As companies grow and spread their activities globally, so the adequate training of the resultant expanding workforce becomes an issue of major importance to ensure quality of performance is maintained. Our current global workforce is working under significant pressure to deliver tools, equipment and services to a high standard which has significantly increased the challenge of ensuring that all personnel are trained to the same standards and have access to the best information. Online learning programs or computer based training (CBTs) although providing consistency lack the utilization of video, animation, technical graphics and voice-over, which are essential to ensure good knowledge transfer and retention. So, with the current online training being considered insufficient a new approach needed to be initiated.
As a result a new series of innovative hybrid CBT courses has been developed which is focused on commodity drilling tools, pressure control equipment and safety, using interactive methods dramatically to improve the learning experience and knowledge transfer. The resultant courses were placed on the in-house learning management system and made available across the globe in multiple languages. A total of 12 modules have been created in the initial year of CBT course development, following which some 13,000 training modules have been taken representing an impressive employee acceptance of the process
In this paper the authors will review the development of this program and the process used to create its content and track performance. The objective of this paper is to transfer knowledge on the processes needed for the development of successful online training and to demonstrate its level of effectiveness.
As the severity of sour drilling applications has increased, the requirement for drill stem materials resistant to sulfide stress cracking (SSC) has accelerated. Sour service drillpipe, traditionally manufactured with SSC resistant upset tubulars and tool joints, has been available for some time. Sour Service drillpipe metallurgy is not specifically controlled by NACE MR 0175/ISO 15156,1 however these tubulars and tool joints are often evaluated in accordance with the standard. The friction welds joining the upset tubulars and tool joints were not resistant to SSC and were not evaluated. This has been acceptable for many sour drilling applications since the weld is not the mostly highly stressed region of the drillpipe joint and because the operator has a certain degree of control over the environment through the drilling fluid properties and additives. As more severe environments with higher Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) concentrations were identified for exploration and development, it became apparent that a fully SSC resistant drillpipe system including the friction welds was necessary.
This paper presents the successful development and qualification of SSC resistant friction welds for critical sour applications. It describes the engineering and manufacturing philosophy employed, laboratory testing procedures with results presented and applications for the SSC resistant drillpipe. Since NACE MR 0175/ISO 15156 does not address friction welds the engineering team developed unique and innovative criteria together with testing procedures for the new weld technology. A new patent pending four-point bending test procedure and fixture were developed that employed unpolished samples that represent the surface finish of the product in service, in contrast to the polished samples used in NACE TM-0177 testing. This paper provides background information on the evolution of sour service drillpipe and reviews case histories where sour service drillpipe has been successfully used including the new pipe with SSC resistant friction welds. The paper can benefit drilling engineers involved in critical sour drilling operations.
Sour Service Drillpipe
The drillpipe assembly incorporates a tool joint that is typically manufactured from a forging and a friction weld that attaches the tool joint to the upset of the pipe body. This is the same manufacturing configuration that has been employed on drillpipe for decades and has been adapted to incorporate materials that resist SSC for dritical sour applications. The manufacturing technology for critical service drillpipe has evolved significantly in the last several years. Major advances relating to pipe specifically developed for use in areas with significant H2S content have been realized.
Sulfide Stress Cracking (SSC) due to the presence of H2S gas in the downhole drilling environments has led to the development of sour service drillpipe, which is engineered to have resistance to SSC. Previously available sour service drillpipe was comprised of an SSC resistant upset to grade tube and tool joint. The friction weld areas that are used to join the tool joints to the upset ends of the tubes were not manufactured for resistance to SSC.
The weld area of sour service drillpipe has not been SSC tested in the past, and there have been no documented SSC failures in the weld zone of sour service drillpipe. There are several factors that make an SSC failure in the weld zone of sour service drillpipe unlikely. The region on both sides of the weld has a much larger cross-section (1.5 to 2.0 times) than that of the tube. This larger weld area cross-section means the stress experienced in that area is less by the same proportion. This reduced stress makes the likelihood of failure due to SSC significantly less likely. It is generally possible during drilling operations to control the well environment and help prevent SSC failure of the drillpipe and weld zone.2 Implementing the following practices can help control the drilling environment and prevent SSC:
- Maintain the drilling fluid density to minimize formation fluid influx.
- Neutralize H2S in the formation fluids by maintaining a mud pH of 10 or higher.
- Utilize sulfide chemical scavengers and/or corrosion inhibitors.
- Use oil-base drilling fluids.
In the last two decades the drilling industry has experienced major changes in both drillpipe connections and related inspection criteria. Many operators and contractors now regularly use premium drill pipe connections to drill all sections of their wells. One result of this is that the drilling community is often surprised by the amount of post-well drillpipe repairs that are required. There is little or no established statistical data available to budget repairs in any given well program. Instead they have been left to guess how much to budget into a given drilling project.
This paper will review data from two inspection databases containing in excess of 200,000 joints of drill pipe. The records were derived from operational data obtained from several years of drill pipe inspection. The databases contain inspection records for premium, double shoulder and API connections. The paper will discuss how different inspection standards, premium connections, etc. can affect the "damages?? at the end of the drilling program. The objective of the paper is to provide planning factors to the drilling community in order to provide a basis for budgeting repair costs and to highlight the impact of connection selection and inspection standards on repairs.
Until very recently, drill pipe capacity has rarely been the limitation that controlled the ultimate depth or design of a well. Over the last 50 years drill pipe tensile and torsional capacities have typically exceeded the needs in most drilling applications; consequently, the significant separation between the capacity of the drill pipe and the actual needs of the well designs has resulted in the drill pipe being considered "dumb iron.?? The recent trend to drill deeper and longer reach wells has begun to push the limits of the drill pipe capacities. Improvements in drill pipe and connection technology as well as performance reliability have significantly enhanced our ability to drill these wells. Without further improvements to materials, connections and fatigue life, the capabilities of the drill pipe could become the limiting factor in some of the exciting new projects on the horizon. It is essential that manufacturers and suppliers play a larger role in well planning in order to mitigate these limitations and make sure the technologies required are available to the industry in time to coincide with the development.
This paper will review the evolution of drill pipe capabilities and compare the historical expectations of the well designs. It will also review the triggers that created the need for adoption of new grades and connection standards. Lastly, it will discuss the pending new drill pipe technologies and their effect on capacity improvements.
The traditional methods, equipment and safety measures currently in use have failed to eliminate incidents, injuries and near misses which occur while picking up single joints of drill pipe. Operations in the North Sea and elsewhere have recorded a significant number of serious incidents with the "variable?? type of single joint elevators that are commonly used which have resulted in dropped objects, lost time incidents with attendant injuries and near misses. The root causes of the lifting incidents include a variety of both operational and equipment failures such as incomplete latching, safety pin problems, incorrect selection of blocks to suit the pipe size and hinge pin failures.
A recent joint effort between a major oil company and a service company has led to the development of tools and methods that incorporate several key features and provide a means to enhance safety and operational efficiency while lifting single joints of drill pipe. The authors will discuss the problem as it existed, review the new methods and handling tools which evolved and provide current data on their implementation.