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This paper discusses two high-temperature-resistant polymers (Polymers A and B) that have been developed as thermally stable, dual-functional viscosifiers and fluid-loss additives. Polymer A was designed for monovalent brines, while Polymer B works for divalent brines. These polymers enable the formulation of brine-based drill-in fluids that are stable at high to ultra-high temperatures, which is a significant improvement when compared to conventional biopolymer-based drill-in fluids. When combined, the two polymers work synergistically to further reduce fluid loss in monovalent brines.

The two thermally stable polymers were readily incorporated into various drill-in fluid formulations containing either monovalent or divalent brines over a broad range of densities. These drill-in fluids exhibited exceptional thermal stability and showed no stratification after static aging at 400°F for three days or at 375°F for seven days. A minimal change in fluid behavior was observed when comparing the rheological properties of the un-aged and aged samples. The samples provided excellent fluid-loss control, even after aging. A synergistic effect was observed between Polymers A and B when used in monovalent brines to further reduce the HPHT fluid loss with no negative impact on fluid rheology. Core flow tests showed that both fluids were non-damaging after acid-breaker treatment. It is anticipated that these polymers will extend the envelope to which water-based drill-in fluids can be successfully used to drill high- and ultra-high-temperature reservoirs. Recent successful field trial of the divalent brine-based fluid as a testing fluid further proved the robustness of these fluids for these reservoirs.

Chen, Guang (China University of Petroleum–Beijing) | Zhou, Hui (China University of Petroleum–Beijing) | Liu, Mingdi (China University of Petroleum–Beijing) | Tao, Yonghui (China University of Petroleum–Beijing) | Wang, Minglu (China University of Petroleum–Beijing)

Elastic impedance inversion has been widely used in prestack seismic inversion. However, the inaccurate average angle will bring error to the inversion results, especially when the difference between the elastic parameters of the upper and lower strata is large. Three-term equations are easily affected by noise, which may make the inversion instability, besides, the weight of density term is too small to obtain accurate inversion result when the angle is small. Based on the incident-angle approximation and Fatti approximation, this paper proposes a two-term elastic impedance equation containing the P-wave impedance and S-wave impedance and establishes the corresponding prestack inversion method. The P-wave impedance and S-wave impedance can be directly obtained by inversion. Besides, the inversion results are more accurate than that of Fatti-EI. Numerical examples indicate that our method can get accurate result even for noisy data.

Presentation Date: Monday, October 17, 2016

Start Time: 4:35:00 PM

Location: Lobby D/C

Presentation Type: POSTER

SPE Disciplines: Reservoir Description and Dynamics > Reservoir Characterization > Seismic processing and interpretation (1.00)

Technology:

- IT > AI > Representation & Reasoning > Uncertainty (0.48)
- IT > AI > Machine Learning (0.47)

Zu, Shaohuan (China University of Petroleum–Beijing) | Pan, Xiao (China University of Petroleum–Beijing) | Shuwei, Gan (China University of Petroleum–Beijing) | Zhou, Hui (China University of Petroleum–Beijing) | Chen, Yangkang (University of Texas–Austin) | Zhang, Dong (China University of Petroleum–Beijing) | Xie, Chunlin (E&D Research Institute, Daqing Oilfield Company)

Seismic data are inadequately or irregularly sampled, particularly when there are big gaps, which will produce artifacts in the seismic imaging. The reconstruction can be posed as an inverse problem, which is known to be ill-posed and requires constraints to achieve unique and stable solutions. In this abstract, we propose an iterative scheme to reconstruct big gaps using least-squares method with slope constraint. In the proposed method, the slope estimation is a very important step. We apply an iterative scheme to estimate the slope field. In the first iteration, the smooth radius must be large to estimate smooth dip from the decimated data to guarantee the stability of inversion. In the later iterations, the smooth radius will be shortened in order to get more accurate dip estimation and good reconstruction result. We compare the proposed method and the well-known projection onto convex sets (POCS) method on the synthetic and field data examples. The interpolation results illustrate the advantage of the proposed method in constructing big gaps.

