Fracture ballooning usually occurs in naturally fractured reservoirs and is often mistakenly regarded as an influx of formation fluid, which may lead to misdiagnosed results in costly operations. In order to treat this phenomenon and to distinguish it from conventional losses or kicks, several mechanisms and models have been developed. Among these mechanisms under which borehole ballooning in naturally fractured reservoirs take place, opening/closing of natural fractures plays a dominant role. In this study a mathematical model is developed for mud invasion through an arbitrarily inclined, deformable, rectangular fracture with a limited extension. A governing equation is derived based on equations of change and lubrication approximation theory (Reynolds’s Equation). The equation is then solved numerically using finite difference method. Considering an exponential pressure-aperture deformation law and a yield-power-law fluid rheology has made this model more general and much closer to the reality than the previous ones. Describing fluid rheology with yield-power-law model makes the governing equation a versatile model because it includes various types of drilling mud rheology, i.e., Newtonian fluids, Bingham-plastic fluids, power-law, and yield-power-law rheological models. Sensitivity analysis on some parameters related to the physical properties of the fracture shows how fracture extension, aspect ratio and length, and location of wellbore can influence fracture ballooning. The proposed model can also be useful for minimizing the amount of mud loss by understanding the effect of fracture mechanical parameters on the ballooning, and for predicting rate of mud loss at different formation pressures.
Well control events are predominantly detected through surface measurements. Measuring an increase in the ‘closed loop' mud circulation system, a standpipe pressure decrease or changes in a variety of drilling parameters provide identification of a kick. Especially in deepwater, where the riser comprises a substantial section of the wellbore, early kick detection is paramount to limiting the severity of a wellbore influx and improving the ability to regain well control.
While downhole data is presently available from downhole tools near the bit, available data rates are sparse as mud pulse telemetry bandwidth is limited and wellbore measurements compete with transmission of other subsurface data. Further, data transfer is only in one-direction, latency is significant and conditions along the string are unknown.
This paper describes the use of a high-bandwidth downhole data transmission system via a wired or networked drillstring system that is uniquely equipped with real-time pressure and temperature measurement capability at many locations all along the drillstring. This system provides high-resolution downhole data available at a very high speed, eliminating latency and restrictions that typically limit the availability of downhole data.
The along-string data acquisition and broadband communication via the networked drillstring provides real-time downhole data independently from surface measurements which aid to identify, analyze, and control a wellbore influx. First, the system aids in identifyingpore pressure, fracture gradient and safe drilling margin. Second, the independent measurement capability provides early kick detection with distinction from ballooning and improves the ability to analyze and control an influx - even with heterogeneous mud column - through the ‘direct measurement method'. Third, during tripping operations that are associated with approximately 25% of all well control events, downhole data is now available to provide early kick detection.
Fracture ballooning usually occurs in naturally fractured reservoirs and is often mistakenly regarded as an influx of formation fluid, which may result in misdiagnosed costly operations. Several models have been developed to treat this phenomenon and distinguish it from conventional losses or kicks. Among these borehole ballooning models and mechanisms, opening/closing of natural fractures is considered to have the main role in naturally fractured reservoirs.
In this study a mathematical model is developed for mud invasion through a disk-shaped and deformable fracture with two impermeable walls and a limited extension. A governing equation is derived based on the lubrication approximation theory (Reynolds's Equation) for radial flow in a single fracture. Considering an exponential deformation law to describe the pressure-aperture relationship, and a yield-power-law model to describe mud rheology, makes this model more general and much closer to the reality than the previous ones. Describing the fluid rheology with yield-power-law model turns the governing equation into a versatile model as it includes various types of drilling mud rheology.
The governing equation is solved numerically using finite difference method. Results show how different parameters can affect fracture ballooning and volume and rate of mud loss/gain. The effects of several parameters related to the mechanical properties of the fracture are analyzed. Shortcomings of the proposed model are outlined.
Drilling through naturally fractured formations causes significant mud loss. The mud loss happens mainly due to the flow into the fractures and a small amount of leak-off into the matrix or wall of the fracture; the leak-off through the matrix depends on the porosity of the matrix but more or less it can be ignored in comparison with the amount of loss through the fractures. Fracture ballooning/breathing or fracture deformation is one of the main mechanisms under which the mud loss/gain occurs while drilling fractured formations. Fracture ballooning corresponds to inflating of a balloon; it occurs when the bottom hole is pressurized and drilling fluid flows into the fracture. Fracture breathing occurs when the rate of mud circulation is decreased and drilling fluid flows out of the fracture. Usually any flow during drilling is interpreted as an influx of the formation fluid and the common cure is to increase the mud weight and to insure an adequate overbalance (Majidi, et al, 2008); but if this influx is due to the mud gain, this kind of treating and controlling not only is not appropriate but also will worsen the situation. Therefore a quantitative analysis of mud gain/loss based on a mathematical model, which describes the physical phenomenon and mechanism under which flow within the fractures happens, is necessary to distinguish mud gain from flowing of formation fluid.