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Zamanuri, Kautsar (PETRONAS) | Yip, Pui Mun (PETRONAS) | Radzuan, Nurul Asyikin M. (PETRONAS) | Salleh, Nurfarah Izwana (PETRONAS) | Ghonim, Elsayed Ouda (PETRONAS) | Alexander, Euan (Ex-PETRONAS) | Bakhtuly, Daniyar (NOVOMET)
Most Malaysian oil production is heavily reliant on gas lift. Aging assets experience declining lifting efficiencies due to depleting reservoir pressure and increase in water cut. This impact PETRONAS' capability to deliver national hydrocarbon production targets. New developments and further improvements to gas lift facilities are likely to erode the economic value of assets without even considering the potential time impact due to the complexity in delivering gas compression upgrades or gas import projects. PETRONAS' primary goal within Malaysia is to sustain production and maximize the remaining recoverable reserves. To realize this target it is widely acknowledged that the company must think differently. Alternatives to gas lift have been considered for rejuvenation of brownfield assets and development of marginal assets using a ‘fit for purpose' approach resulting in some relatively low Capital Expenditure (CAPEX)/Operating Expenditure (OPEX) solutions. One such method identified was Through Tubing Electrical Submersible Pumps - Cable Deployed (TTESP-CD). TTESP-CD technology is a game changer that can challenge the boundaries of traditional engineering with a truly rig-less deployment of an ESP system with full compliance to API/ISO requirements and demonstrating up to 70% cost savings over conventional offshore ESP installation methods. The TTESP-CD innovation helps in improving the asset value through gas prioritization, gas lift reallocation, flaring reduction and increase in lifting efficiency. TTESP-CD is also in line with the company digitalization concept due to the baseline data available from surface and downhole equipment.
This technology has been declared a success through pilot deployment in an offshore field within the Sarawak Basin with an incremental gain of 250BOPD, 0.3MMSTB in reserves acceleration and 22 months run life as of Feb 2019. This has been a key step for building confidence in the wider application of the technology. Lessons learnt and best practices from the pilot implementation have been applied to ongoing and future projects and serve as a good foundation for further development of the technology. To date, approximately 20 candidates for the TTESP-CD application have been identified for replication in Malaysia within the next 2 years across 3 regions. There are various challenges faced when implementing this technology on aging offshore assets that was never designed for ESPs which include; space availability for deployment equipment and surface electrical equipment, power availability and distribution, instrumentation, data transmission, structural integrity and operational mind set. PETRONAS sees a bright future for TTESP-CD application and technology which includes layer to layer matrix dump flood, interim production and well unloading/DST well unloading.
Riyanto, Latief (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn Bhd) | Sidek, Sulaiman (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn Bhd) | Hugonet, Vincent (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn Bhd) | Yusuf, M Hafizi (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn Bhd) | Salleh, Nurfarah Izwana (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn Bhd) | Ambrose, Jonathan Luke (SMS Oilfield)
Many oil and gas fields have long been suffering from sand production due to either the absence or failure of primary well sand control. To avoid mobilizing costly work-over rig to pull out the tubing, operators have tried various thru-tubing remedial sand control. The well's condition such as sands accumulation and space constraints due to small inner diameter of tubing always make this remedial job challenging. It is not surprising that the results are not all satisfactory.
Among the industry-recognized remedial sand control, Stand Alone Screen (SAS) is the simplest and the cheapest method. Many SAS have been installed but most were failed with screen erosion as the main failure mechanism. Flowing high velocity fluid with sands wears out the screen fast making it impossible for the sands to bridge and to create formation sand pack around the screen.
Ceramic Sand Screen (CSS) technology which was recently introduced to the industry aims to address this erosion issue. Having more than ten times hardness of stainless steel, sintered silicon carbide ceramic material in CSS offers superior resistance to wear. The pilot was conducted by installing CSS in three (3) selected wells with sand production history. While waiting for acoustic sand monitoring installation, the wells were put on production with the same choke size and regular manual samplings were conducted to monitor the sand production.
The acoustic sand monitoring campaign began in November 2017. Sands production was carefully monitored during the process to determine the final choke size at which the wells would continuously produce. In the middle of the campaign due to adverse weather conditions, all non-essential personnel had to be abruptly demobilised from the field leaving acoustic sensors hooked-up to the respective flow line. This gave opportunity to have unplanned extended sand monitoring window.
Loss of Primary Containment (LOPCs) occurred in two CSS wells not long after that. In one the choke body was heavily eroded and the other well had a punched hole at the first elbow of the flowline. These incidents prompted full investigation to be conducted. This included pulling out the installed CSS and performed tear down analysis. Acoustic sand monitoring that just happened to be available in one of the wells proved to be critical in understanding the CSS failure.
