Pressure maintenance support in mature fields where permeability heterogeneity is present requires proper distribution of injected water into the respective zones of interest. This process can be extremely challenging, if no method for allocating the proper amount of water into each zone is available. An operator in the South China Sea, who had initiated a water injection project using legacy single-string two-zone completion technologies, found himself in this predicament, since no selective control for pressure maintenance had been considered for the project.
During the past few years, the application of intelligent completion (IC) technology has increased rapidly. This acceptance has been due primarily to its proven capabilities for reservoir monitoring and corresponding optimization of well performance without well interventions. Historically, the majority of IC applications have been in production wells; however, an increasing number of operators have started adopting IC technology for their injector wells.
This paper presents a case study in which IC technology was successfully applied in an offshore field in the South China Sea to provide an efficient water-injection method for optimizing pressure support as well as sweep. The operator selected this technology, as it presented a solution for optimizing the water injection. In addition to eliminating problems experienced with the incapability of the legacy completion technology to monitor water allocation and pressure maintenance for each zone, the IC technology would allow selective well testing for each zone. By evaluating the reservoir properties and characteristics of each zone independently, an intelligent completion would provide another key benefit to the operator, since it would comply with the platform size restrictions for the pumping equipment.
The paper will discuss field objectives, the conceptual design, the design obstacles, and the operational challenges experienced during the job execution.
A multilateral (MLT) well with an advanced intelligent completion string was recently completed in the Middle East. The well was designed as a "stacked?? dual producer in the upper and lower reservoir, and was drilled using the latest geo-steering techniques to accurately place the wellbore in a highly faulted and geologically complex structure. Rotary-steerable drilling systems (RSS) were used in several of the hole sections, along with advanced logging-while-drilling (LWD) tools including multi-pole acoustic, azimuthal deep resistivity, and resistivity at bit. Encounters with unstable shale and faults made the drilling difficult, but the decisions made in real-time to navigate the well resulted in a very high percentage of net pay in both laterals.
This well combined TAML Level 4 multilateral (MLT) technology with passive inflow control devices in the laterals and an advanced intelligent completion system in the mainbore. The TAML Level 4 multilateral junction was cemented to isolate unstable shale above the reservoir and to provide zonal isolation from the lateral completions, which were compartmentalized into stages with proprietary swellable packers and inflow control devices (ICDs). The intelligent completion was run in the mainbore with two interval control valves (ICVs) and isolation ball valve (LV ICV) to manage the production from each of the two laterals independently. The ICVs and LV ICV are controlled hydraulically through four control lines to surface, which were run in a flat-pack with one electric line to control a downhole gauge package for each lateral. Finally, the well was configured to allow the installation of a large electric submersible pump (ESP) to be run inside the upper 9-5/8-in. production tubing.
This project required intensive planning and coordination for more than a year in advance, which made the project successful despite the difficult drilling conditions and resulted in very little NPT for wellbore construction operations. This paper will focus on the planning, execution and lessons learned from the project.
In the existing horizontal wells in the target sand reservoir of the target field, premature water breakthrough caused the water cut trend to increase within months of production. . This occurred because the reservoir has a very high permeability sands along with active faults containing high viscous reservoir fluids.
New technologies were required to overcome the issue, maximize reservoir contact and enhance a more uniform oil production from a single location. Introducing the smart TAML Level-4 MLT well design to this reservoir along with inflow control device (ICD), inflow control valve (ICV), isolation ball valve (LV ICV) and other downhole gauges proved to be the optimum solution. It also aided in managing the production and the reservoir proactively to achieve maximum oil recovery. Moreover, drilling several laterals from a single wellbore with the ability to control production from both laterals had a great economic advantage because of the optimized cost effective field management.
Influenced by the success of shale gas production worldwide and to meet requirements for clean energy supply, a multidisciplinary team of petroleum specialists was established in Saudi Aramco. Meeting the growing requirement in industrial consumption and especially electricity production is driving force for developing unconventional gas reserves. "The initial focus is in the northwest and in the area of Ghawar, where gas infrastructure exists. Initial knowledge building from similar plays in North America is being supplemented with internal technical studies and research programs to help solve geological and engineering challenges unique to Saudi Arabia and to locate specific wells planned for 2011. The company is innovatively combining knowledge and research to maximize gas reserves and production from conventional and unconventional resources in order to meet growing domestic demand.?? 
