Abdulhadi, Muhammad (Dialog Group) | Tran, Toan Van (Dialog Group) | Chin, Hon Voon (Dialog Group) | Jacobs, Steve (Halliburton) | Suggust, Alister Albert (PETRONAS) | Usop, Mohammad Zulfiqar (PETRONAS) | Zamzuri, Dzulfahmi (PETRONAS) | Dolah, Khairul Arifin (PETRONAS) | Abdussalam, Khomeini (PETRONAS) | Munandai, Hasim (PETRONAS) | Yusop, Zainuddin (PETRONAS)
The first successful natural dump-flood in the Malaysian offshore environment provided numerous lessons learned to the operator. The minimal investment necessary for implementing the dump-flood coupled with the lack of recompletion opportunities in the subject wells suggested that direct execution without spending on expensive data gathering activity and extensive reservoir study makes more sense from a business point of view. A similar oil gain compared to a water injection project can be achieved at a significantly lower cost of USD 0.01 to 0.15 million in an offshore environment through dump-flooding.
The existing oil producers in the depleted reservoirs in Field B were originally completed and successfully drained oil from in a high-pressured watered-out reservoir below, making it an ideal dump-flood water source. The dump-flood was initiated by commingling the target and water source reservoir through zone change, allowing water to naturally cross-flow into the pressure depleted target reservoir. Once a memory production logging tool (MPLT) confirmed the cross-flow, the offtake well was monitored to determine the impact of the dump-flood and produce once the pressure was increased. Minimal investment was necessary because the operations were executed using slickline. The reservoir model will be calibrated once the positive impact of dump-flood is realized in the offtake well.
The first natural dump-flood in Reservoir X-2 has successfully produced 0.29 MMstb as of August 2018 with 600 BOPD incremental oil gain. The incremental recovery factor (RF) from the first dump-flood is predicted to be from 5 to 8%. Based on this success, it was decided to replicate the dump-flood project in other depleted reservoirs with Reservoir X-2 as an analog. Four reservoirs were subsequently identified, each with an estimated operational cost of approximately USD 0.01 million and potential incremental reserves of 0.10 to 0.20 MMstb per reservoir. The minimal investment necessary, the idle status of the wells and reservoirs, and the potential incremental reserves suggested that it is more appealing to proceed with implementing the dump-flood without undergoing an extensive and costly reservoir study. With reservoir connectivity being important to the success of dump-flooding, a more cost-effective approach would be to confirm the connectivity by monitoring the offtake well after the dump-flood is initiated. This approach provides more value because the cost of interference or pulse testing is significantly more expensive than the cost of the dump-flood itself while reservoir connectivity was already indicated as likely by geological data (map and seismic). Through a value driven approach, these dump-flood opportunities become more economically viable, allowing the operator to prolong the life of the assets and maximize the field profit.
This paper discusses using a value driven and business approach to implement the dump-flood in a mature field. Valuable insight into the business and technical considerations of implementing dump-floods are described, which are relevant to the industry, especially in today's low margin business climate.
Abdulhadi, Muhammad (Dialog Group Berhad) | Tran, Toan Van (Dialog Group Berhad) | Chin, Hon Voon (Dialog Group Berhad) | Jacobs, Steve (Halliburton) | Wahid, Muhammad Izad Abdul (PETRONAS) | Usop, Mohammad Zulfiqar (PETRONAS) | Zamzuri, Dzulfahmi (PETRONAS) | Dolah, Khairul Arifin (PETRONAS) | Abdussalam, Khomeini (PETRONAS) | Munandai, Hasim (PETRONAS) | Yusop, Zainuddin (PETRONAS)
Infill Well B-23, which was recently drilled in the CIII-2 reservoir located in the Balingian Province, experienced a rapid pressure and production decline. The production decreased from 2,200 to 600 BLPD within 1 year. Analysis of the permanent downhole gauge (PDG) data revealed that Well B-23 production was actually influenced by two other wells, B-20 and B-18, each located 2,000 ft away. This paper discusses the ensuing analysis and optimization efforts that helped reverse the Well B-23 pressure decline and restored its production to 2,200 BLPD.