Presentation Date: Tuesday, October 18, 2016

Start Time: 3:45:00 PM

Location: 148

Presentation Type: ORAL

SPE Disciplines: Reservoir Description and Dynamics > Reservoir Characterization > Seismic processing and interpretation (1.00)

Recently, a decoupled fractional Laplacian viscoacoustic wave equation has been developed based on the constant-

Presentation Date: Thursday, October 20, 2016

Start Time: 8:30:00 AM

Location: 148

Presentation Type: ORAL

SPE Disciplines: Reservoir Description and Dynamics > Reservoir Characterization > Seismic processing and interpretation (1.00)

Zu, Shaohuan (China University of Petroleum–Beijing) | Zhou, Hui (China University of Petroleum–Beijing) | Chen, Yangkang (University of Texas–Austin) | Chen, Haolin (Dagang Department, BGP Inc., CNPC) | Cao, Mingqiang (Dagang Department, BGP Inc., CNPC) | Xie, Chunlin (E&D Research Institute, Daqing Oilfield Company)

Simultaneous sources acquisition (continuous recording, significant overlap in time) has many advantages over the traditional seismic acquisition (discontinuous recording, zero overlap in time). When focusing on data quality, blended acquisition (simultaneous sources acquisition) allows significantly denser spatial sources sampling and much wider range of azimuths. This can improve the quality of subsurface illumination. When focusing on economic aspect, the blended acquisition can greatly shorten the survey time. However, many challenges such as the continuous recording equipment, the availability of boats units and the implementation of speed cable vessels are emerging when using simultaneous sources acquisition. Dagang Geophysical Prospecting Branch of BGP, CNPC has made two field trials to explore the advantages of simultaneous sources and obtained some experience. The goal of this paper is to give an overview of the latest field trial and display the very successful deblending results, which may give an inspiration to the depressing oil price.

Presentation Date: Wednesday, October 19, 2016

Start Time: 11:10:00 AM

Location: 163/165

Presentation Type: ORAL

acquisition, Chen, data, field trial, Figure, frequency, gather, ground roll, line, meeting, performance, record, result, SEG, shot, signal, source, time, trial

Yu, Bo (China University of Petroleum–Beijing) | Zhou, Hui (China University of Petroleum–Beijing) | Zou, Xiaofeng (China University of Petroleum–Beijing) | Zu, Shaohuan (China University of Petroleum–Beijing) | Wang, Ning (China University of Petroleum–Beijing) | Wang, Shucheng (China University of Petroleum–Beijing)

The product of Young's modulus and density can highlight abnormal characteristic of shale gas reservoirs, Poisson ratio can indicate fluid property. In this paper, the joint PP and PS AVO inversion based on Bayes theorem is used to obtain Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. This method can achieve more accurate elastic parameters for fluid prediction and shale gas reservoir identification. We get the PP and PS wave approximate reflection coefficient by the approximate equation of Aki-Richards. We obtain the object function by Bayes theorem, and we suppose the parameter sequence is subject to the Cauchy distribution. To reduce the influence of initial model, we use well log data to obtain a reasonable prior model by stochastic kriging interpolation.

Presentation Date: Wednesday, October 19, 2016

Start Time: 4:00:00 PM

Location: 162/164

Presentation Type: ORAL

SPE Disciplines:

- Reservoir Description and Dynamics > Unconventional and Complex Reservoirs > Shale gas (1.00)
- Reservoir Description and Dynamics > Reservoir Characterization > Seismic processing and interpretation (1.00)
- Reservoir Description and Dynamics > Formation Evaluation & Management > Open hole/cased hole log analysis (1.00)

Technology:

- IT > AI > Representation & Reasoning > Uncertainty > Bayesian Inference (0.71)
- IT > AI > Machine Learning > Bayesian Networks (0.71)

Chen, Guang (China University of Petroleum–Beijing) | Zhou, Hui (China University of Petroleum–Beijing) | Liu, Mingdi (China University of Petroleum–Beijing) | Tao, Yonghui (China University of Petroleum–Beijing) | Wang, Haiyang (China University of Petroleum–Beijing)

Elastic impedance inversion is an important prestack inversion method in reservoir prediction and fluid identification. Constrained sparse spike inversion (CSSI) used to be the most widely used method in poststack seismic inversion. Because of the relationship between the elastic impedance and the wave impedance, the CSSI can be directly applied to the prestack elastic impedance inversion. However, CSSI usually suffers from strongly ill-posed problem when using some local optimization algorithm, such as conjugate gradient (CG) method, and has a strong dependence on the initial model of reflection coefficient. Besides, conventional CSSI separately inverts the time locations and amplitudes of sparse-spikes, which increases the computational complexity. In this paper, we improve CSSI theory with a linear wave impedance constraint, which is named as LCSSI. We apply orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) non-linear algorithm to linear constrained sparse spike prestack elastic impedance inversion. We derive a linear matrix equation from the cost function and use OMP algorithm to invert the sparse-spikes' time locations and amplitudes simultaneously. Due to OMP, this method can reduce dependence on initial model and obtain the inversion results precisely and quickly. Numerical examples indicate that our method can achieve a good performance even for noisy data, while the CG algorithm fails to get a desirable inversion result.

