This paper examines whether retention of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) is different under anaerobic versus aerobic conditions. Both static (mixing with loose sand) and dynamic methods (core floods) were used to determine HPAM retention. There are both advantages and disadvantages associated with determining polymer retention using static tests versus dynamic tests and using aerobic versus anaerobic conditions. From static retention measurements, polymer adsorption values on pure silica sand or Berea sandstone were small, and they showed little difference between experiments conducted aerobically or anaerobically. For both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, HPAM retention increased significantly with increased pyrite or siderite content. Static retention under anaerobic conditions ranged from 45-75 µg/g with 1% of either pyrite or siderite to 137-174 µg/g for 10% pyrite or siderite to 1161-1249 µg/g for 100% pyrite or siderite.
If iron minerals are present, the most representative polymer retention results are obtained (for both static and dynamic tests) if conditions are anaerobic. Retention values (from static measurements) under aerobic conditions were commonly twice those determined under anaerobic conditions. If iron minerals are present and retention tests are performed under aerobic conditions, TOC or some similar method should be used for polymer detection. Viscosity detection of polymer may provide retention values that are too high (because oxidative degradation can be misinterpreted as polymer retention). For a broad range of siderite content, retention from static tests did not depend on whether dissolved oxygen was present. However, for a broad range of pyrite content, HPAM retention was significantly lower in the absence of dissolved oxygen than under aerobic conditions. Theses results may be tied to iron solubility. When polymer solutions were mixed with 100% pyrite over the course of 12 hours, 360–480-ppm iron dissolved into polymer solutions under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, whereas with 100% siderite, only 0–0.6-ppm iron dissolved. If dynamic methods (i.e., corefloods) are used to determine polymer retention under aerobic conditions, flow rates should be representative of the field application. Rates that are too high lead to underestimation of polymer retention. With 10% pyrite, dynamic retention was 211 µg/g at 6 ft/d versus 43.2 µg/g at 30 ft/d. In contrast, retention values were fairly consistent (40.6 – 47.8 µg/g) between 6 ft/d and 33 ft/d under anaerobic conditions.
Water-based polymers are often used to improve oil recovery by increasing displacement sweep efficiency. However, recent laboratory and field work has suggested these polymers, which are often viscoelastic, may also reduce residual oil saturation. The objective of this work is to investigate the effect of viscoelastic polymers on residual oil saturation in Bentheimer sandstones and identify conditions and mechanisms for the improved recovery. Bentheimer sandstones were saturated with a heavy oil (120cp) and then waterflooded to residual oil saturation using brine followed by an inelastic Newtonian fluid (diluted glycerin). These floods were followed by injection of a viscoelastic polymer, hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM).
Significant reduction in residual oil was observed for all core floods performed at constant pressure drop when the polymer had significant elasticity (determined by the dimensionless Deborah number,
Fluorinated benzoic acids (FBA) have been widely used in the oil industry as conservative tracers. However, some of these tracers have been shown to rapidly degrade when tested at temperatures above 121°C within three weeks. Naphthalene sulfonates (NSAs) have been shown to be excellent tracers in geothermal applications. However, a broader study was required to determine tracer conservation in reservoir fluids and formations typically encountered in the oil field.
In this study we compare the oil field industry standard FBA tracers to NSA tracers under dynamic test conditions in the presence of reservoir oil, sandstone, carbonates and clays. We also compare the two sets of tracers under static conditions in the presence of four crude oils and different clay mineralogy to establish tracer conservation. Seven different sodium salts of naphthalene sulfonic acids were tested to determine if the tracers were adsorbed onto natural porous media (reservoir rock) at reservoir conditions. A broad range of conditions were selected to target typical reservoirs encountered. In addition, reservoir rock and a pseudo formation containing 10 Wt.% clay in silica sand were used in sand packs saturated with surrogate brine to ensure the tracer recovery under dynamic conditions.
High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC-FLD) separation was used for simultaneous detection of seven NSAs while FBAs were analyzed using HPLC-UV. GC analysis of isopropyl alcohol (IPA) was used as a standard against which the others were measured.
Dynamic tracer tests demonstrated that the sodium salts of naphthalene sulfonates behaved similarly to the control, IPA, with none of the tracers adsorbing on to the rock surface or partitioning into the oil phase. The naphthalene sulfonates can be successfully used as conservative tracers most specifically for high temperature applications. NSA tracers are an attractive replacement for conservative FBA tracers in the oil field due to their superior thermal stability, solubility in oil field brine, lower detection limits and cost.
