Ba Geri, Mohammed (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Ellafi, Abdulaziz (University of North Dakota) | Flori, Ralph (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Noles, Jerry (Coil Chem LLC) | Kim, Sangjoon (Coil Chem LLC)
Viscoelastic property of high-viscosity friction reducers (HVFRs) was developed as an alternative fracturing fluid system because of advantages such as the ability to transport particles, higher fracture conductivity, and potential lower cost due to fewer chemicals and equipment on location. However, concerns remain about using HVFRs to transport proppant in DI water and harsh brine solution (e.g. 2wt% KCl and 10 lbs. brine). The primary objective of this study is to investigate the viscoelastic property that can help to understand the true proppant transporting capacity of fracturing fluids in high-TDS environment.
To address the evaluation performance of HVFRs, a comprehensive review of numerous papers associated to viscoelastic property of hydraulic fracturing fluids were investigated and summarized. This paper also provides a full comparison study of viscosity and elastic modulus between HVFRs and among fracturing fluids such as xanthan, polyacrylamide-based emulsion polymer, and guar. Moreover, viscosity profiles and elastic modulus were conducted at different temperatures. Better proppant transportation effect though higher viscosity through Stoke's law and the effect on proppant transportation from elastic modulus comparison were also investigated. Finally, HVFR Conductivity test and successful field test result were explained.
The results of the experimental work show that viscoelastic property HVFRs provides good behavior to transport proppant. Viscosity profile decreased slightly as the temperature increased from 75 to 150 when the DI water was used. While using 10 lbs. Brine the viscosity was reduced by 33%. The longer polymer chains of HVFR indicated better elastic modulus in DI water. The elastic modulus also indicated that the highest values at frequency 4.5 Hz from each amplitude, and lower values as amplitude was increased. Although high molecular weight HVFRs were utilized on the conductivity test, the results observed that the regained permeability was up to 110%. Finally, the promising results from the case study showed that using HVFRs could be performed economically and efficiently for the purpose of proppant transportation and pressure reduction in high TDS fluids.
Abbas, Ahmed K. (Iraqi Drilling Company) | Flori, Ralph (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Almubarak, Haidar (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Dawood, Jawad (Basra Oil Company) | Abbas, Hayder (Missan Oil Company) | Alsaedi, Ahmed (Missouri University of Science and Technology)
Stuck pipe is still a major operational challenge that imposes a significant amount of downtime and associated costs to petroleum and gas exploration operations. The possibility of freeing stuck pipe depends on response time and subsequent surface action taken by the driller during and after the sticking is experienced. A late and improper reaction not only causes a loss of time in trying to release stuck pipe but also results in the loss of an important portion of expensive tubular, downhole equipment and tools. Therefore, a fast and effective response should be made to release the stuck pipe. Investigating previous successful responses that have solved stuck pipe issues makes it possible to predict and adopt the proper treatments. This paper presents a study on the application of machine learning methodologies to develop an expert system that can be used as a reference guide for the drilling engineer to make intelligent decisions and reduce the lost time for each stuck pipe event.
Field datasets, including the drilling operation parameters, formation type, and fluid mud characteristics, were collected from 385 wells drilled in Southern Iraq from different fields. The new models were developed to predict the stuck pipe solution for vertical and deviated wells using artificial neural networks (ANNs) and a support vector machine (SVM). The results of the analysis have revealed that both ANNs and SVM approaches can be of great use, with the SVM results being more promising. These machine learning methods offer insights that could improve response time and strategies for treating stuck pipe.
High-viscosity friction reducers (HVFRs) have been gaining popularity and increase in use as hydraulic fracturing fluids because HVFRs exhibit numerous advantages such as their ability to carry particles, their promotion of higher fracture conductivity, and their potentially lower cost due to fewer chemicals and equipment on location. However, concerns remain about using HVFRs with produced water containing a high level of TDS (Total Dissolved Solids). This study investigates the influence of the use of produced water on the rheological behavior of HVFRs compared to a traditional linear guar gel. This work also aims to correlate proppant settling velocity behavior with rheological properties of HVFRs vs. linear gel on hydraulic fracturing operations. Comprehensive rheological tests of different HVFRs compared with linear gel were performed including, shear-viscosity and dynamic oscillatory-shear measurements using an advanced rheometer.
