Grover, Kavish (Cairn Oil & Gas, Vedanta Limited) | Kolay, Jayabrata (Cairn Oil & Gas, Vedanta Limited) | Kumar, Ritesh (Cairn Oil & Gas, Vedanta Limited) | Ghosh, Priyam (Cairn Oil & Gas, Vedanta Limited) | Shekhar, Sunit (Cairn Oil & Gas, Vedanta Limited) | Agrawal, Nitesh (Cairn Oil & Gas, Vedanta Limited) | Das, Joyjit (Cairn Oil & Gas, Vedanta Limited)
For any typical water flood or polymer flood management, maintaining optimum Voidage Replacement Ratio (VRR) is most crucial for optimizing reservoir performance. In a typical patternflood, a single injector supports many nearby producers, determining its contribution to particular producer is subjective and has inherent uncertainties. To avoid these uncertainties in allocation factor, a novel approach using simulation model based voidage compensation on pattern by pattern basis has been proposed in this paper.
History matched simulation model, which has been sectored into 5-spot producer centric patterns, forms the basis of this study. Voidage replacements are analyzed on these producer centric 5-spot patterns. Sectoral voidage created is determined using change in hydrocarbon pore volume (HCPV), water pore volume (WPV) and production from the sector. Sectoral Voidage Compensation Ratio (or Pseudo VRR) thus calculated is representative of the net change due to injection and production. The advantage is that it does not require any numerical allocation factor, rather is based on fluid movements within a pattern as predicted by the simulation model. This method thus provides a new approach to analyze pattern performance.
Along with VRR, pattern wise recovery and interwell channeling/cycling are the key parameters for any water flood performance analysis. A workflow has been proposed to rank the patterns based on these parameters and categorizing them into problem buckets. Actions corresponding to each bucket have been proposed. This forms the basis of strategizing improvements in well-by-well and pattern-by-pattern performance for optimizing field performance.
Agrawal, Nitesh (Cairn Oil & Gas, Vedanta Limited) | Chapman, Tom (Cairn Oil & Gas, Vedanta Limited) | Baid, Rahul (Cairn Oil & Gas, Vedanta Limited) | Singh, Ritesh Kumar (Cairn Oil & Gas, Vedanta Limited) | Shrivastava, Sahil (Cairn Oil & Gas, Vedanta Limited) | Kushwaha, Malay Kumar (Cairn Oil & Gas, Vedanta Limited) | Kolay, Jayabrata (Cairn Oil & Gas, Vedanta Limited) | Ghosh, Priyam (Cairn Oil & Gas, Vedanta Limited) | Das, Joyjit (Cairn Oil & Gas, Vedanta Limited) | Khare, Sameer (Cairn Oil & Gas, Vedanta Limited) | Kumar, Piyush (Cairn Oil & Gas, Vedanta Limited) | Aggarwal, Shubham (Cairn Oil & Gas, Vedanta Limited)
The objective of this paper is to present a suite of diagnostic methods and tools which have been developed to analyse and understand production performance degredation in wells lifted by ESPs in the Mangala field in Rajasthan, India. The Mangala field is one of the world’s largest full field polymer floods, currently injecting some 450kbbl/day of polymerized water, and a significant proportion of production is lifted with ESPs. With polymer breaking through to the producers, productivity and ESP performance in many wells have changed dramatically. We have observed rapidly reducing well productivity indexes (PI), changes to the pumps head/rate curve, increased inlet gas volume fraction (GVF) and reduction in the cooling efficiency of ESP motors from wellbore fluids. The main drivers for the work were to understand whether reduced well rates were a result of reduced PI or a degredation in the ESP pump curve, and whether these are purely down to polymer or combined with other factors, for example reduced reservoir pressure, increasing inlet gas, scale buildup, mechanical wear or pump recirculation.
The methodology adopted for diagnosis was broken in 5 parts – 1) Real time ESP parameter alarm system, 2) Time lapse analysis of production tubing pressure drop, 3) Time lapse analysis of pump head de-rating factor, 4) Time lapse analysis of pump and VFD horse power 5) Dead head and multi choke test data. With this workflow we were able to break down our understanding of production loss into its constituent components, namely well productivitiy, pump head/rate loss or additional tubing pressure drop. It was also possible to further make a data driven asseesment as to the most likely mechanisms leading to ESP head loss (and therefore rate loss), to be further broken own into whether this was due to polymer plugging, mechanical wear, gas volume fraction (GVF) de-rating, partial broken shaft/locked diffusers or holes/recirculation. In some cases a specific mechanism was compounded with an associated impact. For example, in ESPs equipped with an inlet screen, heavy polymer deposition over the screen was resulting in large pressure drops across the screen leading to lower head, but this also resulted in higher GVFs into first few stages of the pump, even though the GVF outside the pump were low, leading to further head loss from gas de-rating of the head curve. With knowledge of the magnitude of production losses from each of the underlying mechanisms, targeted remediation could then be planned.