Piñerez T., Iván D. (University of Stavanger) | Austad, Tor (University of Stavanger) | Strand, Skule (University of Stavanger) | Puntervold, Tina (University of Stavanger) | Wrobel, Stanislaw (University of Stavanger) | Hamon, Gérald (Total E&P)
Low salinity water injection in sandstone is an emerging technology just on the verge of being implemented full field in the UK and in Alaska, USA. Laboratory studies are important for providing relevant and well interpreted data before performing the field trial. However, laboratory investigations show varying results on low salinity EOR, most probably because of a limited understanding of the nature of the process. Recently we have published a "Smart Water" EOR mechanism where pH changes at the rock surface is inducing the wettability alteration, improving positive capillary forces and microscopic sweep efficiency. Researchers have experienced rather poor low salinity EOR effects from 17 different sandstone outcrops from the USA.
In this work we have investigated 6 of the same 17 outcrops, and according to our chemical understanding, some factors are more important for observing LS EOR effects in sandstone. It is the increase in pH, ?pH, obtained when the high salinity (HS) formation water is displaced by the low salinity (LS) injection water, and it is the initial pH and the amount of active cations (Ca2+) in the formation water that are related to the initial wetting.
We have established a link between the poor low salinity EOR effect from all 6 outcrops and the corresponding pH change observed when switching from high salinity to low salinity injection water. The presence of different types of minerals such as clay, feldspars and anhydrite will influence the pH change, and must be taken into account. Additionally, we have seen that the formation water composition has strong influence on the low salinity EOR effect. Using a formation water with salinity like seawater (FW1 ~35 000 ppm) showed only a minor tertiary low salinity EOR effect, 0.74 %OOIP, corresponding to a low pH gradient of 0.5. While experiments using a high salinity formation water (FW2 ~100 000 ppm) showed a 5 % OOIP recovery, corresponding to a larger pH gradient of 2.0.
The results observed are in agreement with the suggested chemical mechanism for the low salinity EOR effect, confirming that it is the pH gradient that triggers the low salinity EOR effect. In addition, the pH screening test used in this work proved once again to be a reliable tool to evaluate the low salinity EOR potential.
Lenchenkov, Nikita S. (Delft University of Technology) | Slob, Michiel (Delft University of Technology) | van Dalen, Ernst (Delft University of Technology) | Glasbergen, Gerard (Shell Global Solutions International) | van Kruijsdijk, Cor (Shell Global Solutions International)
In order to improve oil recovery from water flooded heterogeneous oil reservoirs, different chemical enhanced oil recovery (cEOR) technologies can be applied. One of the recently developed cEOR technologies for the improvement of oil recovery is based on prefabricated polymeric nano-spheres. These spheres are able to swell over time through absorption of brine. Literature review on the flow of the nano-spheres in porous media showed that the mechanism of oil displacement from heterogeneous as well as homogenous porous media is not well established. One of the proposed mechanisms is that prefabricated polymeric particles might reduce the residual oil saturation Sor (
To validate this, a series of core flood experiments was carried out in order to study this mechanism in both a heterogeneous Boise outcrop and homogeneous Bentheimer outcrop. Saturation of the cores with highly viscous crude oil was done at 50°C using the porous plates method. After the oil saturated core was water flooded at 1 ft/day, a bump flood was performed. It helped to achieve the residual oil saturation in the core. Subsequently, several slugs of the nano-spheres were injected into the core in order to study the influence of the nano-spheres on the residual oil saturation. In addition to that, the propagation of the nano-spheres in the core was studied via a pressure drop measurement at different sections of the core and by effluent collection.
The results of the experiments show that the oil displacement from a core with nano-spheres after a bump flood is marginal. Some oil extraction with nano-spheres might have happened due to restricting the flow in the highly permeable zones of the core. The subsequent injection of water could potentially result in improved microscopic sweep efficiency and increased oil production. However, in our experiments this effect was not significant. Our results do not show that nano-spheres significantly reduce the residual oil saturation of the core. Additional measurements showed that the nano-spheres are mostly retained in the inlet section of the core and the propagation of the nano-spheres in porous media is slow. Therefore, the effect of the extra oil recovery is likely limited to the inlet section of the core.
