Haroun, Muhammad Raeef (University of Southern California) | Alhassan, Saeed (The Petroleum Institute) | Ansari, Arsalan Arshad (The Petroleum Institute) | Al Kindy, Nabeela Abdul Munim (The Petroleum Institute) | Abou Sayed, Nada (Petroleum Institute) | Abdul Kareem, Basma Ali (The Petroleum Institute) | Sarma, Hemanta Kumar (The Petroleum Institute)
EOR technologies such as CO2 flooding, chemical floods and WAG have been on the forefront of oil and gas R&D for the past 4 decades. While most of them are demonstrating very promising results in both lab scale and field pilots, the thrive for exploring additional EOR technologies while achieving full field application has yet to be achieved. Nano EOR is among the new frontiers that demand more improvements, therefore, new concepts and extensive innovative experimental procedures are required to identify and address key associated uncertainties.
The procedure proposed in this report includes an understanding of the Nano-EOR physical processes on lab-scale models of carbonate reservoir retrieved core plugs. (Ogolo et al., 2010). The main objectives include reducing the HSE concerns of handling and transporting the nano particles as well as targeting the unswept oil.
Carbonate core-plugs from Abu Dhabi producing oilfields with porosity ranging from 10 to 24% and permeability ranging from 77 to 149 mD were tested. Several nano particles including Fe (III) O, CuO and NiO of 50 nm range were tested after the waterflooding stage and compared for ultimate recovery factors. The nano EOR was also compared on the same cores subjected to the same conditions against chemical EOR and Electrically Enhanced Oil Recovery (EEOR). A Smart Nano-EOR process is proposed in this study that allows shifting from simultaneous to sequential Nano-EOR alongside EK.
The results obtained on our tested cores reveal that the waterflooding recovery factor ranged from 48 to 63% based on the rock properties, whereas Smart Nano-EOR revealed an ultimate recovery factor of 57 to 85% respectively. The Smart Nano-EOR process is fine tuned to reach the ultimate recovery factor when the specific mechanism is optimized based on both rock and fluid properties. Uncovering physical process enablers will be discussed in this paper to further understand the mechanisms involved in Smart-Nano-EOR.
Air emissions from combustion sources are monitored by different techniques such as use of emission factors, engineering calculations, periodic stack monitoring, Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) and Predictive Emission Monitoring System (PEMS). CEMS despite being seen as best practice but is expensive and requires extensive maintenance. PEMS has become recently popular in estimating real-time emissions from various air pollution sources using measured process parameters. Abu Dhabi Company for Onshore Oil Operations (ADCO) based on a wide techno-economical survey had chosen PEMS to monitor its emission and maintain compliance report on air quality as per the requirements of Abu Dhabi National Oil Company ADNOC. In addition, ADCO's innovation ensured additional modules to monitor energy performance and also provide a platform for maintaining energy and emission KPIs. ADCO commissioned the first pilot PEMS in Bab field in 2010 covering all emission sources and typical units of the major energy users such as gas turbines, heaters, oil export pumps, water injection pumps and gas compressors.
PEMS real-time information and remote access through web helped in taking prompt corrective actions to control equipments and optimize use of fuel which resulted in subsequent reduction of energy and Green House Gases (GHG) emissions besides compliance assurance against ADNOC's air emission limits for process units. PEMS was proven to be as accurate as the hardware based CEMS over the entire range of operations and therefore it can be readily applied for tracking air emissions and energy efficiency from gas turbines, heaters at marginal cost. In addition to providing data for emissions compliance, ADCO was able to use the PEMS to optimize machinery operation for better performance and efficiency, and consequently reduced emissions.
This paper demonstrates ADCO's success in integrating energy performance and emissions reporting in one simple yet effective solution. The paper further describes how the PEMS was able to integrate data from various plant sources into one reporting system while at the same time meeting ADCO IT protocol.
Wanfu, Zhou (Daqing Oilfield Co. Ltd.) | Guochen, Shi (Daqing Oilfield Co. Ltd.) | Gang, Cao (Daqing Oilfield Co. Ltd.) | Mingyan, Lu (Daqing Oilfield Co. Ltd.) | Mingzhan, Chen (Daqing Oilfield Co. Ltd.) | Yu, Hou (Daqing Oilfield Co. Ltd.) | Yongxin, Liu (Daqing Oilfield Co. Ltd.) | Mingyi, Zhang (Daqing Oilfield Co. Ltd.)
This paper presented the development of Progressing Cavity Pump (PCP) technologies in Daqing Oilfield during the past 27 years, covering the successful experiences and lessons learned. The history of PCP lifting technology development was reviewed in the round. Several main PCP techniques were presented in detailed as well, including high efficiency and low profile PCP drivehead, hollow rotor PCP water flushing technique, PCP trouble-shooting technique, and PCP logging technique, etc.
Daqing Oilfield was the largest continental oilfield in China developed from 1960. Beam pumping units was the main
artificial lift method. To date, there are more than 40,000 beam pumping wells. PCP was applied in Daqing Oilfield from 1983. In the past 27 years, the scale of PCP increased at a higher rate. Till the end of 2010, 6,000 plus PCP wells were applied in Daqing Oilfield. PCP has become the second largest artificial lift method in Daqing Oilfield.