Based on the typical causes of rapid production and pressure decline, operators initially believed Well B-23 was located in a small, separate compartment compared to Wells B-18 and B-20. Additionally, the Well B-23 behavior differed significantly from Wells B-18 and B-20. PDG data analysis provided clear evidence of well interference despite the significant distance between the well locations. Changes in the other wells immediately affected the Well B-23 pressure, thus leading to the conclusion that production from Wells B-20 and B-18 impeded the pressure support for Well B-23. To optimize Well B-23 production, Well B-20 was shut in while Well B-18 was produced at a reduced rate because of a mechanical issue.
The optimization initially resulted in more than 500 BOPD incremental oil from Well B-23. The well pressure decline was reversed, with PDG data showing a continuous increase of bottomhole pressure (BHP) despite an increase in the production rate. Subsequently, production was fully restored from 600 to 2,200 BLPD, and reservoir pressure returned to its predrill pressure. Going forward, the optimum withdrawal rate from the CIII-2 reservoir will be determined to ensure maximum oil recovery from both Wells B-18 and B-23. The case study proved the significant benefit of PDG data, which helped identify well interference as the actual cause of the rapid decline in Well B-23, instead of a reservoir or geological issue. Through in-depth analysis and thorough understanding of the reservoir, the operator restored what initially appeared to be a poor well to full production.
This case study shows the clear and strong effect of well interference and highlights how the subsequent results of the optimization effort were rapidly obtained. A comprehensive understanding of the reservoir behavior could not have been achieved at minimum cost without the pair of PDGs installed. The analysis and lessons learned from the Well B-23 PDG data provide valuable insight regarding the impact of well completions to the field of reservoir engineering.
Abdulhadi, Muhammad (Dialog Group Berhad) | Kueh, Pei Tze (Dialog Group Berhad) | Abdul Aziz, Shahrizal (Dialog Group Berhad) | Mansor, Najmi (Dialog Group Berhad) | Tran, Toan Van (Dialog Group Berhad) | Chin, Hon Voon (Dialog Group Berhad) | Jacobs, Steve (Halliburton Energy Services) | Muhd. Fadhil, Imran (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Suggust, Alister Albert (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Usop, Mohammad Zulfiqar (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Ralphie, Benard (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Dolah, Khairul Arifin (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Abdussalam, Khomeini (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Munandai, Hasim (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Yusop, Zainuddin (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.)
It is a common practice to run a contact-saturation log to confirm the oil column prior to oil gain activities such as adding perforations or infill drilling. From 2012 to 2017, a total of eight logging jobs were executed in Field B which were subsequently followed by oil gain activities.
The eight contact-saturation logging jobs were comprised of pulse-neutron logs in both carbon-oxygen (C/O) and sigma mode. The logs were run in varied well completions targeting thirteen different zones. Four logs were run in single tubing strings while the remaining four were in dual string completions. Certain target zones were already perforated while others had completion accessories such as a blast joint or integrated tubing-conveyed perforating (iTCP) guns across them. Eight of the target zones were later add-perforated while two were used to mature infill well targets.
Four of the seven add-perforations results were consistent with the logging results. One of the successful logs clearly indicated that the oil column had migrated into the original gas cap. Of the two infill wells drilled, only one was successful. These case studies in Field B indicate that in conditions of open perforations, trapped fluid across the annulus, and in low resistivity sand, distinguishing between original and residual saturation is difficult with pulse-neutron log. The log measurement was significantly affected. The most obvious lesson learned was that perforating and producing the reservoir would be the best method to confirm the potential oil gain. From a value point of view, it would have been more economical to perforate the zone straightaway if the oil gain activity had similar cost to the logging activity. The lessons learned also helped to establish clear guidelines in Field B on utilizing contact-saturation logs in the future.