There is currently limited description in the literature on the oil recovery mechanism by polymeric nano-spheres. It has a large impact on how the behaviour of the nano-spheres in porous media needs to be modelled and on the screening of candidate reservoirs for the conditions described in the experiments. In our experiments we have seen no significant reduction of residual oil saturation and slow propagation. Further work is required to evaluate the conditions under which the performance of the nano-spheres can be improved.
Erke, S. I. (Salym Petroleum Development) | Volokitin, Y. E. (Salym Petroleum Development) | Edelman, I. Y. (Salym Petroleum Development) | Karpan, V. M. (Salym Petroleum Development) | Nasralla, R. A. (Shell Global Solutions International) | Bondar, M. Y. (Salym Petroleum Development) | Mikhaylenko, E. E. (Salym Petroleum Development) | Evseeva, M. (Salym Petroleum Development)
Low-salinity waterflooding (LSF) has been recognized as an IOR/EOR technique for both green and brown fields in which the salinity of the injected water is lowered for particular reservoir properties to improve oil recovery. While providing lower or similar UTC's low salinity projects have the advantage of lower capital and operational costs as compared to some more expensive EOR alternatives.
This work describes LSF experiments, field-scale simulation results, and conceptual design of surface facilities for West Salym oil field. The field is located in West Siberia and is on stream since 2004. Conventional waterflooding was started in 2005 and current water cut is currently above 80% in the developed area of the field. To counter oil production decline a tertiary Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer (ASP) flooding technique selected for mature waterflooded field parts and piloting of this technique is ongoing. Operationally simpler and more cost-effective LSF method is considered for implementation in the unflushed (green) areas of the field since it has been recognized that application of LSF in secondary mode results in better incremental oil recovery than LSF in tertiary mode.
The results of a comprehensive conceptual study performed to justify the LSF trial are presented in this paper. To generate production forecast for LSF in the isolated area at the outset of reservoir development the results of laboratory core tests executed at different salinities presented earlier (
Griffith, Nicholas (Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin) | Ahmad, Yusra (Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin) | Daigle, Hugh (Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin) | Huh, Chun (Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin)
Interest in silica nanoparticle-stabilized emulsions, especially those employing low-cost natural gas liquids (NGLs), has increased due to recent developments suggesting their use leads to improved conformance control and increased sweep efficiencies. When compared to conventional emulsion- stabilizing materials such as surfactants, nanoparticles are an inexpensive and robust alternative, offering stability over a wider range of temperature and salinity, while reducing environmental impact.
Oil-in-water emulsions with an aqueous nanoparticle phase and either a pentane or butane oil phase at a 1:1 volume ratio were generated at varying salinities for the observations of several emulsion characteristics. The effects of salinity on the stability of silica nanoparticle dispersions and NGL emulsions were observed. Increasing the salinity of the aqueous nanoparticle phase resulted in an increase in effective nanoparticle size due to increased nanoparticle aggregation. Rheology tests and estimates of emulsion droplet sizes were performed. Shear-thinning behavior was observed for all emulsions. Furthermore, overall emulsion viscosity increased with salinity. Nanoparticle-stabilized liquid butane-in-water emulsions were also generated with varying brine concentrations; however, no rheology or droplet size measurements were made due to the volatility of these emulsions.
Residual oil recovery coreflood experiments were conducted (using Boise Sandstone cores) with nanoparticle-stabilized pentane-in-water emulsions as injectant and light mineral oil as residual oil. A recovery of up to 82% residual oil was observed for these experiments. By continuously measuring the pressure drop across the core, a possible mechanism for enhanced oil recovery is proposed. Pentane emulsion coreflood tests indicated that at a slower injection rate, residual oil recovery increases. This contrasts viscous emulsion corefloods (mineral oil or Texaco white oil as the emulsion oil phase), where increasing the injection rate increases the residual oil recovery.