The paper presents briefly on the CSS pilot project, the chronology of events until the incident, sands production trend from the acoustic sand monitoring. Using all available information, the paper provides details analysis on CSS failure mechanism.
Radzuan, Nurul Asyikin M. (PETRONAS) | Salleh, Nurfarah Izwana (PETRONAS) | Chandrakant, Ashvin Avalani (PETRONAS) | Rusman, Liyana (PETRONAS) | Zamanuri, Kautsar (PETRONAS) | Bakar, Azfar Israa Abu (PETRONAS) | Yip, Pui Mun (PETRONAS) | Jamaluddin, M. Helmi (PETRONAS) | Ghonim, Elsayed Ouda (PETRONAS) | Nambiar, Vijay (Novomet) | Alexander, Euan (Artificial Lift Solutions)
Following the first pilot success of the truly rigless 3-1/2" tubing cable deployed ESP (TTESP-CD in offshore field of Sarawak Basin, PETRONAS has taken steps to further advance in the technology development and application through more replications within Sarawak and Malay Basin. PETRONAS had been looking into a strong business case for the TTESP-CD technology for a wider application throughout Malaysia region by looking at fields with strong/moderate water drive and low bubble point pressure besides having other limitations on the platform including the facilities reliability issues. TTESP-CD are to be applied widely in Malaysia with more flexibilities in design and improvement towards the subsurface equipment, installation equipment and procedures. With the challenges in the existing completion and production requirement for replications, based on the lesson learnt from the pilot implementation, multiple improvements to the system have been done including; 1) A High Rate Slim Pump with Flexible Application 2) Alignment Tool for Cable Hanger Orientation. With this in place, more opportunities identified for the candidate selection which improve the installation philosophy specifically in dual string applications and enhance the efficiency in installation procedures. Case studies of TTESP-CD replications in Malay & Sarawak Basin for Field T, Field B and Field P presenting the best case for TTESP-CD application with improvement to design, equipment and application. These will bring additional value to PETRONAS with estimated production gain of 1.5 KBD and up to 1.2 MMSTB reserves to be monetized with additional value saving of up to RM 6 Mill. Besides the subsurface challenges, aging offshore assets brings a lot of challenges, especially on the space availability, structural integrity, power availability and distribution, instrumentation and data transmission. This requires an integrated approach from multiple disciplines in delivering the studies as per required within the targeted timeframe.
Mohd Hatta, Siti Aishah (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn Bhd) | Zawawi, Irzee (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn Bhd) | Gupta, Anish (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn Bhd) | Ahmad Nadzri, M. Safwan (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn Bhd) | Salleh, Nurfarah Izwana (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn Bhd) | Jeffry, Suzanna Juyanty M. (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn Bhd) | Sharif, Natasha Md (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn Bhd) | Ishak, Izza Hashimah (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn Bhd) | Maoinser, M. Azuwan (Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS)
Field B is a marginal green field located offshore Sarawak, Malaysia with formation depth of less than 1000 meters. The compressional sonic transit time range is from 100 – 115 μs/ft, which immediately triggered the possibility of using active downhole sand control as this range is assumed to be unconsolidated. However, the rock mechanical strength characterization tests from sidewall core indicated contradictory result of a consolidated formation. Since the field is considered as a small field, the cost of the well especially on downhole sand control device need to be extensively optimized. Hence, sand prediction study for a small green field development using field and laboratory measurements was performed.
Several methodologies of sand prediction were utilized to evaluate the optimum sandface completion and sand control management for the field. Empirical and analytical sand prediction based on the well logs, sidewall cores analysis, and sand prediction software are employed to evaluate the likelihood of sand production and the optimum well completion design for the field development. The available data from appraisal wells of Field B is also calibrated to the nearby brown field, Field A that has been producing for more than 30 years.
This paper will discuss on the sand onset prediction results between full perforation versus oriented perforation, and pressure depletion impact on the sand production. The study shows that the formation is not prone to sand production especially in the early part of the production life with high reservoir pressure and low watercut. The expected Critical Drawdown Pressure (CDP) generated from different methods show large variation of sand onset pressure if the sandface is completed using full perforation. Oriented perforation tremendously expands the sand free drawdown limit. Based on the results of the study, expected reservoir pressure depletion and watercut, the completion of the wells adopted Oriented Perforation with no other downhole sand control equipment.
This paper is beneficial for petroleum and well completion engineers especially on sand prediction part of well completion design in development stage. This will assist in ensuring the field meets the EUR and bring forward economic value as well as well integrity assurance.