The paper seeks to present the logging results, subsequent oil gain activities, and lessons learned from the contact-saturation logging in Field B. These lessons learned will be applicable in other oilfields with similar conditions to improve decision making in the industry.
Tham, Su Li (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Ariffin, Mohd Hafizi (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Johing, Fedawin (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | M Khalil, Muhammad Idraki (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Dolah, Khairul Arifin (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Yusop, Zainuddin (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.)
Water injection was implemented in a 30-year old brownfield offshore Sarawak, Malaysia in August 2016. Seawater is processed at a Water Injection Facility (WIF) and sent to four injectors, each injecting commingled into two or three different reservoirs. This paper discusses on challenges faced in initial start-up of water injection in a brownfield including the inability to meet target injection rate, frequent WIF trips and off-spec injection water, metering issues, as well as mitigation measures and lessons learned.
Initially, the injectors were able to take in only 33% of target injection volume as per the FDP plan. To remedy this, a ramp-up injection procedure was introduced to allow the injectors to gradually take in more water until the target injection rate could be achieved. A leaner and practical water quality SOP was devised to reduce injector downtime, particularly for satellite platforms, while ensuring water quality is not compromised. Injection fall-off testing was performed on the injectors to investigate the root cause of the injectivity issue through manipulation of downhole ICV. Through this exercise, it was discovered that the injection meters were not properly calibrated.
A combination of these methods proved successful in improving injection rate of the water injectors. Initial SOP developed for the injection water quality required testing of water quality at each sampling point including at unmanned satellite platforms, prior to recommencement of water injection post WIF shutdown. This is despite the duration of shutdown being shorter than the frequency of required sampling, which led to prolonged injection downtime. The requirement for water sampling for satellite platforms were modified to be less stringent while still maintaining good water quality. As a result, there was an improvement in WIF uptime from 92% in second month of injection to 99% in the fifth month.
The fall-off testing provided valuable information in terms of well and reservoir data. Careful and specific operational steps were required to adjust the downhole ICVs during fall-off testing, as opposed to hard shut-in of the water injectors which would cause backpressure and tripping of the WIF. Adjustment of the surface-controlled ICVs allowed sequential testing of different zones, which successfully shortened the total testing duration by 25%. The fall-off test also revealed that an injector was injecting into a reservoir which did not benefit any producers, and that the flowmeters for certain injectors were not calibrated properly.
Through these efforts, injection rates were successfully increased by 25 kbwpd, from 35% to 75% of the total injection target, within six months of its implementation. Water injection start-up challenges and mitigation methods are not often discussed in literature, such as adjustments needed to achieve target injection rate, operational steps in well testing for commingled injectors, and finding the optimum balance between quality and practicality of injected water testing. It is hoped that the issues and strategy in this field will serve as lessons learnt for upcoming water injection projects in this and nearby fields.
Abu Bakar, Azfar Israa (Petronas Carigali Sdn Bhd) | Ali Jabris, M Zul Afiq (Petronas Carigali Sdn Bhd) | Abd Rahman, Hazrina (Petronas Carigali Sdn Bhd) | Abdullaev, Bakhtiyor (Petronas Carigali Sdn Bhd) | Idris, Khairul Nizam (Petronas Carigali Sdn Bhd) | Kamis, Azman Ahmat (Petronas Carigali Sdn Bhd) | Yusop, Zainuddin (Petronas Carigali Sdn Bhd) | Kok, Jason Chin Hwa (AppSmiths® Technology) | Kamaludin, Muhammad Faris (AppSmiths® Technology) | Zakaria, Mohd Zulfadly (AppSmiths® Technology) | Saiful Mulok, Nurul Nadia (AppSmiths® Technology)
Field B, located offshore Malaysia is heavily reliant on gas lift due to the high water cut behavior of the reservoir coupled with low-medium reservoir pressure. The field faces a challenge to efficiently execute production enhancement activities due to its low effective man-hour, a drawback of unmanned operation philosophy. The recent oil price downturn further exacerbates the limitation and calls for an innovative approach to continue the effort for maximizing oil recovery.
