Intelligent wells with inflow control valves enable flexible management of multiple reservoir intervals. In this paper, we describe model based optimization of inflow control valve settings for a producing North Sea field. A two step, non-invasive, iterative pattern search optimization algorithm is applied. The first step provides global search of the feasible region using a discrete genetic algorithm whereas the second step provides local search around the incumbent solution. To account for reservoir uncertainties, optimization is performed on a diverse set of history matched reservoir model realizations, within an automated framework. The results show a significant improvement in predicted reservoir production performance over the remaining life of the field.
Modern sensors capable of providing high-precision in-well measurements have all become routinely available in the last decade, and the novel interpretation methods are being developed. This particularly applies to transient temperature measurements. It was shown that such measurements contain useful information about the well, reservoir, and flowing fluids. They also offer unique information on the near-wellbore zone. There is only a handful of published case studies featuring transient temperature interpretation. This paper presents such study.
In this paper a combined, transient pressure and temperature interpretation methodology has been successfully applied to wells in Golden Eagle, a recently developed North Sea field. Their unique, intelligent completion combines several forms of sandface, in-flow control together with a range of state-of-the-art, permanent, in-well, high-precision sensors for pressure, temperature and flow rate. Multiple transient events caused by zonal and well control operations have been recorded in the last two years. The rate, pressure, and temperature changes in these events were interpreted using classical and novel methods.
Published temperature transient solutions for reservoir monitoring have been successfully applied for both temperature drawdown and build-up. The results have been validated by the zonal pressure build-up and multi-rate tests.
Near-wellbore zone was also described due to the transient temperature propagating more slowly than the pressure signal. Another unique feature of the transient temperature signal was confirmed - it can provide zonal information in wells without the need for zonal isolation or flow-metering.
Furthermore, the signal contains additional features that potentially form the basis of new well clean-up and reservoir monitoring workflows.
This paper is a case study illustrating the successful use of modern in-well sensing and can also be used as a guide to their application in other fields and wells. It also illustrates the yet undeveloped potential of transient temperature interpretation and the need for further research and development before its full potential can be developed.