with natural fractures. Accurate prediction of network propagation process plays a critical role in the plugging and fracturing parameters optimization. In this paper, the interaction between one single hydraulic fracture within temporary plugging segment and multiple natural fractures was simulated using a complex fracture development model. A new opening criterion for NF penetrated by non-orthogonal HF already was implemented to identify the dominate propagation direction of HF under plugging condition. Fracture displacements and induced stress field were determined by the three dimensional displacement discontinuity method, and the Gauss-Jordan and Levenberg-Marquardt methods were combined to handle the coupling between rock mechanics and fluid flow numerically. Numerical results demonstrate that the opening and development of NF are mainly dominated by its approaching angle and relative location. For a certain NF crossed by HF within plugging segment, HF tends to propagate along the relative upper part when the approaching angle is less than 90°, otherwise the lower part will be easier to open. The farther interaction position is away from HF tip, the easier NF with approaching angle less than 30° or larger than 150° can be open, and the outcome will be opposite if the approaching angle is larger than 45° or less than 135°. Higher approaching angle and plugging strength is necessary for expanding the position scope of NF that can be opened around HF. Under the impact of plugging, fluid pressure in HF plummets at the beginning of NF opening and keeps decreasing until NF extending for a certain distance or encountering secondary NFs. Fluid pressure drop occurs mainly in the unturned NF, together with the width of unturned NF is significantly lower than that of turned NF and HF. Sensitivity analysis shows that the main factors, such as geometry, aperture profile, and fluid pressure distribution, affecting the network progress under temporary plugging condition are the horizontal differential stress, NF position, approaching angle, plugging time, and plugging segment length. The simulation results provide critical insight into complex fracture propagation progress under temporary plugging condition, which should serve as guidelines for welling choosing and plugging optimization in temporary plugging fracturing.
Lai, Jie (Southwest Petroleum University) | Guo, Jianchun (Southwest Petroleum University) | Chen, Chi (Southwest Petroleum University) | Wu, Kaidi (Southwest Petroleum University) | Ma, Huiyun (Petro China Southwest Oil & Gasfield Company) | Zhou, Changlin (Petro China Southwest Oil & Gasfield Company) | Wang, Shibin (Southwest Petroleum University) | Ren, Jichuan (Southwest Petroleum University) | Wang, Zhi (Southwest Petroleum University)
As the most commonly used technology to exploit tight dolomite reservoirs, acid fracturing usually begins with injecting pad fluid to create rough-surface fractures, followed by pumping acid to form non-uniform etching on fracture surfaces. Thus, the etching pattern and acid fracture conductivity depend largely on initial character of rough-surface fractures. In this work, experiments were conducted to examine the effects of initial roughness and mechanical property of fracture surface on acid fracture conductivity.
Eight artificially split core samples were collected from tight dolomite outcrops and classified into three categories based on the surface topography and splitting force curve. Rough fracture surfaces were scanned utilizing the 3D laser scanner. Then, dynamic acid etching tests were conducted, varying the acid flow rate and acid-rock contact time. Besides, the roughness of fracture surfaces were measured utilizing the 3D laser scanner again. After that, acid fracture conductivity was determined. The effects of acid flow rate, acid-rock contact time, fracture surface topography and mechanical property on acid etching and acid fracture conductivity were discussed.
The experimental results demonstrated that the initial fracture surface topography and acid flow rate jointly controlled the acid etching pattern and the resulting acid fracture surface topography. The orientation of the fractures distributed on the fracture surface had significant effects on the acid fracture conductivity. Dissolved mass increased with longer acid-rock contact time. Longer acid-rock contact time brought higher acid fracture conductivity under low closure stress, while shorter contact time sustained higher acid fracture conductivity under high closure stress. Higher maximum splitting force referred to higher mechanical property, and more breaking stages referred to more microfractures developed. Rock samples with higher maximum splitting force and only one breaking stage exhibited higher acid fracture conductivity.
This paper provides a systematic method to study the effects of initial roughness and mechanical property of fracture surfaces on acid fracture conductivity. Compared with the results based on smooth-surface fracture, the experimental results based on rough-surface fracture can guide acid fracturing design and optimization in a more accurate way. Accordingly, a cost-effective stimulation outcome can be expected.
Various far-offset marine acquisition geometries have been deemed as promising for alleviating imaging difficulties in the deepwater Gulf of Mexico (GOM). In this case study from the GOM we explore the benefits of far offsets using ocean bottom node (OBN) data with acquisition offsets up to 25 km, and investigate the untapped potential of extremely far offsets of up to 50 km. Using offsets between 12 km and 25 km is not straightforward but these offsets can significantly improve the subsalt images and were valuable for building the salt model in this study. Although their usefulness may be limited in salt model building, we observed imaging benefits from extremely far offsets up to 50 km.
Presentation Date: Wednesday, October 19, 2016
Start Time: 3:10:00 PM
Presentation Type: ORAL