Pipelines transfer production fluids from the well head to the platform and from the platform to process facilities. Water, sand or liquids like condensate could settle at the bottom of pipelines especially at low flow velocities and this has implication for flow assurance. During shutdown the settled heavy liquid (e.g. water), could result in corrosion in pipelines, while following restart stages the settled water could form a water plug that could damage equipment, while settled sand could also form a blockage that needs to be dispersed into the flowing fluid. This study looked at cases of low water cut in oil flows and, low sand concentrations in water flows. Conductive film thickness probes were used to obtain oil and water interface height and the water film velocities in water in oil flows.
Similarly values for the sand in water, sand layer profiles and sand dune velocities were investigated respectively. Comparisons are made between two cases in order to gain better understanding of the dispersal process of low loading heavier phase in two phase flows.
Hoi Yeung, Cranfield University, UK Manus Henry, Michael Tombs Oxford University, UK ABSTRACT Coriolis mass flow meters are highly regarded for their precision, accuracy and simultaneous measurement of true mass flow, fluid density and temperature. Unfortunately, a well-known short coming of such meters is traditionally their inability to operate when presented with two-phase (gas/liquid) flow. A novel all digital Coriolis mass flow transmitter with sophisticated amplitude control has been developed. It can operate not only in bubble but also in slug flows. The paper presented some air water and air oil results and comparison was made with the theory.