Shubham, Agrawal (Texas A&M University at Qatar) | Martavaltzi, Christina (Texas A&M University at Qatar) | Dakik, Ahmad Rafic (Texas A&M University at Qatar) | Gupta, Anuj (Texas A&M University at Qatar)
It is well known that the majority of carbonate reservoirs are neutral to oil-wet. This leads to much lower oil recovery during waterflooding since there is no spontaneous imbibition of water in heterogeneous reservoir displacement. It has been verified by a number of researchers that Adjustment of ion concentration in brine solutions, or adding surfactant solutions can enhance the oil recovery by altering the wettability. In the published literature, contact angle studies usually refer to measurement on calcite crystals and there are no results for the contact angle of carbonate porous media representative of reservoir rocks. Moreover, there are few studies on the effect of non-ionic surfactants, compared to those for ionic surfactants. Understanding the effect of various ions and their concentration in the injection brine on the wettability of the Limestone outcrop core samples is the first step for tailoring of the optimum injection brine. This will be followed by a study of the effect of surfactant on the wettability of calcite crystal samples. The evaluation of the results may provide guidelines for the design of injection brines for efficient enhanced oil recovery from carbonate reservoirs.
In this work, a procedure is established for the measurement of the contact angle on limestone outcrop core samples. Results showed that, at atmospheric conditions, low salinity CaCl2 solution induced the most significant improvement on the wettability of the outcrop sample. Moreover, among all the non-ionic surfactants studied, only the presence of the two first members of the 15S analogous series might lead to a slight decrease of the contact angle.
Ahmad, Khalid (Kuwait Oil Company) | Ferdous, Hasan (Kuwait Oil Company) | Llerena, Javier (Kuwait Oil Company) | Ahmad, Fatma (Kuwait Oil Company) | Chaudhary, Pradeep (Kuwait Oil Company) | Abbas, Faisal (Kuwait Oil Company) | Sammak, Ibrahim (Kuwait Oil Company)
One pilot study presently being conducted through CSS thermal recovery technology to explore a shallow poorly-consolidated viscous oil bearing sandstone reservoir in Kuwait with extensive integrated reservoir evaluation efforts to optimize the future development strategy.
The reservoir largely consists of two separate deltaic sand packages representing multi-stacked channel facies resulting to stratified reservoir intervals with variable degree of fluid saturations. Reservoir characterization uncovers high matrix contents along with calcite, dolomite, and clays as cements which essentially control uneven pore-geometry that fabricate the petrofacies types into multiple thin stratified-pay intervals, each being < 30' thick with variable fluid saturations resulting from long transitional thief zones posing high risk for thermal recovery. Thus, a seemingly simple channel-based reservoir interval has been greatly altered by diagenetic episodes that need evaluation towards an arduous perforation, completion and production strategy to pursuit the well-defined individual thin pay-interval.
Single-well thermal recovery scheme under "injection-soak-production?? sequence being conducted presently in three vertical wells, each subjected to first cycle injection of moderate quality steam (~75% at 4200 F) at rates 400 to 600 barrels EW/d at about 450 psig injection pressure for 26 to 71 days, followed by a soak period of 10 to 60 days. Subsequent total production estimates SOR between 0.2 and 0.9. In two wells, cumulative oil/water productions and 15% to 34% water cut indicate an excellent response to thermal stimulation. The encouraging injection parameters of steam slug size, high injection rates at low pressures, and subsequent productions provide valuable information towards upcoming second cycle injection and future steam flood strategy.
The ongoing CSS pilot is providing some critical information for the future commercial development phase. As such, all pertinent data are closely evaluated to ensuring the optimal strategy to meet the long-term development plan for this viscous oil asset.
Fitts, J.P. (Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Princeton University) | Ellis, B.R. (Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Princeton University) | Deng, H. (Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Princeton University) | Peters, C.A. (Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Princeton University)
Many waterflood projects now experience significant amounts of water cut, with more water than hydrocarbon flowing between the injectors and producers. In addition to the impact on water viscosity and density that results from using different injection-water sources during a field's life, water chemistry itself may impact oil recovery, as demonstrated by recent research on low-salinity water-injection schemes. It is also known that water chemistry has a profound impact on various chemical enhanced-oil-recovery (EOR) processes. Moreover, the effectiveness and viability of such EOR schemes is strongly dependent on reservoir-brine and injection-water compositions. In particular, the presence of divalent cations such as Ca+2 and Mg+2 has a significantly adverse effect for chemical EORs. Using new developments in reservoir simulation, this paper outlines a method to couple geochemical reactions in a reservoir simulator in black-oil and compositional modes suitable for large-scale reservoir models for waterflood and EOR studies. The new multicomponent reactive-transport modeling capability considers chemical reactions triggered by injection water and/or injected reactive gases such as CO2 and H2S, including mineral dissolution and precipitation, cation exchange, and surface complexation.
For waterflood-performance assessment, the new modeling capability makes possible a more-optimum evaluation of petrophysical logs for well intervals where injection-water invasion is suspected. By modeling transport of individual species in the aqueous phase from injectors to producers, reservoir characterization can also be improved through the use of these natural tracers, provided that the compositions of the actual produced water are used in the history matching. The simulated water compositions in producers can also be used by production chemists to assess scaling and corrosion risks. For CO2 EOR studies, we illustrate chemical changes inside a reservoir and in the produced water before and after CO2 breakthrough, and discuss geochemical monitoring as a potential surveillance tool. Alkaline-flood-induced water chemical changes and calcite precipitation are also presented to illustrate applicability for chemical EOR with the new simulation capability.
