Al-salali, Yousef Zaid (Kuwait Oil Company) | Ayyavoo, ManiMaran (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-ibrahim, Abdullah Reda (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Bader, Haifa (Kuwait Oil Company) | Duggirala, Vidya Sagar (Kuwait Oil Company) | Subban, Packirisamy (Kuwait Oil Company)
This paper discusses the outstanding performance achieved in a deep HPHTJurassic formation drilled using Potassium Formate based fluid. This paper alsodescribes methodology adopted for short term testing and stimulation of anexploratory well and finally the field results.
Drilling and completion of deep Jurassic formations in the state of Kuwaitis generally done with Oil Base Mud (OBM) weighted with Barite. Duringdrilling, barite causes significant formation damage to the carbonates withnatural fractures and it is essential to stimulate the well to evaluate thereal reservoir potential. Formation damage is usually treated with matrix acidstimulation, however barite does not respond to acid. Kuwait Oil Company (KOC)was in search for an alternative drilling fluid causing relatively lessformation damage and also responds to remedial actions. Potassium Formate brinewith suitable weighting agent to achieve sufficient mud weight around 16ppg wasselected for field trial in one of the exploratory wells. Formate based brineis a high-density Water Base Mud (WBM) which maintains rheological stability athigh temperature and minimizes formation damage.
Last 2,000 feet in 6" hole section of 18,000 feet well was drilled using15.9 ppg Potassium Formate WBM. During short term testing, acid wash alone wassufficient to remove the formation damage and productivity has tripled which isunlikely in case of wells drilled with OBM.
This case study shows how Potassium Formate based mud enhanced theproductivity and reduced the testing time and cost. Based on the successfulfield test results, it is planned to drill future Jurassic deep formation withPotassium Formate based fluids in future.
Whole level of the erosion and the resistance of rocks which were composed closured have been studied, besides, the impact of temperature and laser irradiation for more investigation about this issue has been involved before all. This subject more reveals the matter which laser absorption on the laboratory scale using laser to what extent can cause the augment of the relative permeability and secondary porosity of reservoir rock, that of the vertical and horizontal useful connectivity and eventually that of the positive transferability.
This research has been carried out in the form of case study on one of Iranian south west formations in north east of Behbahan city in Iran, either the rate or generation of forming the subtle and large fractures has been studied by considering and preparing this section from rocks of stratified sequence of the laboratory area before and after the laser irradiation operation and various analyzer by the means of Spectrophotometer and advanced electron microscope. It should be noted that during the erosion and ablation in the laser drilling operation in the experimental rocks of considered field, given the capability of the field, the formation and field lithology we observed the creation of fractures at the level of micro and nano simultaneously whose vacant spaces were positive, and reservoir and some others were neutral, this fractures can be created by the rate of crude oil absorption. The main purpose of this study is to advance the operations towards the higher technology in order to the better efficiency in the field of the well completion to be gained improving the rate of oil production by the introduction of this modern method of improving and fracturing reservoir which uses certain specialized parameters and indicators, and, finally, the certain method that might be a better way to use laser irradiation on our chosen formation of Iran.
Ali, Zaki (Schlumberger) | G. Bonilla, Juan Carlos (Schlumberger) | Zolotavin, Andrey (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Shammari, Reem Faraj (Kuwait Oil Company) | Robert, Herric (Schlumberger) | Saleem, Hussain A. (Kuwait Oil Company) | Farid, Ahmad (Schlumberger)
As oilfields mature and new fields come into operation, real time asset management of reserves is providing ongoing challenges to Kuwait Oil Company (KOC). Fewer engineers are managing more wells under increasingly tougher environmental conditions and compliance regulations. The combination of these factors has driven the need for KOC to make a step change in its approach to operations by incorporating digital field concepts to transform the way engineers are working. The result is the Kuwait Intelligent Digital Field initiative.
To enable KwIDF, new technologies were deployed in both mature and immature assets, creating issues in terms of interoperability and integration thereby increasing the strain on the legacy IT infrastructure. In addition, there was the requirement to isolate the SCADA industrial networks from the corporate business networks while automating traffic control with the various enterprise data systems. This ‘managed' separation complicated the delivery of productivity tools to employees and posed the greatest challenge to creating a transparent, seamless KwIDF infrastructure.
The KwIDF Jurassic project was particularly challenging since it had the most limited existing infrastructure, requiring the design and deployment of an entirely new architecture scattered over significant distances and business areas. This in turn created significant hurdles in terms of integration and compatibility with the remainder of KOC's proprietary systems and technologies. Specific efforts were required to allow KOC's network infrastructure to be capable of embracing such solutions and technologies with proper security measures in place.
