Alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) flooding of a viscous oil (100 cp) is studied here in a two-dimensional (2D) sand pack. An ASP formulation was developed by studying the phase behavior of the oil with several alkaline-surfactant formulations. The effectiveness of the ASP formulation was validated in a 1D sand pack by conducting a water flood followed by a stable ASP flood. Reservoir sand was then packed into a 2D square steel cell similar to a quarter five-spot pattern. Several ASP floods were then conducted in this 2D cell to study both the displacement and sweep efficiency of ASP floods. First, the polymer concentration was varied to find an optimum polymer concentration. Then the waterflood extent was varied (0–1 PV) after which the ASP flood was initiated. The oil recovery, oil cut, effluent concentration and pressure drop were monitored during the floods. The tertiary ASP flood was very effective in 1D and validated the ASP formulation. The 2D tertiary ASP flood also recovered most of the oil (~98% of OOIP) when the ASP slug viscosity exceeded the oil viscosity, but the pressure gradients were high at ~ 1ft/d injection. When the ASP slug viscosity was lowered to ~1/3 of oil viscosity, oil recovery dropped slightly to 90% OOIP. However, it also decreased the pressure gradient 5 times, which would give good flow rates in the field conditions. As the extent of waterflood preceding ASP got shorter, the oil was recovered faster (for the same pore volumes injected), but the pressure gradient was higher for the ASP flood than the water flood. The ultimate recovery was independent of the extent of waterflood.
Although geochemical reactions are the fundamental basis of the alkaline/surfactant/polymer (ASP) flooding, their importance is commonly overlooked and not fully assessed. Common assumptions made when modeling geochemical reactions in ASP floods include: 1) ideal solution (i.e., using molalities rather than ion activities) for the water and aqueous geochemical species 2) limiting the number of reactions (i.e., oil/alkali and alkali consumptions) rather than including the entire thermodynamically-equilibrated system 3) ignoring the effect of temperature and pressure on reactions 4) local equilibrium ignoring the kinetics. To the best of our knowledge, the significance of these assumptions has never been discussed in the literature. In this paper we investigate the importance of geochemical reactions during alkaline/surfactant/polymer floods using a comprehensive tool in the sense of surfactant/soap phase behavior as well as geochemistry.
We coupled the United States Geological Survey (USGS) state-of-the-art geochemical tool, with 3D flow and transport chemical flooding module of UTCHEM. This geochemical module includes several thermodynamic databases with various geochemical reactions, such as ion speciation by applying several ion-association aqueous models, mineral, solid-solution, surface-complexation, and ion-exchange reaction. It has capabilities of saturation index calculation, reversible and irreversible reactions, kinetic reaction, mixing solutions, inverse modeling and includes impacts of temperature and pressure on reaction constants and solubility products. The chemical flood simulator has a three phase (water, oil, microemulsion) phase behavior package for the mixture of surfactant/soap, oil, and water as a function of surfactant/soap, salinity, temperature, and co-solvent concentration. Hence, the coupled software package provides a comprehensive tool to assess the significance of geochemical assumptions typically imposed in modeling ASP floods. Moreover, this integrated tool enables modeling of variations in mineralogy present in reservoir rocks. We parallelized the geochemistry module of this coupled simulator for large-scale reservoir simulations.
Our simulation results show that the assumption of ideal solution overestimates ASP oil recovery. Assuming only a subset of reactions for a coupled system is not recommended, particularly when a large number of geochemical species is involved, as is the case in realistic applications of ASP. Reservoir pressure has a negligible effect but temperature has a significant impact on geochemical calculations. Although mineral reaction kinetics is largely a function of the temperature and in-situ water composition, some general conclusions can be drawn as follows: to a good approximation, minerals with slow rate kinetic reaction (e.g., quartz) can be excluded when modeling ASP laboratory floods. However, minerals with fast rate kinetic reactions (e.g., calcite) must be included when modeling lab results. On the other hand, in modeling field-scale applications, local equilibrium assumption (LEA) can be applied for fast rate kinetic minerals, whereas kinetics should be used for slow rate kinetic minerals.