The well and pump modelling adopted in the workflow utilise standard industry calculations, but the combination of these into highly integrated visual displays combined with time lapse analysis of operating performance, provide a unique solution not seen in commercial software we have screened.
The paper also provides various real field examples of ESP performance deterioration, showing the impact of polymer deposition leading to increased pump hydraulic friction losses, pump mechanical failure and high motor winding temperature. Diagnoses based on the presented workflow have in many cases been verified by inspection reports on failed ESPs. Diagnosis on ESPs that have not failed cannot be definitive, though the results of remediation (eg pump flush) can help to firm up the probable cause.
Lobo, Monali (Cairn India Limited) | Kolay, Jayabrata (Cairn India Limited) | Sinha, Pankaj (Cairn India Limited) | Varghese, Roy (Cairn India Limited) | Lang, Clifford (Cairn India Limited) | Kant, Ravi (Cairn India Limited) | Doodraj, Sunil (Cairn India Limited) | Giri, Suruchi (Schlumberger) | Kumar, Mohit (Schlumberger) | Narayanan, Shine (Schlumberger) | Ganda, Sukesh (Schlumberger)
Drilling horizontal wells at an average true vertical depth (TVDBRT) of 850-950m to exploit the high porosity and low permeability tight reservoir of Barmer Hill (BH 1 to BH12), in the Indian state of Rajasthan required overcoming many challenges. These wells were drilled from both Aishwariya and Mangala fields. The highly layered BH reservoir is primarily composed of diatomite and porcellanite. Drilling ERD wells at such shallow depths and with land rigs that have limited capability (tubular and pump limitations) required detailed planning and flawless execution because of many inherent risks such as high torque and stand pipe pressures, poor hole cleaning, inadequate weight-on-bit transfer and stuck pipe events. Optimum trajectory in terms of good well placement, drillability and collision risk avoidance was a priority in planning these wells in a tight network of over 350 wells. An important concern was designing a Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) to meet multiple requirements.
Lobo, Monali (Cairn India Ltd.) | Singhal, Ashish (Cairn India Ltd.) | Lang, Clifford (Cairn India Ltd.) | Kolay, Jayabrata (Cairn India Ltd.) | Sinha, Pankaj (Cairn India Ltd.) | Kant, Ravi (Cairn India Ltd.) | Varghese, Roy (Cairn India Ltd.) | Doodraj, Sunil (Cairn India Ltd.) | Li, Jason (Halliburton Offshore Services Inc.) | Kumar, Animesh (Halliburton Offshore Services Inc.) | Kestwal, Ashish (Halliburton Offshore Services Inc.) | Vaibhav, Ankit (Halliburton Offshore Services Inc.)
This paper explains the successful execution of Expandable Liner Hanger and primary cementing job for ERD wells in Rajasthan block of North-West India. One of these wells has the longest horizontal 6in. hole section in the Indian Subcontinent. Zonal isolation is especially critical, as these wells are all candidates for multistage fracturing operations in the completion phase.
The successful liner job in these wells face several challenges: placement of 4½ inch liner in 6 inch hole, hole conditioning, cement placement and ECD challenges due to low fracture gradient limit.
An integrated Basis of Design was developed to mitigate the challenges. This includes The placement of liners with computer aided torque & drag analysis, Rotation of liner during hole conditioning & cementing at highest possible rpm within acceptable torque limits, Fine tune fluid properties with computer aided simulator to achieve sufficient cement coverage around the liner (displacement efficiency).
The placement of liners with computer aided torque & drag analysis,
Rotation of liner during hole conditioning & cementing at highest possible rpm within acceptable torque limits,
Fine tune fluid properties with computer aided simulator to achieve sufficient cement coverage around the liner (displacement efficiency).
The liner hanger system in this case study has an advanced running tool to facilitate the required rotating capability. The liner hanger also incorporates a contingency tertiary setting mechanism for liner expansion due to the challenging down hole condition. The expandable liner hanger is an integrated hanger packer system. Elastomeric elements are bonded on to the hanger body itself. As the hanger body is expanded, the elastomeric elements are compressed in the annular space, which provides primary annular isolation at liner top.
This case study also examined the impact of liner rotation on displacement efficiency of the cement slurry with computer aided Finite Element Analysis. The results give engineers a better understanding of the relationship between rpm and displacement efficiency of the cement slurry.
The technology and the practices established from this case study have become the standard operating procedures for liner cementing jobs in subsequent ERD wells.