Alusta, Gamal Abdalla (Heriot-Watt University) | Mackay, Eric James (Heriot-Watt University) | Collins, Ian Ralph (BP Exploration) | Fennema, Julian (Heriot-Watt University) | Armih, Khari (Heriot-Watt University)
This study has focused on the development of a method to test the economic viability of Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) versus infill well drilling where the challenge is to compare polymer flooding scenarios with infill well drilling scenarios, not just based on incremental recovery, but on Net Present Value as well.
In a previous publication (Alusta et al., 2011, SPE143300) the method was developed to address polymer flooding, but it can be modified to suit any other EOR methods. The method has been applied to a synthetic scenario with constant economic parameters, which has demonstrated the impact that oil price can have on the decision making process.
The method was then applied and tested (Alusta et al., 2012, SPE150454) with varied operational and economic parameters to investigate the impact in delaying the start of polymer flooding to identify whether it is better to start polymer flooding earlier or later in the life of the project. Consideration was also given to the optimum polymer concentration, and the impact that factors such as oil price and polymer cost have on this decision. Due to the large number of combined reservoir engineering and economic scenarios, Monte Carlo Simulation and advanced analysis of large data sets and the resulting probability distributions had to be developed.
In this paper the methodology is applied to an offshore field where the choice has already been made to drill infill wells, but where we test the robustness of the method against a conventional decision making process for which there is historical data. We do this by performing calculations that compare the infill well scenario chosen with a range of polymer flooding scenarios that could have been selected instead, to identify whether or not the choice to drill infill wells was indeed the optimum choice from an economic perspective.
We conclude from all the reservoir simulations and subsequent economic calculations that the decision to drill infill wells was indeed the optimum choice from an economic perspective.
Hassenkam, Tue (U. of Copenhagen) | Mathiesen, Jesper (U. of Copenhagen) | Pedersen, Christian (U. of Copenhagen) | Dalby, Kim (U. of Copenhagen) | Stipp, Susan (U. of Copenhagen) | Collins, Ian Ralph (BP Exploration)
Field tests have demonstrated that oil production from sandstone reservoirs increases when injected water salinity is low, i.e. ~1500 ppm total dissolved solids (TDS). In core plug tests performed at reservoir conditions, low salinity flooding has been responsible for incremental recoveries ranging from about 5 to 38%. Previous work has suggested that for the low salinity effect to manifest itself, the oil must contain polar components, the formation water must contain divalent cations and clay must be present in the reservoir, but a clear understanding of the mechanism, from fundamental chemical and physical principals, is still subject to debate.
In the work reported here, an atomic force microscope (AFM) has been used in force spectroscopy mode to investigate the nature and magnitude of the interaction between hydrocarbon molecules with carboxylic acid end groups and the pore surfaces of oil reservoir sandstones. By functionalizing the AFM tip with polar molecules we have been able to measure, quantitatively, the adhesion forces between these molecules and the mineral surfaces under 36,500 and 1500 ppm TDS artificial seawater (ASW) solutions.
Collecting these measurements in two-dimensional arrays, known as force maps, revealed that adhesion was highest on the quartz grain surfaces during exposure to the high salinity solutions and it decreased when salinity decreased in nearly all cases. The drop in adhesion was observed through several high to low salinity cycles. We interpreted certain small features that were visible on the quartz surfaces to be clay that had grown directly on the sand grains from solution during diagenesis. Adhesion on these clay surfaces also changed with modifications in salinity. We observed no difference in behaviour whether the sandstone was preserved or cleaned; both types of core demonstrated a clear low salinity response.