Developing a network infrastructure to enable real time solutions for KwIDF Jurassic involved analyzing the specific business drivers of the asset to ensure that the capital investment not only delivered results, but did so within a secure environment. This paper presents the methodology employed by KOC's Corporate IT Group (CITG) to deliver the right network infrastructure, along with lessons learned, for enabling the Kuwait Intelligent Digital Field Jurassic project.
Abou Sayed, Nada (Petroleum Institute) | Shrestha, Reena (The Petroleum Institute) | Sarma, Hemanta Kumar (The Petroleum Institute) | Al Kindy, Nabeela (The Petroleum Institute) | Haroun, Muhammad (University of Southern California) | Abdul Kareem, Basma Ali (The Petroleum Institute) | Ansari, Arsalan Arshad (The Petroleum Institute)
EOR technologies such as CO2 flooding and chemical floods have been on the forefront of oil and gas R&D for the past 4 decades. While most of them are demonstrating very promising results in both lab scale and field pilots, the thrive for exploring additional EOR technologies while achieving full field application has yet to be achieved. Among the emerging EOR technologies is the surfactant EOR along with the application of electrically enhanced oil recovery (EEOR) which is gaining increased popularity due to a number of reservoir-related advantages such as reduction in fluid viscosity, water-cut and increased reservoir permeability.
Experiments were conducted on 1.5?? carbonate reservoir cores extracted from Abu Dhabi producing oil fields, which were saturated with medium crude oil in a specially designed EK core flood setup. Electrokinetics (DC voltage of 2V/cm) was applied on these oil saturated cores along with waterflooding simultaneously until the ultimate recovery was reached. In the second stage, the recovery was further enhanced by injecting non-ionic surfactant (APG) along with sequential application of EK. This was compared with simultaneous application of EK-assisted surfactant flooding. A smart Surfactant-EOR process was done in this study that allowed shifting from sequential to simultaneous Surfactant-EOR alongside EEOR
The experimental results at ambient conditions show that the application of waterflooding on the carbonate cores yields recovery of approximately 46-72% and an additional 8-14% incremental recovery resulted upon application of EK, which could be promising for water swept reservoirs. However, there was an additional 6-11% recovery enhanced by the application of EK-assisted surfactant flooding. In addition, EK was shown to enhance the carbonate reservoir's permeability by approximately 11-29%. Furthermore, this process can be engineered to be a greener approach as the water requirement can be reduced upto 20% in the presence of electrokinetics which is also economically feasible.
Modern active acoustic multibeam sonars have the last 1.5 years achieved amajor breakthrough in terms of performance, physical size, power consumption,uplink flexibility, processing and not least price. This now allows the tool tobe used in a much wider context during arctic subsea hydro carbonate (Oil/gas)detection, quantification and visualization. As the new generation sonar is soflexible it will easily integrate to any platform, AUV, ROV, Gliders, permanentinstallation, ship borne etc. The multibeam sonar will be capable of monitoringlarger areas and perform various tasks in an arctic oil explorationsetting.
Active acoustics can be used for various applications such as A) Reservoirfault monitoring, a good example of such an event was the Frade field spillNovember last year, under ice this would have been disastrous B) Natural seeps,this is instrumental to monitor during exploration but also during operation ofthe field C) Leakage detection on infra structure, naturally this is of greatconcern to have real time detection of leakages from critical infra structureD) Oil spill response, detection of hydro carbonate suspended in the watercolumn as well as under the ice, on seafloor E) Dispersant mixing efficiency,real time 3D monitoring of the mixing process during application of dispersantF) Major events such as the deep water horizon it is important to be able tomonitor hydro carbonate in the water column Results, Observations, andConclusions: Active acoustic test data will be shown, this will be a mix ofreal offshore data as well as laboratory based data sets. Examples of datarelevant to all the application areas described will be given Significance ofSubject Matter: Obviously those applications are highly relevant for the articexploration area.
Maqbool, Zohaib (Eastern Testing Services (Pvt.) Ltd.) | Khattak, Kifayat (Eastern Testing Services (Pvt.) Ltd.) | Malik, Javaid Hussain (Eastern Testing Services (Pvt.) Ltd.) | Ahmed, Jawad (MOL Pakistan Oil and Gas Company B.V.)
Well testing is an important tool for field appraisal, field development, reservoir surveillance and management. Some key measurements during well tests are flow rates of individual phases, fluid properties, fluid composition, flowing surface, down hole pressure and temperature etc. Analysis of this data helps in pinpointing where improvements can be made, how the productive potential of the reservoir can be enhanced and where the future investments are to be focused. So production testing campaigns of wells are to be conducted and should be conducted annually or bi-annually to get the aforesaid vital information of the well and the reservoir.
While gathering vital data during production testing, an apprehension is that the hydrocarbon produced and separated on surface should not be flared, as it can cause a huge financial loss and environmental harm. Therefore, a zero flaring concept was adopted during production in which the separated gas was safely and effectively injected back to the production line and the fluids to the storage facility.