The results of these rheological measurements reveal that these polyacrylamide-based HVFR systems achieve a high viscosity profile in fresh water with associated high proppant-carrying capacity. On the other hand, increasing water salinity lowers HVFR’s viscosity, increases proppant settling velocity, and lessens the fluid’s proppant-carrying efficiency. Although in fresh water linear gel showed similar viscosity measurements with HVFR-A, the HVFR-A recorded a lower proppant settling rate because HVFR-A has a higher relaxation time (15.3 s) than the relaxation time of linear gel (1.73 s).
As expected, in high-TDS produced water the relaxation time and elastic behavior decreased for all the fracturing fluids tested. HVFR-B recorded the smallest reduction in relaxation time (about 14%) when tested in produced water vs. fresh water, and the resulting settling velocity increased by 29% from 3.4 cm/s to 4.85 cm/s. For linear gel, its reduction in relaxation time exceeded of 70% when changing water salinity from fresh water to high-TDS brine water. This high reduction of relaxation time leads to over 40% increase in proppant settling velocity from 5.3 cm/s to 8.7 cm/s in fresh water and produced water, respectively. This study confirms that HVFR’s elasticity (vs. it viscosity) properties enable successful proppant transport for a wide range of shear rates while viscosity (vs. elasticity) properties controls proppant settling velocity in linear guar-based fluids. This paper will provide greater understanding of the importance of complete viscoelastic characterization of the HVFRs. The findings provide an in-depth understanding of the behavior of HVFRs under high-TDS brine, which could be used as guidance for developing fracturing fluids and for fracture engineers to design and select better friction reducers.
Geri, Mohammed Ba (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Ellafi, Abdulaziz (University of North Dakota) | Ofori, Bruce (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Flori, Ralph (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Sherif, Huosameddin (Missouri University of Science and Technology)
Recent studies have presented successful case studies of using HVFR fluids in the field. Reported cost reductions from using fewer chemicals and less equipment on the relatively small Marcellus pads when replacing linear gel fluid systems by HVFR. The investigation provided a screening guideline of utilizing HVFRs in terms of its viscosity and concentration. The study notes that in field application the average concentration of HVFRs is 2.75 gpt (gal per 1,000 gal)
Three different scenarios were selected to study fluid type effect using 3D pseudo simulator; as a first scenario; fracture dimensions as a second scenario; the last scenario was proppant type. The first scenario consists of two cases: utilizing HVFR-B as new fracture fluid in 20% of produced water was investigated in scenario I (base case). Comparison between HVFR and linear gel in the Middle Bakken was investigated in Case II of the first scenario. At the second scenario, fracture half-length was studied. Proppant distribution impact by using HVFR in Bakken formation was analyzed as the third scenario. The final scenario investigated the pumping flow rate influence on proppant transport of using HVFR. The concentration of HVFR-B was 3 gpt and the proppant size was 30/50 mesh. The treatment schedule of this project consists of six stages. The proppant concentration was increased gradually from 0.5 ppt to 6 ppt at the later stage.
In the case of using HVFR-B the fracture half-length was approximately 1300 ft while using linear gel created smaller fracture half-length. In contrast, using linear gel makes the fracture growth increase rapidly up to 290 ft as showed. To conclude, using HVFR-B created high fracture length with less fracture height than linear gel. Additionally, in using HVFR-B, the average fracture height was approximately 205 ft while using linear gel created increasing of the fracture growth rapidly up to 360 ft which represent around 43% increasing of the fracture height. In studying the impact of fracture half-length on proppant transport, increasing fracture half-length from 250 ft to 750 ft leads to the fracture growth rapidly up to 205 ft
Studying the impact of proppant size effect on proppant transport, we observed changing fracture conductivity across fracture half-length. Thus, the fracture height increasing with decreasing proppant mesh size. Fracture height increased from 193 ft to 206 ft by changing proppant mesh size from 20/40 to 40/70 mesh. With flow rate impact on proppant transport, it was observed that, the fracture height increases by increasing the pump rate. Utilizing HVFR-B in the fracture treatment provides higher absolute open flow rate (AOF) which is around 2000 BPD. On the other hand, the outcomes of using linear gel has less AOF that about 1600 BPD. Also, Increasing the Xf and proppant mesh size leads to increase the AOF.
This project describes comparison of the successful implementation of utilizing HVFR as an alternative fracturing system to linear gel.