Imqam, Abdulmhsin (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Wang, Ze (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Bai, Baojun (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Delshad, Mojdeh (The University of Texas at Austin)
Preformed particle gels (PPG) have been successfully applied as a plugging agent to solve the conformance problem in fractured reservoirs. They are injected to plug fractures and then divert displacing fluid into poorly swept zones and areas. However, PPG propagation and plugging mechanisms through open fractures have not been studied thoroughly. This paper investigated the influence of some factors (particle size, brine concentration, heterogeneity, injection flow rate, and brine salinity) on gel injectivity and plugging performance for water flow through opening fractures. Five-foot tubes were used to mimic opening fractures. Three models were designed to gain understanding on how fracture geometry and PPG properties affect gel injection and plugging efficiency, including (1) single fracture with uniform fracture width, (2) single fracture with different widths, and (3) two parallel fractures with different width ratios between each other. Results from single uniform fracture experiments showed that PPG injection pressure was more sensitive to gel strength than gel particle size. When large PPG size and high gel strength were used, high injection pressure and large injection pore volume were required for PPG and brine to reach fracture outlets. Results from single heterogeneous fracture model experiments showed PPG injection pressure increased as the fracture heterogeneity in sections increased. Particle gel accumulated at the choke point within each fracture and caused injection pressure to increase accordingly. Furthermore, results showed that having a lower salinity within a fracture, which was less than the brine salinity that was used to prepare PPG, would improve the PPG plugging efficiency for water flow. Parallel fracture models results showed that when weak PPG was used, a large volume of PPG flowed into a large fracture width and a small portion of the gel particle volume flowed into small fracture width. However, with increased gel strength and fracture width ratio, PPG only flowed through larger fracture widths. This paper demonstrates important impact elements of gel propagation and water flow for different opening fracture situations.
SmartWater flooding through injection of chemistry optimized waters by tuning individual ions is recently getting more attention in the industry for improved oil recovery in carbonate reservoirs. Most of the research studies described so far in this area have been limited to studying the interactions at rock-fluids interfaces by measuring contact angles, zeta potential, and adhesion forces. The other widely reported interfacial tension data at oil-water interfaces do not consider the formation of interfacial monolayer and the interfacial tension is estimated as an average parameter relying on the properties of two individual bulk phases. As a result, such measurements have serious shortcomings to provide any details on complex microscopic scale interactions occurring directly at the interface between crude oil and water to understand the SmartWater flood recovery mechanism.
In this study, two novel interfacial instruments of interfacial shear rheometer and surface potential sensor were used to study microscopic scale interactions of various individual water ions at both air-water and complex crude oil-water interfaces. The measured interfacial rheology data indicated totally different interfacial behavior at crude oil-water interface when compared to air-water interface due to presence of crude oil functional groups. Viscous dominated response was observed at crude oil-water interface for all brine compositions. These interfaces behaved like a viscous fluid without exhibiting viscoelastic solid like properties. Lower interfacial viscous modulus was observed for certain key ions such as calcium, magnesium, and sodium. The interfacial viscous modulus was found to be substantially much higher for sulfates, besides exhibiting some elasticity. The surface potential was gradually decreased by replacing seawater with calcium only brine. The better surface activity with seawater can be attributed to adsorption of more key water ions at the surface.
The interesting results observed with certain water ions at fluid-fluid interfaces are expected to work in tandem with rock-fluids interactions to impact oil recovery in SmartWater flood. At first, they play a role to control the accessibility of active water ions to approach the rock surface, interact with it and subsequently alter wettability. Next oil droplets adhering to the rock surface will be detached and released due to favorable interactions occurring at rock-fluids interfaces. The interfacial film between oil and water can then quickly be destabilized due to less viscous interfaces observed with certain ions to promote drop-drop coalescence and easy mobilization of released oil droplets. This coalescence process is sequential and it would continue until the formation of small oil bank.
This is the first study that showed added importance of fluid-fluid interactions in SmartWater flood by using direct measurements on individual water ions at crude oil-water interface. In addition, a new oil recovery mechanism was proposed by combining both the interactions occurring at fluid-fluid and rock-fluids interfaces. The new fundamental knowledge gained in this study will provide an important guidance on how to synergize water ion interactions at fluid-fluid interfaces with those at rock-fluids interfaces to optimize oil recovery from SmartWater flood.
During an Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer (
In this study, steady-state (
For brine/oil systems some dependence of apparent viscosity on rock permeability was observed; for systems with surfactants no such trend was noticable. The addition of surfactants substantially reduced the apparent viscosities; the viscosity reducing impact of surfactants could be balanced by the addition of polymer. Fractional flow analysis showed that the addition of surfactants reduces the impact of capillary forces resulting in straightened relative permeability curves and higher aqueous phase relative permeability end points.
It is anticipated that this study leads to a fast and fit for purpose characterization method of