In Pakistan, production testing is generally carried out using conventional 1440psi separator and implementing zero flaring concepts. But there are certain limitations associated with the conventional 1440 psi separators available in the country. A few of them are that they cannot be used on wells whose downstream pressure or injection line pressure is greater than the safety limit of 1440 psi separator. They cannot be used on wells with high gas rates greater than the maximum limit of conventional 1440 psi separator which is 60 MMSCFD and the same limitation applies to condensate/oil/water rate as well. For this reason there are certain fields in Northern Pakistan where production testing campaigns with zero flaring cannot be carried out due to the above mentioned limitations of 1440 psi separator.
This paper describes the introduction of the first ever High Pressure (HP) separator in Pakistan. This separator has overcome the limitations due to its high design pressure of 2160 psi and high gas and oil flow rate capacity which in 90 MMSCFD and 13000 bpd respectively. Successful field applications at three different fields in Pakistan are discussed in this paper covering lesson learned and best practices during the operations. Producing wells were tested without flaring or wasting any hydrocarbon which is harmful to environment. All the separated gas was injected back to the high pressure production line which resulted in a huge financial advantage. The application of the non-conventional high pressure separator and implementing zero flaring is proven to be a beneficial solution with huge potential for future applications in Pakistan.
A growing number of projects are employing some form of subsea processing.Integrated system approaches to subsea processing, commonly known as SubseaActive Processing Technologies (SAPT), can require a great deal of power.Subsea boosting and/or separation pumps can easily reach 3 MW each; withmultiple pump installations quickly adding up to a substantial demand on a hostfacility. When the power transmission distances approach 100 km or more, ACpower distribution becomes less and less practical. For this reason, powerindustry leaders envision the future installation of offshore electricalutility infrastructures based on High Voltage DC (HVDC) TransmissionTechnology, just as they are presently employed for land based utilities.Taking advantage of these large HVDC offshore power grids for small, isolatedsubsea installations requiring only moderate power levels calls for adaptingHVDC technology to a scale sized to the power requirements of theseinstallations. The HVDC Power Buoy concept, proposed for isolated SAPTinstallations requiring subsea power in the range of 10 to 20 MW, is one suchadaptation. This paper will present the HVDC Power Buoy concept and its keycomponents; the benefits and drivers for its development; the perceivedqualification challenges as well as the target applications for thetechnology.
Sherwani, Waseem Akhtar (Eastern Testing Service (Pvt) Limited) | Qureshi, Imran (Eastern Testing Service (Pvt) Limited) | Khattak, Kifayatullah (Eastern Testing Service (Pvt) Limited) | Ali, Abdul Salam (Eastern Testing Service (Pvt) Limited) | Ali, Syed Dost (Pakistan Petroleum Limited)
Well control is the management of the hazardous effects caused by the unexpected well release. In a production well, downhole safety valve and X-mass tree are considered the main barriers against the well release in the event of a worst case scenario surface disaster. Inadequate risk management and improperly managed well control situations cause blowouts, potentially resulting in a fire hazard.
This paper describes a case history of a production well where a tubing string was eroded severely during production phase. The problem was detected while attempting to retrieve the separation sleeve in the long string which was not accessible at the required depth. Downhole camera indicated that 90% of the long string had been eroded and remaining 10% is connected with the flow coupling. Thus, full workover job was required to replace tubing strings. However, the lack of well control barrier in the tubing to prevent uncontrolled flow of hydrocarbons prior to blowout preventer (BOP) installation for the workover was a serious safety concern.
Introduction of Nippleless Tubing-Stop Plug technology provide an effective, safe and economical remedial solution to the problem.
As part of well control standard, double barrier policy is always maintained on the well to avoid unwanted and uncontrolled flow from the well. Before any work over, the well must first be killed as a first well control barrier. A second barrier is required to prevent communication from the wellbore to surface once the wellhead is removed. Tubing plug is an effective second barrier used to isolate the wellbore pressure from tubing.
NIPPLELESS PLUG TECHNOLOGY DEPLOYMENT
In the past, the tubing plug's lock systems have been designed in which landing nipples or profiles are provided along the tubing string's interior surface, and wherein a lock/ plug will be placed in the nipple or profile. However, placement of a lock of this type is limited to those points along the string at which an appropriate nipple or profile is located. In cases where tubing string is damaged or eroded where nipple or profile is no longer usable, the common tubing plug can no longer be a barrier device.
Introduction of "Nippleless?? plugs addressed this issue because they do not require the presence of a nipple or profile to be set within a string. Nippleless plug offer the capability to set plugs at any depth or point within well.
Coiled Tubing - No abstract available.