Presentation Date: Wednesday, October 19, 2016

Start Time: 8:00:00 AM

Location: 155

Presentation Type: ORAL

Oilfield Places: Europe > Norway > Norwegian Sea > Halten Bank Area > Kristin Gas and Condensate Field (0.99)

Wang, Yufeng (State Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources and Prospecting, CNPC Key Lab of Geophysical Exploration, China University of Petroleum) | Zhou, Hui (State Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources and Prospecting, CNPC Key Lab of Geophysical Exploration, China University of Petroleum) | Li, Qingqing (State Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources and Prospecting, CNPC Key Lab of Geophysical Exploration, China University of Petroleum) | Chen, Hanming (State Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources and Prospecting, CNPC Key Lab of Geophysical Exploration, China University of Petroleum) | Gan, Shuwei (State Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources and Prospecting, CNPC Key Lab of Geophysical Exploration, China University of Petroleum) | Chen, Yangkang (The Unversity of Texas at Austin)

**Summary**

We apply the unsplit convolutional perfectly matched layer (CPML) absorbing boundary condition (ABC) to the viscoacoustic wave, which is derived from Kjartansson’s constant-Q model, with second-order spatial derivatives and fractional time derivatives, to annihilate spurious reflections from near-grazing incidence waves in the time domain. Computationally expensive temporal convolution in the unsplit CPML formulation are resolved by an effective recursive convolution update strategy which calculates time integration with the trapezoidal approximation, while the fractional time derivatives are computed with the Grünwald- Letnikov (GL) approximations. We verify the results by comparison with the 2D analytical solution obtained from wave propagation in homogeneous Pierre Shale.

**Introduction**

Perfectly matched layer (PML) absorbing boundary condition was introduced by Bérenger (1994) for the numerical simulations of electromagnetic waves in an unbounded medium. It can theoretically absorb the incident waves at the interface with the elastic volume, regardless of their incidence angle or frequency. However, the performance degrades upon the finite-difference time domain (FDTD) discretization, especially in the case of grazing incidence (Roden and Gedney, 2000; Bérenger, 2002a, 2002b). To deal with this problem, Kuzuoglu and Mittra (1996) proposed a general complex frequency shifted (CFS) method, in which a Butterworth-type filter is implemented in the layer. This approach is also known as convolutional PML (CPML) or complex frequency shifted PML (CFS-PML) (Bérenger, 2002a, 2002b), which has been proved to be more effective in absorbing the propagating wave modes at grazing incidence than the classical PMLs (Roden and Gedney, 2000; Komatitsch and Martin, 2007; Martin and Komatitsch, 2009; Drossaert and Giannopoulos, 2007a, 2007b).

Generally, the unsplit CPML has been applied to the wave equation recast as a first-order system in velocity and stress (Komatitsch and Martin, 2007; Martin and Komatitsch, 2009; Chen et. al., 2014). However, it was rarely used in numerical schemes based on the wave equation written as a second-order system in displacement. This form of wave equation is commonly used in finite-element methods (FEM), the spectral-element method (SEM) and some finite-difference methods. Several unsplit CPMLs have already been applied to the second-order wave equations (Li and Matar, 2010; René Matzen, 2011). Li and Matar (2010) presented an unsplit CPML for the second-order wave equation that contains auxiliary memory variables to avoid the convolution operators. Matzen (2011) developed a novel CPML formulation based on the second-order wave equation with displacements as the only unknowns, which is implemented by slightly modifying the existing displacement-based finite element framework.

