The selection of the best EOR option for optimizing the recovery in a field development plan is probably one of the most difficult decisions, as many parameters and options, as well as uncertainties play a role difficult to rank and characterize. This work presents the application of a new methodology, Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAHP), aimed to select the best EOR option, illustrating its practical application to a heavy oil field development case. In order to rank efficiently prospects opportunities and exploitation scenarios the most common approach is the evaluation based on economical parameters. However, technical parameters like well-types options, facilities configurations, transport options, operability, and reliability, are not strictly, nor solely economical parameters, hence, not easily considered during the screening and selection phases of the FEL (Front-End- Loading) process. When the number of options and parameters becomes very large, the human judgement must be supported by some kind of logical methodology or Multiple Attribute Decision Making (MADM) methodology. One of these methodologies is the FAHP (Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process) which is a modification of the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) tested previously for the development of a heavy oil field in the pre-FEL stage aiming to improve the decision-making process, including technical elements in addition to the conventional economic parameters. The application of the FAHP technique is analyzed in this work, deriving conclusions of interest when dealing in field development decisions that require decisions from a group of experts.
A new microseismic-electromagnetic (EM) acquisition system for reservoir monitoring includes surface and borehole hardware, processing software and interpretation methodology. For heavy oil reservoirs it allows mapping of steam/water flood fronts and surveillance of cap-rock integrity. The new array acquisition architecture combines novel technologies which reduces operational cost, due to unlimited channels capability: EM and microseismic acquisition is in the same receiver node to optimize the synergy between the methods.
While microseismic channels address seal integrity information, EM data are used to track fluids, due to their high sensitivity to the fluid resistivity. The fluid resistivity drops strongly with mobility increase and pore size variation. Dense data further reduce the cost per receiver in a surface location. EM channels provide three-component (3C) electric and 3C magnetic data acquired on the surface and in shallow vertical boreholes. For later versions and deeper reservoirs deep wireline receiver with through casing measurement capabilities are planned. We include in the system an independent physics verification measurement using a differential approach to the surface data called focused source EM (FSEM) with practically little cost.
Carrying out feasibility for each reservoir is key to control risk and cost. The feasibility includes 3D EM modeling, which allows integrating typically complex nature of the reservoir, and on-site EM noise test to tie 3D modeling to actual measured voltages.
3D modeling feasibility for a heavy oil reservoir proves the methodology to monitor the boundaries of the steam flood with accuracy and with high fidelity. Above the edges of the flooded (higher-temperature – lower-resistivity) area the results predict time-lapse EM anomaly exceeding 500%.
The entire system is coupled with processing and 3D modeling/inversion software, significantly streamlining the workflow for the different methods.
The system is capable of measuring and integrating the 3C of the electric field and 3C of the magnetic field in order to map the steam front and at the same time measuring microseismic occurrences in order to monitor seal stability. Channels capability of the system is practically unlimited allowing a denser coverage of the area in order to increase resolution and improve inversion.
Passalacqua, Herminio (Australian College of Kuwait) | Volcan, Jose Luis Ortiz (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al Einawi, Mohamad Hasan (Australian College of Kuwait) | Kadnaji, Jamaneh Mostafa (Australian College of Kuwait) | Karam, Fatemah (Australian College of Kuwait)
This paper presents the application of a Multiple Attribute Decision Making (MADM) method based on the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), a technique developed by Saaty, T.L. (1980, 2008), to improve definition of field development projects at early stages, when facing the challenge of selecting the best development option from multiple alternatives. In order to rank efficiently various alternatives of development we apply AHP to technical quantitative or qualitative criteria, like EOR options, well types options, facilities options, transport options, operability and reliability, subsurface conditions, as well as economical quantitative parameters, such as Life Cycle Costing (LCC). The AHP methodology supports decision-making using pairwise comparison of two or more criteria previously established by experts. For the application of this method, it is necessary to decompose the problem into several steps. In this paper, we show how to apply the method for the selection of a development option for a heavy oil field. AHP applied to Front End Loading (FEL) staged-gate process increases the probability of success in generation of economic return and mitigation of major capital project risks faced during the early stages of the project. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this method with respect to other more conventional techniques. The objective of this work is to introduce the use of the AHP methodology for the FEL screening phase with a simple exercise using information taken from the existing literature. At no time is this intended to be a complete guide for FEL applications.