The primary purpose of using traditional friction reducers in stimulation treatments is to overcome the tubular drag while pumping at high flow rates. Hydraulic fracturing is the main technology used to produce hydrocarbon from extremely low permeability rock. Even though slickwater (water fracturing with few chemical additives) used to be one of the most common fracturing fluids, several concerns are still associated with its use, including usage of freshwater, high-cost operation, and environmental issues. Therefore, current practice in hydraulic fracturing is to use alternative fluid systems that are cost effective and have less environmental impact, such as fluids which utilize high viscosity friction reducers (HVFRs), which typically are high molecular weight polyacrylamides. This paper carefully reviews and summarizes over 40 published papers, including experimental work, field case studies, and simulation work. This work summarizes the most recent improvements of using HVFR’s, including capability of carrying proppant, reducing water and chemical requirements, its compatibility with produced water, and environmental benefits in hydraulic fracturing treatments. A further goal is to gain insight into the effective design of HVFR based fluid systems.
The findings of this study are analyzed from over 26 field case studies of many unconventional reservoirs. In comparing to the traditional hydraulic fracture fluids system, the paper summaries many potential advantages offered by HVFR fluids, including: superior proppant transport capability, almost 100% retained conductivity, cost reduction, minimizing chemicals usage by 50%, less operating equipment on location, reducing water consumption by 30%, and fewer environmental concerns. The study also reported that the common HVFR concentration used was 4gpt. HVFRs were used in the field at temperature ranges from 120°F to 340°F. Finally, this work addresses up-to-date challenges and emphasizes necessities for using high viscosity friction reducers as alternative fracture fluids.
Al-Saedi, Hasan N. (Missouri University of Science and Technology/ Missan Oil Company) | Long, Yifu (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Alameedy, Usama (University of Baghdad) | Al-Bazzaz, Waleed (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Research, Kuwait Institute for Scientific (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Flori, Ralph (Missouri University of Science and Technology)
Low salinity (LS) water flooding is a promising EOR method which has been examined by many experimental studies and field pilots for a variety of reservoirs and oils. This paper investigates applying LS flooding to a heavy oil. Increasing the LS water temperature improves heavy oil recovery by achieving higher sweep efficiency and improving oil mobility by lowering its viscosity. Steam flooding projects have reported many problems such as steam gravity override, but override can be lessened if the steam is is alternated with hot LS water. In this study, a series of reservoir sandstone cores were obtained from Bartlesville Sandstone (in Eastern Kansas) and aged with heavy crude oil (from the same reservoir) at 95°C for 45 days. Five reservoir cores were used in this study, and five treatments were performed. They were flooded with (a) steam; (b) formation hot water (FHW); (c) low salinity hot water (LSHW; (d) steam + FHW; and (e) steam + LSHW (so-called LSASF). The laboratory experiments showed that basic water flooding using FW recovered approximately 50% of OOIP. After that initial flood, upon switching to the various steam, FHW, LSHW, steam + FHW, and steam + LSHW treatments, the incremental oil recoveries were 5, 3.1, 6.3, 7.5, and 12% OOIP, respectively. The contact angle measurements showed that injecting steam + LSHW alters the wettability considerably more than using steam + FHW. The results of this work show that water flooding using LSHW in reservoir cores could improve oil recovery significantly because it both reduces oil viscosity and alters the rock wettability towards more water-wet. The results also showed using LSHW alternated with steam is more beneficial than using steam only or alternated with regular water due to the combined benefits of reducing gravity override and altering the wettability. Using LSHW water is more economical than using steam and gives significantly improved oil recovery, and using LSHW is more beneficial than ambient temperature LS water.
Alkamil, Ethar H. K. (Missouri University of Science and Technology, University of Basrah) | Abbas, Ahmed K. (Missouri University of Science and Technology, Iraqi Drilling Company) | Flori, Ralph (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Silva, Leonardo Enzo Brito da (Missouri University of Science and Technology, CAPES Foundation) | Wunsch, Donald C. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Chumkratoke, Chatetha (Suranaree Univerisity of Technology)
Drilling boreholes through hydrogen sulfide (H2S) bearing formations such as Umm Er Radhuma and Tayarat Formations poses a critical challenge for the oil and gas industry in southern Iraq. In this era of increased concern for personal safety and environmental factors, the industry needs additional tools and methods for handling this deadly and corrosive gas. This paper describes how actual formation field data is entered into unsupervised learning software to train a H2S monitoring simulator to improve the drilling operators’ ability to detect H2S, analyse and then adjust mud pH to neutralize free H2S present in drilling fluids.
