This paper describes the selection, design, successful application and performance monitoring of Electrical Submersible pumps in the giant Mangala oil field and Thumbli water field situated in the Barmer basin in Rajasthan, India. Mangala oil field contains approximately 1.3 billion barrels of STOIIP in high-quality fluvial reservoirs. The field was brought on production in August 2009 and is currently producing at the plateau production rate of 150,000 bopd of which approximately 40% of the oil production is from the ESP oil wells.
To support the water requirement of Mangala and other satellite oil fields, Thumbli source water field was developed with 5 water production wells with up to 4 wells operating at a time. Each of these water wells is installed with 60,000 bwpd capacity pumps and the field is currently producing up to 225,000 bwpd to meet the water requirements of Mangala and other satellite fields.
The Mangala oil field is a multilayer, multi-Darcy reservoir, has waxy viscous crude with in-situ oil viscosity up to 22 cp and wax content in the range of 18 to 26%. The field was developed using hot water flood for pressure maintenance. Significant production challenges included unfavorable mobility ratio with early water cut and hence the early requirement of artificial lift to maintain the plateau production rate. The field has 12 horizontal producers and 100 deviated producers. ESP was selected as the artificial lift mode for the high rate horizontal producers while hot water jet pumping was selected as the artificial lift mode for low rate deviated oil wells. Each horizontal well is capable of producing up to 15,000 blpd and high rate ESPs were designed and installed to deliver the production requirement. Currently 8 of the 11 horizontal producers are on ESP lift and the remaining three wells are planned for ESP installation in the near future. Apart from two early ESP failures during installation, ESPs have had a good run life; the paper also describes lessons learnt from the infant mortalities.
The Thumbli water field, located ~20 km southeast of Mangala field has been developed to meet the water requirement of Mangala and other satellite fields. Thumbli water aquifer is a shallow water field which contains water of ~ 5000 ppm salinity with dissolved CO2, oxygen, chlorides and SRB. 5 high capacity water wells were drilled in Thumbli field to meet the huge water demand from Mangala for water injection in Mangala and satellite field injector wells, hot water circulation in oil production wells and associated water requirement for boilers etc. 1000 HP water well ESPs were designed to produce up to 60,000 bwpd from each well with installed water production capacity of up to 300,000 bwpd from Thumbli field.
Bulk-phase CO2 injection into saline aquifers can provide substantive reduction in CO2 emissions if the risk arising from aquifer pressurization is addressed adequately through mechanisms such as brine production out of the system (Anchliya 2009). While this approach addresses the risks associated with aquifer pressurization it does not address the problem of ensuring CO2 trapping as an immobile phase and its accumulation at the top of the aquifer. The performance of bulk-CO2-injection schemes highly depends on the seal-integrity assessment and presence of thief zones. The accumulated pocket of free CO2 can readily leak through a breach in the aquifer seal. Ideally, the aquifer should be monitored as long as the free CO2 is present, but if the CO2 is not immobilized, it is expected to remain underneath the seal rock for more than 1,000 years. Therefore, long-term monitoring of the seal integrity and avoiding leakage will be very costly.
To minimize the free CO2 below the caprock, we propose an engineered system to reduce aquifer pressurization and accelerate CO2 dissolution and trapping. We achieve these objectives through effective placement of brine injection and production wells to facilitate the lateral movement (hence, residual and solubility trapping) of CO2 in the aquifer and impede its upward movement. The simulation results for example engineered well configurations in this paper suggest that substantial improvements in immobilizing CO2 can be achieved through increasing enhanced solubility and residual trapping that result from better CO2-injection sweep efficiency. This approach has the potential to greatly reduce the risk of CO2 leakage both during and after injection. The controlled injection of CO2 with this technique reduces the uncertainty about the long-term fate of the injected CO2, prevents CO2 from migrating toward potential outlets or sensitive areas, and increases the volume of CO2 that can be stored in a closed aquifer volume during the CO2-injection period. Field-scale compositional simulation cases are discussed, and sensitivity studies are used to provide guidelines for well spacing and flow rates depending on aquifer properties and the volume of CO2 to be stored. Although it requires additional drilled wells, the active engineered configuration proposed for CO2 injection significantly reduces the reservoir volume required to effectively sequester a given volume of CO2, and the increase in the cost caused by additional wells is recovered by dramatic reduction in monitoring cost.
Pei, Peng (Department of Geology and Geological Engineering, University of North Dakota) | Zeng, Zhengwen (Department of Geology and Geological Engineering, University of North Dakota) | Liu, Hong (Department of Geology and Geological Engineering, University of North Dakota) | Ahmed, Salowah (Department of Geology and Geological Engineering, University of North Dakota)