Fortenberry, R. (Ultimate EOR Services) | Delshad, M. (Ultimate EOR Services) | Suniga, P. (Ultimate EOR Services) | Koyassan Veedu, F. (DeGolyer & MacNaughton) | Wang, P. (DeGolyer & MacNaughton) | Al-Kaaoud, H. (Kuwait Oil Company) | Singh, B. B. (Kuwait Oil Company) | Tiwari, S. (Kuwait Oil Company) | Baroon, B. (Kuwait Oil Company) | Pope, G. A. (University of Texas at Austin)
Our team has developed a new simulation model for an upcoming 5-spot Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer (ASP) pilot in the Sabriyah Mauddud reservoir in Kuwait. We present new pilot simulation results based on new data from pilot wells and an updated geocelluar reservoir model. New cores and well logs were used to update the geocellular model, including initial fluid distributions, permeability and layer flow allocation.
From the updated geocellular model a smaller dynamic sector model was extracted to history match field performance of a waterflood pattern. From the dynamic model a yet smaller pilot model was extracted and refined to simulate the 5-spot ASP pilot.
We used this pilot model to evaluate injection composition, zonal completions, observation well locations, interwell tracer test design and predicted performance of ASP flooding. A sensitivity analysis for some important design variables and pilot performance benchmarks is also included. We used multiple interwell tracer test simulations to estimate reservoir sweep efficiency for both water and ASP fluids, and to help us understand how well operations will affect this unconfined ASP pilot. This work details some crucial aspects of pre-ASP pilot design and implementation.
During an Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer (
In this study, steady-state (
For brine/oil systems some dependence of apparent viscosity on rock permeability was observed; for systems with surfactants no such trend was noticable. The addition of surfactants substantially reduced the apparent viscosities; the viscosity reducing impact of surfactants could be balanced by the addition of polymer. Fractional flow analysis showed that the addition of surfactants reduces the impact of capillary forces resulting in straightened relative permeability curves and higher aqueous phase relative permeability end points.
It is anticipated that this study leads to a fast and fit for purpose characterization method of
The Mangala field in the state of Rajasthan of western India was the first major oil discovery in the Barmer basin and is the largest discovered oil field in the basin. It contains paraffinic oil with average viscosity of ~15 cp and wax appearance temperature only about 5°C lower than reservoir temperature of 65°C. The initial development plan was a hot waterflood to prevent any in situ wax deposition; recently, though chemical EOR methods have started to play an important role in the development of the field.
A polymer flood pilot was successfully conducted in the field. It was followed by an ASP pilot trial which used the same set of wells. Unlike the polymer pilot, ASP injection was confined to a single continuous sand to reduce interference with nearby wells and to reduce the uncertainty in interpretation of pilot results. A combination of a high molecular weight branched alcohol PO-EO sulfate and a high carbon number sulfonate was selected for the ASP formulation. The selected surfactants functioned well in the desired salinity range and were stable in an aqueous solution up to half a percent higher alkali concentration than the optimal concentration.
The pilot facilities needed to meet a number of challenges arising from using neat surfactants-mainly handling of viscous/gelling material, maintaining accurate dosing rates, maintaining the right ratio of two surfactants, and maintaining stability of the sulfate itself. These challenges were surmounted in the pilot by using a blended surfactant solution, diluted with water, with activity of 24%.
ASP injection led to mobilization of significant volume of oil in the confined 5-spot pattern. The oil-cut of the central producer increased from 10% to 80%. The oil production rate showed almost an eight fold increase from 50 bopd to nearly 400 bopd. The estimated incremental recovery over polymer flooding is nearly 20% of the pilot STOIIP. Later in the pilot project the expected increase in water-cut was accompanied with the production of the injected chemicals along with rise in the pH of the produced water, indicating that favourable mobility was maintained during ASP injection. Some production challenges were encountered—most notably the failure of the producer's electrical submersible pump (ESP); this required the producer to be put on jet pump intermittently when the ESP was not functioning. The saturation observation wells located within the pattern area showed significant desaturation of oil. Sponge cores acquired after the pilot showed very low remaining oil saturation in the flooded sections. The paper will discuss the pilot operations, monitoring and quality control, the pilot results, and lessons learnt.
Microemulsion properties significantly impact any EOR process that relies on surfactants or soaps to generate ultralow interfacial tension to displace trapped oil. Unfavorable microemulsion viscosity can lead to high chemical retention, low oil recovery, and overall unfavorable performance across all modes. Controlling microemulsion properties is important in conventional approaches like surfactant-polymer (SP) and alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) flooding, in addition to new applications like gravity stable displacements, spontaneous imbibition in fractured carbonates and unstable floods of viscous oil. Despite the central importance, microemulsion viscosity and rheology remain poorly understood.