Fan, Chunfang (Rice University) | Kan, Amy (Rice University) | Zhang, Ping (Rice University) | Lu, Haiping (Rice University) | Work, Sarah (Rice University) | Yu, Jie (Rice University) | Tomson, Mason (Rice University)
With the advance of new exploration and production technologies, oil and gas production has gone to deeper and tighter formations than ever before. These developments have also brought challenges in scale prediction and inhibition, such as the prevention of scale formation at high temperatures (150-200°C), pressures (1,000-1,500 bar), and total dissolved solids (TDS) (>300,000 mg/L) commonly experienced at these depths. This paper will discuss (1) the challenges of scale prediction at high temperatures, pressures, and TDS; (2) an efficient method to study the nucleation kinetics of scale formation and inhibition at these conditions; and (3) the kinetics of barite-crystal nucleation and precipitation in the presence of various scale inhibitors and the effectiveness of those inhibitors. In this study, nine scale inhibitors have been evaluated at 70-200°C to determine if they can successfully prevent barite precipitation. The results show that only a few inhibitors can effectively inhibit barite formation at 200°C. Although it is commonly believed that phosphonate scale inhibitors may not work for high-temperature inhibition applications, the results from this study suggest that barite-scale inhibition by phosphonate inhibitors was not impaired at 200°C under strictly anoxic condition in NaCl brine. However, phosphonate inhibitors can precipitate with Ca2+ at high temperatures and, hence, can reduce efficiency. In addition, the relationships of scale inhibition to types of inhibitors and temperature are explored in this study. This paper addresses the limits of the current predition of mineral solubility at high-temperature/high-pressure (HT/HP) conditions and sheds light on inhibitior selection for HT/HP application. The findings from this paper can be used as guidelines for applications in an HT/HP oilfield environment.
Scale prevention is important to ensure continuous production from existing reserves that produce brine. Wells could be abandoned prematurely because of poor management of scale and corrosion. The objective of this paper is to present an overview of scale prediction and control and the current research at Rice University to solve these problems. In this paper, the challenges of scale prediction at high temperature, high pressure, and high total dissolved solids (TDS) and an accurate model to predict pH, scale indices, density, and inhibitor needs at these conditions are discussed and reviewed: specifically discussed are (1) the various scale types found in oil and gas production and the condition under which they form; (2) the relationship of pH, alkalinity, organic acids, carbonates, and CO2 distribution; (3) the temperature (T), pressure (P), TDS dependence of the thermodynamic equilibrium constants and activity coefficients; and (4) the accuracy of the Pitzer ion-interaction model-based scale-prediction algorithms and their application. On the basis of a simple propagation of error estimation, the overall estimated error for calcite saturation index (SI) is ± 0.1. This algorithm has been validated with literature solubility data for six minerals in the T, P, and TDS range of 0 to 200°C, 0 to 15,000 psia, and 0 to 350 000 mg/L TDS; for pH data at 25 and 60°C; and density of weighting fluids with density between 8 and 12.7 lbm/gal.
In order to assess scaling risk in pipes, a better understanding of scale deposition kinetics on steel surface under realistic and complex oil field condition is needed. In this paper, we introduce the development of a novel CaCO3 pre-coated steel tubing for studies of CaCO3 crystal growth kinetics and inhibition kinetics at oilfield conditions. This approach provides a relatively stable surface area and eliminates the limits of laboratory batch experiments. Initially, the heterogeneous precipitation rate of CaCO3 from a supersaturated solution (Calcite SI=0.3-0.7) was evaluated at specific temperatures (60-80???C), linear velocities (0.01-0.75 cm/sec), and ionic strengths (0.1-1M). The curve fitted heterogeneous precipitation rate constant, kppt, ranged from 10 -5 to10 -4 cm/sec. The results are comparable to that calculated from the Sieder and Tate equation, which indicates that the crystal growth was dominated by mass transfer rate. With the injection of scale inhibitors for one hour through the pre-coated tubing, the calcium carbonate precipitation can be prevented for days, and the crystal growth rate can be significantly slowed down. Not only does this study contribute to the limited data base of scaling kinetics in actual flowing pipes, but also provides a new approach to better understand the inhibitor reaction with the subsurface. The approach and results will assist in the prediction of scaling risk as a function of brine composition, well conditions and scale inhibitor composition, which will improve our ability to predict the severity of scale risk, including the rate of scaling, minimum blockage time, and thus the minimum inhibitory concentration needed in actual flowing pipes.
The ultra-high temperature (150-250oC), pressure (1,000-2,000 bar, 15,000 to 30,000 psi) and TDS (>300,000 mg/L) in deepwater oil and gas production pose significant challenges to scaling control due to limited knowledge of mineral solubility, kinetics and inhibitor efficiency at these extreme conditions. Prediction of thermodynamic properties of common minerals is currently limited by lack of experimental data and inadequate understanding of modeling parameters. In this study, a new apparatus was built to test scale formation and inhibition at high temperatures and pressures. Solubilities of two common minerals, barite and calcite, were tested at temperature up to 250oC, pressure up to 1,500 bar (22,000 psi) and ionic strength up to 6m in solutions with elevated concentrations of mixed electrolytes (e.g., calcium, magnesium, sulfate and carbonate) representing the maximum range of interferences expected (95%CI) in oil and gas wells. As an attempt towards experimentally determining mineral solubility at high temperature, pressure and salinity, not only does this study contribute to the extremely limited data base, but it also provides a reliable approach for evaluating and adjusting model predictions at extreme conditions. Predictions by a thermodynamic model based on Pitzer's ion interaction theory were evaluated using experimental data. The dependence of Pitzer's coefficients for ion activity coefficients on temperature and pressure was examined and incorporated into the scale prediction model, whose prediction is consistent with both experimental and literature data at all conditions tested.