The Ichthys LNG Project
INPEX has begun construction of one of the world's largest oil and gas projects following the Final Investment Decision (FID) on the US $34 Billion Ichthys LNG Project in Australia on 13 January 2012. The Ichthys LNG Project is a joint venture between INPEX (Operator) and Total with Tokyo Gas, Osaka Gas, Chubu Electric and Toho Gas.
The Ichthys Field is situated in the Timor Sea approximately 200 kilometers off the Western Australian coast and over 800 kilometers from Darwin. Three exploratory wells drilled in 2000 and 2001 resulted in the discovery of an extremely promising gas and condensate field with resource estimates from two reservoirs totaling approximately 12TCF of gas and 500 million barrels of condensate. Conceptual studies, FEED and ITT followed and development leading to sanctioning of the Ichthys LNG Project by INPEX and Total.
Gas from the Ichthys Gas-Condensate Field in the Browse Basin will undergo preliminary processing offshore to remove water and extract condensate. The gas will then be exported to onshore processing facilities in Darwin via an 889 kilometer subsea Gas Export Pipeline (GEP). Most condensate will be sent to a Floating Production Storage and Offloading (FPSO) vessel for stabilization and storage prior to being shipped to global markets. The Ichthys LNG Project is expected to produce 8.4 million tons of LNG and 1.6 million tons of LPG per annum, along with approximately 100,000 barrels of condensate per day at peak.
Production from 20 subsea wells in the first phase - 50 will be drilled in total - will be sent to the Central Processing Facility via 8?? rigid lines connected to flexible risers. The flexibles will be supported by a 110 meter high jacket type riser support structure. You see, no aspect of the Ichthys LNG Project is small.
Effluents will be separated on the Central Processing Facility (CPF), a semi-submersible floater. Gas will be dried and compressed prior to being sent ashore via a GEP. Compression will be from four compressors, designed for 590.7 MMSCFD. Following initial treatment, most liquids will be transferred from the CPF to the nearby FPSO for processing and storage. The 330 meter-long FPSO will be a weather-vaning ship-shaped vessel that is permanently moored on a non-disconnectable turret. It has been designed with a storage capacity of nearly 1.2 million barrels. Loading of two offtake tankers in tandem will be possible from the FPSO.
This paper describes a novel instrumental technique using astronomical cameras modified to monitor the whole-of-sky light emissions visible to marine turtles nesting near industrial developments in Western Australia. The results provide quantitative and qualitative data on specific light sources including sky glow which cannot be otherwise be measured in a field setting. The quantitative and qualitative results provide environmental practitioners and managers with the first reliable tool with which to monitor light emissions. This instrumental method has application well beyond marine turtles and can be used to measure and monitor light in any setting and for any receptor (wildlife or human) exposed to light, either astral or artificial.
In May 2011 Shell announced its commitment to the development of a Floating Liquefied Natural Gas (FLNG) concept by taking the Financial Investment Decision on the Prelude FLNG Project. Prelude is located in Australian offshore waters, approximately 475 km north-northeast of Broome and 825 km west of Darwin, and will be Shell's and possibly the world's first FLNG development. FLNG offers a number of environmental advantages over traditional onshore LNG developments. This paper describes some of these and the associated environmental permitting/approval conditions for the project.
The bulk of Chevron Australia's field operations are carried out in hot areas of Western Australia (WA). The climate, the work environment and the nature of tasks being carried out mean that heat stress management is a critical element in the Company's health protection efforts. Heat illness produces outcomes that vary from mild levels of fatigue and discomfort through to life threatening conditions such as heat stroke. Additionally, it is well recognised that excessive deep body temperature and dehydration are connected with a decrement in both physical and mental performance, and hot conditions may thereby give rise to accidents and significant productivity loss.
Many of the logistical, earthworks and construction tasks now underway in advance of the Gorgon Project's operational phase are carried out in the open, with an accompanying high risk of UV exposure. As such, skin cancer protection is an important additional consideration.
What sets this work apart from the work of others is:
? The project was applied in a challenging, construction work environment characterised by constant change and many newcomers
? There was a focus on connecting well established scientific understanding with day-to-day practice in the field
? The project centred on an integrated approach to dealing with the twin issues of heat stress and UV protection
? Several new training packages, checklists, surveys and field trials were introduced
? There was a close connection with external stakeholders, including the Cancer Council Western Australia (CCWA), WorkSafe WA and the Commission for Occupational Safety and Health
The project involved the development and communication of expectations, procedures and processes to support leading practice management of heat stress and UV exposure.
The paper describes a comprehensive approach to both heat management and sun protection. It should have broad applicability to Oil and Gas Industry operations in warmer parts of the world.
In Western Australia, Chevron leads the development of the Gorgon and Wheatstone natural gas projects, two of Australia's largest-ever resource projects. In addition, the Company manages an equal one-sixth interest in the North West Shelf Venture, is a participant in the proposed Browse LNG Development and operates Australia's largest onshore oilfield on the Barrow Island and Thevenard Island oilfields. It is expected that first gas for the Gorgon Project will be in 2014, while that for Wheatstone will be in 2016. The construction workforce for each project will peak at approximately 5,000 workers.
Wang, Alan (Installation Division, Offshore Oil Engineering Co., Ltd.) | Yang, Yun (Installation Division, Offshore Oil Engineering Co., Ltd.) | Zhu, Shaohua (Installation Division, Offshore Oil Engineering Co., Ltd.) | Li, Huailiang (Installation Division, Offshore Oil Engineering Co., Ltd.) | Xu, Jingkuo (Installation Division, Offshore Oil Engineering Co., Ltd.) | He, Min (Installation Division, Offshore Oil Engineering Co., Ltd.)
The post-Macondo response has included new regulations, new industry standardsand new recommended practices such as API RP96, BUL 97 and the Workplace SafetyRule (per the existing RP75) for Offshore Safety and Environmental Management(SEMs). These are nominally cross referenced, but it is still not clear whatholds them together and makes them work as a "system" for well design,construction and operation. Furthermore, there are inherent interface issuesbecause RP96 deals across different phases of the project delivery process(well design and construction), while BUL 97 and RP75 cover differentparticipants (contractor/operator). The theme of this paper how to deal withthe two issues of systematic integration and interfaces using the bow-tiesystem.
Even though well design and construction project participants may havediffering commercial and cultural perspectives, they all have an interest inavoiding major accident events. Implementing and maintaining barriers supportsthis interest. This paper discusses an analysis of how barriers,contractor/operator bridging documents and safety and environmental managementplans have worked or not worked in 28 different offshore well controldisasters. It will also show how the bow-tie system can improve riskcommunication by providing a "lingua franca" between the various projectparticipants and at different phases of the project. The lessons from thesecase studies will offer a path forward for the industry to successfullyimplement post-Macondo requirements based upon API RP96, BUL97, SEMs and otherreference standards dealing with Major Accident Events offshore.
Post-Macondo Developments in Barriers, Bridging Documents and SEMs
The response to the April 2010 Macondo disaster by the oil and gas industryincludes new oil and gas regulations, recommended practices and guidelines.Among these are two draft (as of January 2012) American Petroleum Institute(API) publications: API RP96, BUL 97 and the 2010 US Workplace Safety Rule(which incorporates API RP75 by reference) . In this paper I will refer tothese as "standards" a generic sense, in that I expect them all to becomestandard practice for oil and gas operations in the US GoM over the comingyears.