During years 2010 - 2011 major international petroleum industry players - Schlumberger, Halliburton and Baker Hughes - were invited to share their experience in a series of workshops held in Dhahran. Exchange of expert ideas developed into appreciation of complexity of the shale gas reservoir and helped to identify the scope of work for the first Silurian Qusaiba shale gas well. The SHALE-1 well was drilled in 2007 as a gas exploration well. Recent drilling and geophysical data obtained in the well were beneficial for detailed sidetrack and fracture stimulation design.
The Multidisciplinary Saudi Aramco - Halliburton SHALE-1 task group was established and positioned in Dhahran. This allowed them to have regular face-to-face meetings and improve the most critical criteria of any new venture - communication. The draft work plan was developed 8 months before actual operations commenced on the well site. Thorough examination of the draft work plan progressed to the final work plan with a number of improvements. For example, "R?? Nipples were dropped from the monobore 4-1/2?? completion string. The Frac Stimulation design was fine-tuned, involving expertise from Saudi Aramco and Halliburton. The Complete Well on Paper exercise involved over 25 specialists from both sides and helped to rectify remaining completion/stimulation design issues, and put everyone on the same page in terms of the work program. Well site operations commenced in May 2011; the well was successfully re-entered and window cut in 7?? liner. An S-shaped 5-7/8?? hole was drilled in the direction of minimum horizontal stresses, to the required depth in Qusaiba Shale with a maximum DLS of 4°. The well was completed with 4-1/2?? cemented liner and monobore 4-1/2?? string to surface. The Hot Qusaiba interval was perforated; frac stimulated with mixed results and successfully flowed. A temporary isolation FasDrill plug was set above the perforation interval. The Warm Qusaiba interval was perforated; successfully frac stimulated and flowed with mixed results. Finally, the FasDrill plug was drilled out with CTU and both intervals flowed and required production log runs.
All targets set for the SHALE-1 re-entry well were successfully achieved and the well was suspended for future utilization as an observation well.
Widening supply and demand gap in natural gas industry, the advent of tight gas policy and increasing interest of operators in tight gas sands and shale has opened new venues for development of unconventional plays in Pakistan.
Middle Indus Basin hosts important gas fields of Pakistan. Most of the wells in this basin are completed in conventional lower Goru Sands. Lower Goru formation consists of inter-bedded sequences of sands and shale. Its unconventional sand and shale plays hold immense potential which has not yet been exploited due to lack of technology and promising economics. Moreover, Sembar shale is the well known source rock in this basin holding large shale gas potential. GIIP estimates for Lower Goru tight sands excluding the shale prospects are 8.4 TCF which are considered pessimistic due to lack of data in many fields.
From the currently suspended or abandoned wellbores of the Middle Indus Basin, a pilot project needs to be defined in each of the fields, to prove the technical and economical feasibility of tight Gas Potential of the Basin. Commencement of production from unconventional sands will enhance the production in a cost effective manner due to availability of infrastructure and facilities.
This paper focuses on the utilization of existing wellbores as well as data set and highlighting additional data acquisition requirements coupled with completion and multi-stage fracturing techniques for designing a pilot project. Case study of a pilot project in one of the fields of this basin is discussed. It encompasses the basic workflow, candidate selection criterion, Geo-mechanics, sector modeling, hydraulic fracture design and risk evaluation coupled with its use in full field development projects.
Background and Introduction
Pakistan's last year 2010-2011 production was about 3.91bcf/d, while its demand was (4.2bcf/d) and supply gap was also started. Since then the production from the conventional fields has decreased, while demand has been increased due to infrastructure and human needs. This huge shortfall in the gas market cannot be fulfilled with existing number of completions/producers. The conventional reserves of the country were 56 TCF out of which the country has already produced 50% of its conventional reserves. The recoverable remaining reserves are 24-28TCF, but will be produced at much lower production rate and in much longer period of time. The country has an infrastructure of Gas Processing Facilities 5bcf/d.