The H2S concentration measurements for five drilled wells in the Umm Er Radhuma and Tayarat fields in the South of Iraq used in a previous study are extended to include data from an additional 12 wells with 22 H2S events. This paper describes a real-time H2S simulator which consists of a computer interface kit implementing MATLAB code. The kit is provided with three LEDs (green, yellow, and red) representing different alert levels. The system monitors changes in H2S levels and triggers alarms depending on the levels. The setup of the alert levels for the simulator are adopted from both Health Safety Environment (HSE) policy and unsupervised vector quantization via Fuzzy Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) neural network category ranges.
Results show that using Fuzzy ART to train the H2S simulator alert levels based on formation data leads to a smarter and more sophisticated alert system compared to the typical HSE set of alerts. Specifically, the Fuzzy ART derived alerts enable earlier detection of H2S events, faster response to changing H2S levels, and it computes workers’ exposure over time to H2S, to prevent excessive accumulation of H2S in the respiratory system.
The system demonstrates a smarter and more robust method for reducing risks to drilling personnel, rig equipment, and the environment while drilling in areas with H2S hazards.
Abbas, Ahmed K. (Iraq Drilling Company and Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla) | Flori, Ralph (Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla) | Alsaba, Mortadha (Australian College of Kuwait)
This paper was prepared for presentation at the Unconventional Resources Technology Conference held in Houston, Texas, USA, 23-25 July 2018. The URTeC Technical Program Committee accepted this presentation on the basis of information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). The contents of this paper have not been reviewed by URTeC and URTeC does not warrant the accuracy, reliability, or timeliness of any information herein. All information is the responsibility of, and, is subject to corrections by the author(s). Any person or entity that relies on any information obtained from this paper does so at their own risk.
Gas condensate reservoirs constitute a significant portion of global hydrocarbon reserves. In these reservoirs, liquids develop in the pore space once bottomhole pressure falls below dew point. This results in the formation of a liquid bank near the wellbore region which decreases gas mobility, which then reduces gas inflow. In such complex reservoirs, it is important to correctly describe PVT impacts, adjustments to well test analysis and inflow performance, and then combine all effects in the reservoir analysis. The literature contains many references to individual adjustments of PVT analysis, well testing, or inflow performance for gas condensate reservoirs, but few studies demonstrate the complete workflow for reservoir evaluation and production forecasting in gas condensate fields. This research uses a field case study to demonstrate an integrated workflow for forecasting well deliverability in a gas condensate field in North Africa.
The workflow incorporates a description of the retrograde behavior that impact the well deliverability. The workflow begins with the interpretation of open-hole log data to identify the production interval net pay and to estimate petrophysical properties. A compositional model is developed and matched to actual reservoir fluids. Several gas condensate correlations are used to obtain the gas deviation factor and gas viscosity in order to count the change in gas properties with respect to pressure. Transient pressure analysis is described and used to identify reservoir properties. Inflow performance relationships (IPRs) are analyzed using three types of back pressure equations. The workflow integrates all data in a numerical simulation model, which includes the effect of bottom water drive.
Results show that in this field case study, reservoir behavior is composite radial flow with three regions of infinite acting radial flow (IARF). Using compositional simulation, it is found that the fluid sample for this field is a lean gas condensate since the liquid drop-out represented 1% of the maximum liquid drop-out. In addition, liquid drop-out increases by 0.1% for every 340 psi drop in reservoir pressure, which reduces the AOF by 3.4%.
The results provided in this case study demonstrate the importance of an integrated workflow in predicting future well performance in gas condensate fields. The study demonstrates how to implement the workflow in managing or developing these types of reservoirs.
Al-Saedi, Hasan (Missouri University of Science and Technology, Missan Oil Company) | Flori, Ralph (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Brady, Patrick (Sandia National Laboratories) | Al-Jaberi, Soura (Missan Oil Company)
Recently, we investigated the effect of Ca2+ in the formation water and its potential on low salinity (LS) water flooding (
The results of this work isolate and relate oil recovery with the most effective factors that control LS water chemical mechanisms.