Espinosa, David (Chevron) | Walker, Dustin (Chevron) | Alexis, Dennis (Chevron) | Dwarakanath, Varadarajan (Chevron) | Jackson, Adam (Chevron) | Kim, Do Hoon (Chevron) | Linnemeyer, Harold (Chevron) | Malik, Taimur (Chevron) | McKilligan, Derek (Chevron) | New, Peter (Chevron) | Poulsen, Anette (Chevron) | Winslow, Greg (Chevron)
Field deployment of Chemical EOR floods requires monitoring of wellhead injection fluids to ensure field performance is commensurate with laboratory design. Real-time surveillance allows for optimizing chemical use, detecting potential issues, and ensures correct chemical handling. In an offshore setting traditional surveillance methods can present unique challenges due to space constraints, field conditions, and location. We present a novel approach to field surveillance using a portable measurement unit (PMU) that can dynamically characterize polymer rheology, filterability and long-term core-injectivity.
We developed a PMU and placed it inside a suitcase sized box (42x26x20″) with appropriate devices to measure polymer rheology, filterability and long-term core injectivity. Polymer rheology was measured using a series of capillary tubes with pressure measurements. Filterability was measured through a 1.2 um filter at 15 psi with coarse filtration to remove large oil droplets and suspended solids. This was compared against filterability without filtration to observe water quality impact. Finally, long-term injectivity was measured using an epoxy-coated Bentheimer core with a pressure tap to quantify whether there was any face and/or core-plugging. By constructing this apparatus, wellhead injection fluids under anaerobic conditions can be monitored and analyzed to improve fluid quality assurance and contribute to a project's success even in challenging and remote locations.
The use of the PMU is critical for dynamic fluid surveillance. The injection solutions consistently met or exceeded target viscosity of 20 cP. Furthermore, the coarse-filtered solutions also met a filtration ratio (FR) requirements of less than 1.5 at 15 psi through 1.2 micron filters. The unfiltered solutions achieved a FR of 1.75, which was considered acceptable. Finally, no plugging was observed with coarse-filtered solutions after 25 PV across the whole core and > 75 PV across the core face. Further testing was completed with wellhead injectate samples at variable operating conditions to establish a baseline for chemical flooding operations and provided insight for future facilities design.
The information these experiments produced helped identify and diagnose facility and operational issues that would have caused negative consequences with the chemical injection had the configuration been used without the PMU surveillance. By testing the wellhead fluid, we determined that there was improper dosing of the chemical. This was determined by comparing the field fluid properties to expected results from the lab. The data also influenced facilities design and in turn improved the chemical and project efficiency. By testing the injectate at different operating conditions we could determine the operating envelope for the current injection facilities and base future work on the results. All of this was done in real time on an offshore platform, as opposed to sending samples onshore to test which yields unrepresentative results from the time delay and fluid quality changes during transport.
Dwarakanath, Varadarajan (Chevron) | Dean, Robert M. (Chevron) | Slaughter, Will (Chevron) | Alexis, Dennis (Chevron) | Espinosa, David (Chevron) | Kim, Do Hoon (Chevron) | Lee, Vincent (Chevron) | Malik, Taimur (Chevron) | Winslow, Greg (Chevron) | Jackson, Adam C. (Chevron) | Thach, Sophany (Chevron)
Polymer flooding by liquid polymers is an attractive technology for rapid deployment in remote locations. Liquid polymers are typically oil external emulsions with included surfactant inversion packages to allow for rapid polymer hydration. During polymer injection, a small amount of oil is typically co-injected with the polymer. The accumulation of the emulsion oil near the wellbore during continuous polymer injection will reduce near wellbore permeability. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the long-term effect of liquid polymer use on polymer injectivity. We also present a method to remediate the near well damage induced by the emulsion oil using a remediation surfactant that selectively solubilizes and removes the near wellbore oil accumulation. We evaluated several liquid polymers using a combination of rheology measurement, filtration ratio testing and long-term injection coreflood experiments. The change in polymer injectivity was quantified in surrogate core after multiple pore volumes of liquid polymer injection. Promising polymers were further evaluated in both clean and oil-saturated cores. In addition, phase behavior experiments and corefloods were conducted to develop a surfactant solution to remediate the damage induced by oil accumulation. Permeability reduction due to long term liquid polymer injection was quantified in cores with varying permeabilities. The critical permeability where no damage was observed was identified for promising liquid polymers. A surfactant formulation tailored for one of the liquid polymers improved injectivity three- to five-fold and confirms our hypothesis of permeability reduction due to emulsion oil accumulation. Such information can be used to better select appropriate polymers for EOR in areas where powder polymer use may not be feasible.
Alexis, Dennis (Chevron Energy Technology Company) | Varadarajan, Dwarakanath (Chevron Energy Technology Company) | Kim, Do Hoon (Chevron Energy Technology Company) | Winslow, Greg (Chevron Energy Technology Company) | Malik, Taimur (Chevron Energy Technology Company)
Performance of current synthetic EOR polymers is primarily constrained by salinity, temperature and shear which restrict their application to low to moderate salinity, low to moderate temperature and relatively high permeability reservoirs. The primary goal of the current work is to qualify recently developed associative polymers (AP) for EOR applications as well as to study their behavior in porous media. We also compare their performance with conventional non-associative polymers. In this work, we present the evaluation of several associative polymers. Two broad types of associative polymers were tested, one with a partially hydrolyzed poly acrylamide (HPAM) backbone and the other with a sulfonated HPAM backbone. The concentrations of the tested polymer vary between 75 ppm and 1000 ppm. We demonstrate the applicability of these innovative AP's through the carefully controlled lab experiments: (1) Corefloods in sandpacks to compare the sweep behaviors with conventional HPAM's. (2) Single phase flooding experiments are carried out in consolidated outcrop rocks to identify optimal polymer concentrations to achieve the desired in-situ resistance. (3) One dimensional displacement experiments with 8 cP and 90 cP oil are carried out in both unconsolidated and consolidated rocks at different temperatures to validate improved oil recovery. Results generally indicate that associative polymers require lower polymer concentration to generate high resistance factors in porous media and have stable long term injectivity behavior in high permeability rocks (>1D). Associative polymers with HPAM backbone have better filterability and injectivity in comparison to those with HPAM sulfonated backbone in low permeability(<300mD) rocks. Improved oil recovery in high permeability rocks compare well with conventional HPAM and sulfonated HPAM polymers. Based on the laboratory results, we are able to establish the selection baseline for associative polymers in different permeability rocks, salinities and temperatures. Such information can be used to select and screen the appropriate associative polymers, resulting in extending their applicability envelope in EOR.