The explosive growth of shale gas production in the US has sparked a global race to determine which other regions from around the world have the potential to replicate this success. One of the main areas of focus is the Asia Pacific region, specifically Pakistan.
In this paper, real results from seven different US shale basins- Marcellus, Eagle Ford, Haynesville, Barnett, Woodford (West-Central Oklahoma), Fayetteville and Bakken- have been used to develop a comprehensive sequence of shale exploitation strategy for emerging shale plays. The study involves integration of shale gas exploitation knowledge reinforced by a decade of experience across most of the North American shale gas basins, with published data. Different reservoir properties have been compared to develop a comprehensive logic of the effective techniques to produce from shale-gas reservoirs. We have validated the sequence with real results from US shale production ventures, published case histories, and by global experts who have been directly involved in shale reserves evaluation and production.
Subsequently, several different reservoir attributes of Pakistan shale plays have been compared with US basins, in an attempt to identify analogues.
It is the intent of this paper to diminish the difficult and often expensive learning cycle time associated with a commercially successful shale project, as well as to attempt to illustrate the most influential factors that determine optimum production. A very few papers in the petroleum literature that provide an extensive and systematic approach towards shale exploitation strategy for given shale-reservoir conditions
Encouraged by the U.S. successful experience with shale plays, many Asia Pacific countries including China and India - having 1275 & 63 TCF of technically recoverable Shale gas respectively - have already started off with aggressive plans to exploit their vast shale reserves.
Pakistan is currently suffering an energy shortfall of 2.3 BCF and the energy demand is expected to increase further by 245% until 2022, as compared to 2008. As its conventional reserves deplete, there is a need to work on new frontiers of energy sources. Unconventional gas resources, such as shale gas, tight gas and coal bed methane, are the avenues that should be focused on, in the current scenario.
According to EIA estimates, Pakistan's total Risked Gas in Place is 206 TCF, while its Technically Producible Shale Reserves are 51 TCF. It is interesting to compare these postulations with the Sui gas field serving the energy needs of Pakistan for decades, and having an estimated original recoverable reserve of 12 TCF. However, efforts to develop this potential resource have been lacking perhaps due to the economic and technological challenges.
Abahusayn, Mishal (K&M Technology Group) | Foster, Brandon (K&M Technology Group) | Brink, Jason (ENI Petroleum U.S. Operating) | Kuck, Marc (ENI Petroleum U.S. Operating) | Longo, Joseph (ENI Petroleum U.S. Operating)
A 52-well heavy-oil field development that targeted shallow--a 3,400- to 4,000-ft true vertical depth (TVD)--sands on the North Slope of Alaska was initiated in 2008. Horizontal wells of 11,000- to 13,000-ft measured depth (MD) were drilled early in the program. These initial wells served as "data-gathering and technology-proving" opportunities leading up to the eventual 23,000-ft-MD wells. Key technical challenges include equivalentcirculating- density (ECD) and drag management. ECD management became essential in the 8 1/2-in. productionhole section of the longer wells. A relatively narrow (less than 600 psi) mud-weight (MW) window necessitated changes to casing, drillstring, drilling fluids, and operational parameters. Lighter-weight production casing allowed the drilling of a larger production hole (8 3/4-in. vs. 8 1/2-in.). A tapered drillstring, reduced mud rheology, and reduced flow rate all became a necessary part of the ECD management solution. Advanced drag-management techniques are required to install the 9 5/8-in. production casing, 5 1/2-in. production liner, and 4 1/2- x 3/1/2-in. intelligent inner-string completion. The 9 5/8-in. casing is installed by use of the "buoyancy assist" method (i.e., "flotation") so it may be "pushed" and reamed in the hole beyond the point of negative weight. The lower completion consists of a 5 1/2-in. slotted liner with swell packers. Centralizers on the liner were changed from nonrotating to fixed, which allowed breaking axial drag while reaming the liners to depth. Extensive torque-and-drag modeling was used to plan intelligent inner-string completions on the injector wells, which included injection control devices, swell packers, and a fiber-optic distributed temperature sensor (DTS) to monitor injectivity. This full-length paper discusses the technical challenges, welldesign solutions, and operational practices that were trialed and implemented to enable extended-reach wells to be successfully drilled on the edge of the industry-experience envelope, with all wells meeting targeted objectives.