As majority of the producing wells are gas-lifted, Gas Lift Optimization (GLOP) is an integral part of Field B's routine production enhancement job. The previous practice of GLOP involves data acquisition process of surface parameters and wireline intervention to collect Bottomhole Pressure (BHP), mainly Flowing Gradient Survey (FGS). Relying on wireline intervention limits the number of gas lift troubleshooting activities due to the low man-hour availability. To address this constraint, CO2 Tracer application was implemented in a campaign to supplement Field B GLOP effort. CO2 Tracer is a technology whereby concentrated CO2 is injected into the gas lift stream via the casing. CO2 returns are collected at the tubing end and utilized to diagnose the gas lift performance.
The CO2 Tracer campaign was successfully executed in Platform A, B and C, covering 58 strings within an effective period of 3 months. This achievement is a milestone for the field as it opens a new approach in GLOP data acquisition process. Several advantages observed by executing this campaign is as follows: Multiplication of opportunities generation due to quick and simple operations of CO2 Tracer survey compared to wireline intervention for FGS. Reduction in HSE risks and intervention-related well downtime due to minimal intrusive requirement for well hook-up. Better understanding of complex dual gas lift completion due to simultaneous survey execution. Supplement CO2 baseline measurement for flow assurance monitoring. Quick quality check on gas lift measurement device.
Multiplication of opportunities generation due to quick and simple operations of CO2 Tracer survey compared to wireline intervention for FGS.
Reduction in HSE risks and intervention-related well downtime due to minimal intrusive requirement for well hook-up.
Better understanding of complex dual gas lift completion due to simultaneous survey execution.
Supplement CO2 baseline measurement for flow assurance monitoring.
Quick quality check on gas lift measurement device.
This paper will discuss on the challenges at Field B to implement GLOP, technology overview of CO2 tracer, the full cycle process of the CO2 tracer campaign and results of the campaign. Several examples of the findings will also be shared.
Abdulhadi, Muhammad (Halliburton Bayan Petroleum) | Kueh, Pei Tze (Halliburton Bayan Petroleum) | Zamanuri, Aiman (Halliburton Bayan Petroleum) | Thang, Wai Cheong (Halliburton Bayan Petroleum) | Chin, Hon Voon (Halliburton Bayan Petroleum) | Jacobs, Steve (Halliburton Bayan Petroleum) | Suggust, Alister Albert (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Zaini, Ahmad Hafizi Ahmad (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Jamel, Delwistiel (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Dolah, Khairul Arifin (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Munandai, Hasim (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Yusop, Zainuddin (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.)
In the recent low oil price environment, a cost-effective solution was proposed to use through tubing bridge plugs to perform water-shut-off (WSO) in an offshore field. The solution consisted of using slickline to set a plug with a high expansion ratio followed by a cement dump. After three WSO jobs in different wells, the method has successfully proven itself. Watercut was reduced from 100% to 0% with a minimal cost of only USD100,000.
The through tubing bridge plug used is capable of passing through 2-7/8-in. tubing and expanding into 9-5/8-in. casing. After running a Gamma-Ray log, the plug was set across the perforation interval to give the anchor contact with a rough casing surface. The top of the plug, however, was above the perforation interval and became the base for cement. Cement was then continuously dumped on top using a slickline dump bailer in a static condition until the designed cement height was reached. Static conditions ensured no movement of cement during operation. The plug differential pressure limit is directly proportional to the cement height.
The first WSO job was a complete success with watercut reduced from 100% to 0%. The second job however, was partially successful as the cement dump was not completed due to unexpected appearance of a hold-up-depth (HUD). The HUD was created by leftover cement which had accumulated at the end of the tubing. Despite the setbacks, the end result was successful in reducing water production from 1000 bwpd to 200 bwpd. The third job faced a completely different problem. The original plug fell off deeper into the well after it was set. To rectify the situation, a second plug was set at the target interval. Despite the successful execution, there was no change in watercut after the well was brought back online. Since the same method was proposed for another upcoming well, Memory-Production log (MPLT) coupled with Temperature-Noise log was performed to assess the effectiveness of the WSO. The log results confirmed that the WSO was successful and the post job water production was caused by channeling behind the casing. The results so far concluded that the through tubing bridge plug WSO method was both reliable and cost-effective. It is exceptionally suitable for zones located at the bottom of a well and can be deployed using slickline.
