Agrawal, Nitesh (Cairn Oil & Gas, Vedanta Limited) | Chapman, Tom (Cairn Oil & Gas, Vedanta Limited) | Baid, Rahul (Cairn Oil & Gas, Vedanta Limited) | Singh, Ritesh Kumar (Cairn Oil & Gas, Vedanta Limited) | Shrivastava, Sahil (Cairn Oil & Gas, Vedanta Limited) | Kushwaha, Malay Kumar (Cairn Oil & Gas, Vedanta Limited) | Kolay, Jayabrata (Cairn Oil & Gas, Vedanta Limited) | Ghosh, Priyam (Cairn Oil & Gas, Vedanta Limited) | Das, Joyjit (Cairn Oil & Gas, Vedanta Limited) | Khare, Sameer (Cairn Oil & Gas, Vedanta Limited) | Kumar, Piyush (Cairn Oil & Gas, Vedanta Limited) | Aggarwal, Shubham (Cairn Oil & Gas, Vedanta Limited)
The objective of this paper is to present a suite of diagnostic methods and tools which have been developed to analyse and understand production performance degredation in wells lifted by ESPs in the Mangala field in Rajasthan, India. The Mangala field is one of the world’s largest full field polymer floods, currently injecting some 450kbbl/day of polymerized water, and a significant proportion of production is lifted with ESPs. With polymer breaking through to the producers, productivity and ESP performance in many wells have changed dramatically. We have observed rapidly reducing well productivity indexes (PI), changes to the pumps head/rate curve, increased inlet gas volume fraction (GVF) and reduction in the cooling efficiency of ESP motors from wellbore fluids. The main drivers for the work were to understand whether reduced well rates were a result of reduced PI or a degredation in the ESP pump curve, and whether these are purely down to polymer or combined with other factors, for example reduced reservoir pressure, increasing inlet gas, scale buildup, mechanical wear or pump recirculation.
The methodology adopted for diagnosis was broken in 5 parts – 1) Real time ESP parameter alarm system, 2) Time lapse analysis of production tubing pressure drop, 3) Time lapse analysis of pump head de-rating factor, 4) Time lapse analysis of pump and VFD horse power 5) Dead head and multi choke test data. With this workflow we were able to break down our understanding of production loss into its constituent components, namely well productivitiy, pump head/rate loss or additional tubing pressure drop. It was also possible to further make a data driven asseesment as to the most likely mechanisms leading to ESP head loss (and therefore rate loss), to be further broken own into whether this was due to polymer plugging, mechanical wear, gas volume fraction (GVF) de-rating, partial broken shaft/locked diffusers or holes/recirculation. In some cases a specific mechanism was compounded with an associated impact. For example, in ESPs equipped with an inlet screen, heavy polymer deposition over the screen was resulting in large pressure drops across the screen leading to lower head, but this also resulted in higher GVFs into first few stages of the pump, even though the GVF outside the pump were low, leading to further head loss from gas de-rating of the head curve. With knowledge of the magnitude of production losses from each of the underlying mechanisms, targeted remediation could then be planned.
The well and pump modelling adopted in the workflow utilise standard industry calculations, but the combination of these into highly integrated visual displays combined with time lapse analysis of operating performance, provide a unique solution not seen in commercial software we have screened.
The paper also provides various real field examples of ESP performance deterioration, showing the impact of polymer deposition leading to increased pump hydraulic friction losses, pump mechanical failure and high motor winding temperature. Diagnoses based on the presented workflow have in many cases been verified by inspection reports on failed ESPs. Diagnosis on ESPs that have not failed cannot be definitive, though the results of remediation (eg pump flush) can help to firm up the probable cause.
Sharma, K Kaladhar (Cairn India Ltd) | Mishra, Sudhakar (Cairn India Ltd) | Kumar, Pankaj (Cairn India Ltd) | Pandey, Amitabh (Cairn India Ltd) | Jain, Shakti (Cairn India Ltd) | Ghosh, Priyam (Cairn India Ltd) | Mishra, Lokranjan (Cairn India Ltd) | Koduru, Nitish (Cairn India Ltd) | Agrawal, Nitesh (Cairn India Ltd) | Kushwaha, Malay Kumar (Cairn India Ltd)
The Bhagyam Field development is part of the Mangala- Bhagyam -Aishwariya (MBA) development in the Barmer Basin, Rajasthan, India. The Bhagyam field is a shallow field with ~12B dip, containing good quality fluvial sand(s), medium gravity crude with a viscosity gradient (vertically) in the oil column and low water salinity (~5000 ppm). The field is currently being developed using down-dip water injection. The effectiveness of the waterflood will be limited by the adverse mobility ratio and reservoir heterogeneities. A polymer injectivity test was conducted in two wells with two main objectives: (1) to establish injectivity within the designed surface pressure, and (2) establish the ability to prepare polymer solutions of the desired viscosity using produced water for re-injection (PWRI).
Operationally, the test was conducted using a skid mounted unit with regular monitoring facilities in place. Surveillance activities included frequent spinner surveys, bottom-hole pressure measurements, fall-off tests and offset production well tests. Rigorous monitoring of injection water quality, polymer solution quality was carried out. An inline viscometer was used for continuous polymer viscosity monitoring. This was supplemented by periodic sample viscosity measurements using special samplers with chemical stabilizers. The test was conducted in two wells and important lessons have been learnt which would be incorporated during full-field implementation of a polymer flood in Bhagyam.
The injectivity test establishes that polymer injection is viable in Bhagyam Fatehgarh reservoirs. A history matching exercise was carried out using a sector model extracted from our full-field simulation model. The effect of production and injection in offset wells was captured in the sector model. Local grid refinement enabled us to adequately capture polymer rheology. The modelled rheology was found to be in close agreement with laboratory data. The production history of the wells in the sector and vertical injection profile of the injector well was incorporated. We obtained a good history match of the injection bottom-hole pressures.
This paper presents details of the polymer injectivity tests including bottom-hole pressure measurements, fall-off tests and production logging which were conducted during the tests. As PWRI was utilized for preparing polymer solution, the effect of additives to the polymer solution viscosity was also analyzed. The test included use of not so commonly used equipment like inline viscometer, special samplers with chemical stabilizers, preparation of high concentration mother solution and injection of heated polymer solution.