This paper describes the results of an extensive experimental microemulsion study. We evaluated the effect of polymer on microemulsion viscosity in different microemulsion phase types (i.e. oil in water, bi-continuous, water in oil emulsions). We measured microemulsion viscosities across a broad salinity range for several crudes from light (API >30°) to heavy oils (API<14°) and observed Newtonian rheology for all phase types. The effect of cosolvents on microemulsion viscosity was also evaluated. Finally, we evaluated microemulsions with and without alkali to help understand potential differences between ASP and SP microemulsions.
We include many observations consistent with earlier literature using recently developed surfactants and report the microemulsion viscosity details for many high performance surfactant formulations across a wide range of conditions. We have also describe several observations, including polymer decreasing the required time to achieve equilibrium in microemulsion pipettes and the qualitative change in microemulsion behavior with and without polymer in Windsor Type III microemulsions.
Prieto, C. A. (CEPSA Research Center) | Rodriguez, R. (CEPSA Research Center) | Romero, P. (CEPSA Research Center) | Blin, N. (CEPSA Research Center) | Panadero, A. (CEPSA Research Center) | Escudero, M. J. (CEPSA Research Center) | Barrio, I. (CEPSA Research Center) | Alvarez, E. (CEPSA Research Center) | Montes, J. (CEPSA EP) | Angulo, R. | Cubillos, H.
The design of an alkali-surfactant-polymer (ASP) formulation for chemical Enhanced Oil Recovery poses multiple challenges from the experimental point of view. The present research examines the laboratory procedures and experimental results aimed at selecting the most suitable chemicals for an ASP pilot trial at the Caracara Sur field (Los Llanos Basin, Colombia). The key challenge was the limited compatibility of the surfactant and polymer selected under reservoir conditions (temperature and total salinity), leading to phase separation of the ASP solution and losses of the activity of both chemicals. An extension of the experimental program was required to re-design the formulation and mitigate risks of damaging the formation in the following field trials. The formulation comprised an alkyl benzene sulfonate as main ingredient, a hydrolyzed polyacrylamide as viscosifying agent and some weak alkali to reach the optimum salinity of the mixture. A mono-alkyl diphenyl disulfonate ether was added as coupling agent to improve compatibility of the ASP mixture. The performance of the selected ASP formulation was assessed by means of interfacial tension measurements, long-term thermal stability tests and dynamic core-flooding tests. The formulation provided ultra-low interfacial tension (< 10-2 mN/m) and viscosity enough to assure an appropriate mobility control. Hence, the formulation was considered to be suitable for further testing in the field pilot.
Guo, Hu (China University of Petroleum) | Li, Yiqiang (China University of Petroleum) | Gu, Yuanyuan (China University of Petroleum) | Wang, Fuyong (China University of Petroleum) | Yuliang, Zhang (Research Institute of Xinjiang Oilfield Company, CNPC)
ASP flooding is one of the most promising EOR technologies. Lots of laboratory studies and pilot tests have been finished in Daqing oilfield which is the largest oilfield in China. Comparison of two typical strong alkali ASP (WASP) and weak alkali ASP (SASP) pilots are presented with detained information.
ASP flooding could not only remarkably improve displacement efficiency but also improve sweep efficiency due to the low interfacial tension effect and mobility control technique with help of viscosity enhancement and emulsification effects. The incremental recovery of two ASP was near, while in peak oil production period after the injection took effects, WASP had high oil production rate than SASP. The emulsification effects in weak alkali ASP was weaker than strong one. The chromatographic separation was different in two pilot tests, in which weak alkali ASP had alleviated chromatographic separation. The constitution production sequence was both polymer first, then alkali and finally surfactant. The time gap between surfactant and polymer was about 0.0606 PV for strong alkali ASP, while a respective value of 0.1281PV for weak alkali ASP. Scaling was different and thus anti-scale technique adopted in two pilot tests were a little different. The overall input-output ratio for two tests was different and weak alkali ASP performed much better. Comparison was first made between strong alkali and weak alkali based ASP flooding from field tests perspective. Weak alkali based ASP is proven the development trend.