The paper provides valuable insight to a WSO solution which should be a first-choice option due to its relatively inexpensive cost and high reliability. The solution has proven to provide tremendous cost saving for production enhancement activity.
Abdulhadi, Muhammad (Halliburton Bayan Petroleum) | Mansor, Mohd Najmi (Halliburton Bayan Petroleum) | Amiruddin, Nurul Azrin (Halliburton Bayan Petroleum) | Tran, Toan Van (Halliburton Bayan Petroleum) | Jacobs, Steve (Halliburton Bayan Petroleum) | Abd Wahid, Muhammad Izad (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Usop, Mohammad Zulfiqar (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Zamzuri, Mohd Dzulfahmi (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Dolah, Khairul Arifin (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Munandai, Hasim (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Yusop, Zainuddin (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.)
Reservoir X-7, a watered-out reservoir in Field B, was successfully revived by perforating the original gas-cap zone to maximize oil recovery, which increased the recovery factor (RF) from 40% to 46%, resulting in approximately 2,300 BOPD through multiple perforations.
Maintaining the oil column sandwiched between gas and water is the standard practice to maximize oil recovery in a strong water-drive reservoir. Despite having a strong aquifer and a thick gas cap, Reservoir X-7 has produced continuously for 30 years without any gas reinjection. The reservoir was producing at 99% watercut, indicating the original oil column was already swept. Subsequent material balance study and saturation log results confirm that oil migrated into the original gas cap. Given the reservoir condition, an unconventional approach was proposed to produce the oil column through the original gas-cap zone.
The first gas-cap perforation for Well B-07 successfully produced 500 BOPD, so it was decided to perform three additional perforations (additional perforations) for Wells A-01, B-12, and B-16, which were successful with a total 2,000 BOPD oil gain from the three wells. Subsequent additional perforations was performed in Well B-07 after the original additional perforations watered out. However, the new additional perforations and subsequent ones in Well B-11 resulted in gas rather than oil. Both wells were shut in. Once the new perforations are watered out, the remaining oil potential in Reservoir X-7 will be confirmed by reopening well B-07 and B-11 until either oil or water is produced. The approach has so far provided approximately 2,300 BOPD of incremental oil production, extending well life by more than 24 months and allowing the RF to increase from 40% to 46%. It delivered encouraging results and opened up opportunities for other reservoirs.
This paper provides valuable insight into the case study and lessons learned in terms of maximizing oil recovery using original gas-cap perforation. This approach is highly recommended as the production enhancement method for maximizing oil recovery, particularly in mature fields with similar reservoir conditions.
Sidek, Sulaiman (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Hui Lian, Kellen Goh (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Ching, Yap Bee (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Trjangganung, Kukuh (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Madon, Bahrom (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Yusop, Zainuddin (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Gundemoni, Bhargava Ram (3M Technical Ceramics) | Jackson, Richard (3M Technical Ceramics) | Barth, Peter (3M Technical Ceramics)
This paper will present the first successful application of ceramic sand screen in Malaysia. Oil production from the field has a long history beginning with the first production in 1972. A great number of sand control methods have been tested and applied in the field. Production history has showed instances of sand production contributed by factors such as in-situ stress changes, increase in water production and cascading effect from production operation activities. A few wells completed with primary sand control equipment have failed and remedial action by metallic through tubing sand screen experiencing rapid wear, forcing the operator to control sand production by beaning down the wells and closely monitoring sand production at surface overtime. Worse still, some of the wells had to be closed-in. Hence ceramic sand screen was considered as remedial sand control due to its superior durability and resistance compared to metallic sand screen.