Aranha, Pedro Esteves (Petrobras) | Miranda, Cristiane (Petrobras) | Cardoso, Walter (Petrobras) | Campos, Gilson (Petrobras) | Martins, Andre (Petrobras) | Gomes, Frederico Carvalho (Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro) | de Araujo, Simone Bochner (Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro) | Carvalho, Marcio (Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro)
Displacing fluids in downhole conditions and for long distances is a complex task, affecting several steps of well construction. Cementing gains relevance the moment that fluid contamination compromises cement-sheath integrity and consequently zonal isolation. Density and rheology design for all the fluids involved is essential to achieve operational success. Properties hierarchy and preferred flow regimes have been empirically defined and tend to provide reasonable generic results. Challenging operations, including ultradeep waters and their narrow operational-window scenario, require further knowledge of the physics involved to prevent undesirable events. This paper presents the in-house development of software for annular miscible fluid displacement that analyzes fluid displacement in typical vertical and directional offshore wells, for Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids and laminar- and turbulent-flow regimes. The formulation proposed provides accurate results for a wide range of input parameters, including the cases in which the ratio of the inner radious to the outer radius of the annulus is small. The computational work is validated by unique results obtained from an experimental test rig where detailed displacement tests were conducted. Contamination degrees were measured after the displacement of a sequence of fluids through 1192 m of vertical well. Effect of fluid-density and rheology hierarchy, flow regimes, and displacement concepts was investigated. The results provide relevant information for the industry and fundamental understanding on displacement of Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids through annular sections.
Jardim Neto, Abrahao T. (Baker Hughes) | Prata, Fernando Gaspar M. (Baker Hughes) | Gomez, Julio (Baker Hughes) | Pedroso, Carlos A. (Petrobras) | Martins, Marcio (Petrobras) | Silva, Dayana N. (Petrobras)
Operators developing reservoirs and producing them from deep and ultradeepwater wells are pushing the technical limits regarding horizontal extension. Deepwater wells completed in unconsolidated formations usually have low fracture gradients, severe leakoff zones, and/or significant washouts. Long horizontal open holes, therefore, may become technically difficult or economically unfeasible to gravel-pack with the use of conventional fluids and gravels. Typical completions in offshore Brazil start from a 95=8- or 103=4-in. casing, in which a 51=2-in. premium screen and tubular string is hung along an open hole drilled with an 81=2- or 91=2-in. bit. Horizontal extensions range from 980 to 4,000 ft. A variety of openhole gravel-pack techniques proved to be complex and costly, but ultralightweight (ULW) proppants have enabled simpler and more-cost-effective gravel packing in these longer horizontal open holes. The reduced gravel density allows a significant reduction in pumping rate that avoids fracturing the formation, minimizes fluid loss, and eliminates the risk of premature screenout caused by excessive gravel settling. ULW-proppant technology was introduced to Brazil in 2005 and has been applied successfully to gravel pack wells under extreme conditions such as low fracture gradient, severe fluid loss, and washed-out zones. ProppantULW-1.25 has proved to be effective for packing wells with narrow sections through the openhole interval, frequently found in horizontal wells completed through shale zones that are isolated by reactive packers and/or mechanical external casing packers. ULW-1.75 was introduced in Brazil in 2007 and has largely replaced ULW-1.25 for gravel packing wells in which an improvement in the operational pumping window is required. A combined package comprising ULW-1.75 during the alpha-wave phase and ULW-1.25 during the beta-wave phase is also discussed. This paper summarizes the procedures and results of almost 60 wells that have been gravel packed with the use of ULW-proppant technology pumped for a local operator.
Technology Update - No abstract available.
This article, written by Senior Technology Editor Dennis Denney, contains highlights of paper SPE 144774, "History Matching and Production Forecasting With Logs: Effective Completion and Reservoir-Management Tools for Horizontal and Vertical Wells," by Carlos F. Haro, SPE, Occidental Oil & Gas, prepared for the 2011 SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, 30 October-2 November. See SPE Res Eval & Eng, October 2012, page 596.