SPE Disciplines: Reservoir Description and Dynamics > Reservoir Characterization > Seismic processing and interpretation (0.71)

Chen, Hanming (China University of Petroleum, Beijing) | Zhou, Hui (China University of Petroleum, Beijing) | Zhang, Qingchen (China University of Petroleum, Beijing) | Zhang, Qi (China University of Petroleum, Beijing)

**Summary**

Two staggered-grid finite-difference (SGFD) methods with fourth- and sixth-order accuracy in time have been developed recently based on two new SGFD stencils. The SGFD coefficients are determined by Taylor-series expansion (TE), which is accurate only nearby zero wavenumber. We adopt the new two SGFD stencils and optimize the SGFD coefficients by minimizing the errors between the wavenumber responses of the SGFD operators and the first-order *k* (wavenumber)-space operator in a least-squares (LS) sense. We solve the LS problems by performing weighted pseudo-inverse of nonsquare matrices to obtain the SGFD coefficients, and to yield two LS based SGFD methods. Dispersion analysis and numerical examples demonstrate that our LS based SGFD methods can preserve the original fourth- and sixth-order temporal accuracy and achieve higher spatial accuracy than the existing TE based time-space domain SGFD methods.

**Introduction**

The staggered-grid finite-difference (SGFD) (Virieux, 1984) method has been widely used in seismic wave propagation modeling. Most of the SGFD applications adopt the traditional (2M, 2) scheme, which uses 2M-order Taylorseries expansion (TE) based FD operator to discretize spatial derivatives, and 2nd-order TE based FD operator to discretize temporal derivative. Although high-order spatial accuracy can be achieved by using a long stencil length, the temporal accuracy is only second-order. When a coarse time step is used, the traditional scheme suffers from obvious temporal dispersion during long time wave propagation.

Recently, Tan and Huang (2014a) propose two new SGFD methods with fourth-order and sixth-order accuracy in time respectively by incorporating a few of off-axial grid points into the standard SGFD stencil. The two methods are denoted as (2*M, * 4) and (2*M*, 6). The FD coefficients are determined in the time-space domain using TE approach. Althouth high-order temporal accuracy has been achieved, the TE based (2*M*, 4) and (*2M*, 6) methods still suffer from obvious spatial disperion when a large grid size or a short stencil length is adopted. Tan and Huang (2014b) continue to improve the spatial accuracy by using a nonlinear optimization to seek the optimal FD coefficients. However, the optimization requires repeated iterations, and the procedure may be time-consuming.

**Summary**

In this paper, the Lattice Spring Model (LSM) is adopted in forward modeling of elastic waves propagation in solid medium by combination with the Verlet Algorithm. Different from the traditional methods, such as Finite Difference Method (FDM), Finite Element Method (FEM) etc., LSM is a new method which is not based on the wave equations, but on the microcosmic mechanism that causes wave propagation. Firstly, the origin and history of LSM is introduced. Secondly, the theoretical framework of LSM is elaborated and a stability condition for the evolution of this system is deduced. Then, some numerical results of LSM are demonstrated and they are compared with the wave fields obtained by FDM. Finally, a brief conclusion is drawn based on the previous discussions.

**Introduction**

First devised by Grest and Webman in 1984, Lattice Spring Model (LSM) is a collection of linear springs connected at nodes distributing on a cubic lattice used for describing solid medium (Grest and Webman, 1984; Hassold and Srolovitz, 1989). In order to model materials of different Poisson’s ratios, angular springs are added to the original linear spring system (Wang, 1989). Ladd and Kinney (1997) developed this model by taking the idea of elastic element to improve its calculation precision. Such a simple model is sufficient to simulate heterogeneous elastic medium, and its application can be seen in modeling deformation and failure (Ladd and Kinney, 1997; Buxton et al., 2001; Zhao et al., 2011).

As is known to all, extensive research has been performed to solve the dynamic problems involving waves, and FDM is the most frequently used numerical method, which solves the wave equation by finite difference approximation of its partial derivative (Toomey and Bean, 2000). Yim and Sohn (2000) adopted a model similar to LSM for visualization of ultrasonic waves, but the evolution of wave fields are calculated by FDM. Pazdniakou and Adler (2012) made a further introduction of LSM and laid the foundation for its potential application in wave propagation in porous media in the low frequency band. Xia et al. (2014) modeled P waves from low frequencies (seismic frequency) to high frequencies (sonic log frequency) by importing a stability conditional for LSM dynamics.

SPE Disciplines: Reservoir Description and Dynamics > Reservoir Characterization > Seismic processing and interpretation (0.89)