The Oudna Field is located approximately 80 km. offshore Tunisia (Figure 1). Successful application and optimization of an artificial lift system for this field required a considerable amount of evaluation prior to implementation, in order to take into consideration three specific features of the prospect:
After extensive study of the various artificial lift alternatives available, the decision was made to install the first sub-sea hydraulic jet pump system, capable of producing 25,000 bpd, because it afforded the following advantages:
In this paper the authors explain the need for a long life system, the reasons for selecting jet pumps, the considerations in the design of the jet pump, its installation and operation. The process used for the optimization of the jet pumping system is discussed.
Initial field economics on Oudna was carried out based on a $27 / BBL pricing. With this oil price, under any circumstances the Field was likely to be Marginal. Although confidence existed that the Oudna reservoir modeling was sound this in turn had indicated that both reservoir pressure support and an artificial lift production mechanism would be required to keep oil production levels to that required.
Given that the field is in 270m of water and around 80km from shore then both the Production Handling and Artificial Lift options were going to be limited.
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3. INDUSTRY TRAINING METHODS
3.1 Drilling Contractor
3.2 Oil Companies
3.3 Educational Institutions
4. MEASUREMENT OF TRAINING EFFECTIVENESS
5. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR REVISED TRAINING METHODS
5.1 Drilling Contractor
5.2 Oil Company
5.3 Educational Institutions
This paper looks at Drilling Training as it is applied at present and how it may have to be changed to prepare it for the "Nineties".
In any job position a clear set of attributes are needed for staff to perform efficiently. These can be broken down as follows:
Defined Education Defined Skills and Capabilities Defined Experience Defined Attitude
Training fulfills the role of ensuring that staff have these skills.
In the Nineties the Drilling Industry will change. State of the new Technologies which are now appearing will become common place. These Technologies will probably place. These Technologies will probably include some or all of the following:
An Audited approach to Training Effectiveness
Reduced Manning Levels/Multi Skilled Personnel Personnel Automated Rigs/Mechanical Pipe Handling Systems
Tender Assisted Drilling
Subsea Production Systems
Electric Submersible Pumps Utilization
New Secondary and Tertiary Recovery Systems
Horizontal Drilling Technology
These are comparatively new skills which must be mastered. All of the basic Drilling Skills which have been required to date are also needed. The time available to achieve all of this will probably be reduced by Operational probably be reduced by Operational Expansion following a period of Industrial recession.
The first question that must be asked before the Training needs of the Nineties are considered is:
WERE THE TRAINING NEEDS OF THE EIGHTIES MET?
Section Three of this article looks at current Industry Training methods and Section Four discusses the effectiveness of these.
Section Five makes suggestions for new approaches which could assist the training process. process. Section Six is a check list for Organisations to use for self analysis on Training Needs and Effectiveness Measurement Methods.