The high costs associated with hydrocarbon exploration in deepwater have led to an increased business demand for acquisition and processing of high-resolution broadband seismic data. In this paper, we review our experience of working on the Shell Sandman 3D survey, which was acquired using variable-depth streamers and synchronized multi-level sources. We focus on the key factors that influence the surface seismic temporal resolution and the technologies that provide solutions to these challenges: (1) source deghosting using source designature with near-field hydrophone data; (2) receiver deghosting using the 3D deghosting algorithm; and (3) compensation for the Earth absorption using centroid frequency shift Q tomography (FS-QTOMO) and QPSDM. The extra-wide bandwidth obtained from these processes provides a final image with detailed resolution that enhances quantitative characterization, not only for shallow geo-hazards but also for resolving relatively thin reservoirs in the deep section. Therefore, we can conclude that broadband seismic methodologies coupled with advanced seismic processing techniques, provide an effective solution for generating high-resolution seismic images, especially in challenging areas.
Seismic modeling is an effective method for studying the propagation of seismic waves within complex structures. Based on finite difference method, the arbitrary difference precise integration (ADPI) for seismic forward modeling was developed for 3-D seismic modeling in this paper. When it comes to cases of 3-D modeling, compared with CPU single-core or multi-core processors, graphic processing unit (GPU) parallel calculation shows its outstanding ability of fast calculation to make a seismic forward modeling closer to real seismic records at very low cost of personal computer. Cases study of 3D seismic forward modeling confirm the correction and efficiency about the methodology of ADPI techniques and its GPU algorithms.