To date, a series of PCP products have been developed covering the displacement and lift arrangement for different blocks in Daqing Oilfield. Based on the study and experiences for years, a set of completed PCP system design methodology was also created for water flooding, polymer flooding, ASP flooding and other complicated conditions. The fast improvement of PCP mainly resulted from two respects: Firstly, the quick development of PCP production techniques. The adaptability and reliability of elastomer was improved effectively and matching techniques were developed as well. Secondly, the requirement of low energy consumption and environmental protection in petroleum production policies enhanced the application of PCP technologies considerably.
This paper applied a successful case study of a novel technology developed in the mature oilfield which could be a great reference for the industry.
Daqing Oilfield was discovered in 1959. It is the largest continental oilfield and the petroleum industry base in China. In the beginning of the development, natural flowing was the main producing method of the oilfield. From 1982, artificial lift method was widely used in the oilfield manily including beam pumping system and ESP. Till the end of last century, nearly 30,000 beam pumping systems and over 2,000 ESP pumping systems were in operation in Daqing Oilfield. See Figure 1.
In 2000, the average water cut for the whole oilfield reached nearly 90%. High cost on investment and operating of beam pumping system has become a bottleneck problem influencing the economy of oilfield development. In 2002, the total power consumption of artificial lifting systems was nearly 10 billion kW•h, which was over one third of the whole oil field's power consumption.
From 1990s, polymer flooding, APS flooding were applied in Daqing oilfield. The recovery of the oilfield improved
considerably. On the other hand, the failure rate for the artificial lift system increased dramatically due to the changing
properties of production fluid. For example, the average running life of beam pumping systems in polymer flooding areas from more than 600d down to 270d. Cost for overtime also increased by ten million RMB per year.
As for ASP flooding area, the results were even more serious. Due to high scaling in pumps and strings, the average running life of the beam pumping system was less than 60d, while the shortest running life was within a month. Artificial lifting technology has become a "bottleneck?? problem for Daqing Oilfield in EOR period.
PCP system was chosen to be the first alternative. It has lower investment and operation cost, higher efficiency, and a high viscosity and sandy liquid production.
Natural gas is emerging as the premier fuel of the world economy and will play a pivotal role in China. China, the pre-eminent industrialized nation of the era, needs new and very large energy supplies and currently does not even come close to supply adequate indigenous resources in both quantity and variety. Coal still overwhelmingly dominates the energy mix, causing both major economic and environmental complications. Energy will be "China's choke point?? on its path of becoming a world power.
Today, natural gas accounts for only a small fraction of the Chinese energy mix. With a share of 4 percent, natural gas will have to grow to 10 percent through a government edict by 2020. The volume of gas needed will be staggering.
This paper describes the current state of natural gas in China and its evolutionary history during the past two decades with an attempt to forecast the future over the next decade. Emphasis is placed on technical problems and challenges in natural gas development, particularly in the exploration and production of shale gas. A basin analysis is done to compare the characteristics of potentially producing basins in China with those in the United States. Technological demands are identified and production capability is forecasted.
It is the author's belief that to maintain China's current economic growth of 10 percent, China needs to greatly expand its natural gas use and produce much of it locally. This can be done only by emulating North America, not just by adapting existing technologies but also by developing economies of scale and cost-cutting efficiencies to fit in China's own situation. This is the only way that China can speed up its domestic natural gas production, especially in shale gas developments.
Oil price prediction is one of the vital processes in every oil producing and operating company for current running projects and future new explorations, the whole different segments of industries and commodities would be also interested in knowing the future of oil prices, and we shall not ignore the interest that each country by itself shows to know the effect of future prices on their development plans. The oil price today is somehow far away from the control of any of the world powers, not under the control of the major consumers like the United States, Europe, Japan, Russia & China, nor the Super Majors like BP, Total, Exxon, Shell and Chevron, and not even OPEC majors like Saudi, Iraq, Iran, Kuwait and UAE for several reasons. The Consumers are not any more controlling the tap of oil as it was before the 1960's. While the Super majors are not any more having the major reserves as it was before the 1970's, while for OPEC the Excess Capacity of oil production that they have during 1970's, 80's, and 90's has diminished with maturing fields and failing to find new reserves. Therefore, the oil price control become mainly in the hand of supply and demand trends, hence the ability to capture the supply and demand trend model and anticipate the future of them, the oil price shall be known with reasonable confidence. Therefore, several attempts have been conducted throughout the years to estimate the oil prices as early as 1960's. In this paper, a new oil price projection modeling is built and called POMVSD (Price of Oil Modeling with Variables of Supply and Demand). A model reflects the new economic changes happening worldwide. The details of this model will be described in this paper in addition to a review and analysis of historical and modern literature that support this new model structure.
One of the largest industrial constructed wetland systems in the world was commissioned at the start of 2011 to sustainably manage more than 45,000 m3/day of produced water from the Nimr oilfields in Oman. This natural treatment system consists of a passive oil-water separator, 234 hectares of surface flow wetlands and 300 hectares of evaporation ponds and has been instrumental in reducing the amount of hydrocarbon polluted produced water being disposed to the deep well aquifers. The Nimr Water Treatment Plant (Nimr WTP), being a gravity flow system uses minimal fossil fuel for its operation and therefore results in an enormous saving in energy consumption compared to the conventional, energy-intensive disposal method of pumping the water more than 1.5 km below ground into deep aquifers under high pressure. Maximizing the use of locally available and naturally occurring materials for construction, treating and reusing oil contaminated soil from the oilfields and minimizing electricity consumption has decreased the carbon footprint, greenhouse gas emissions and environmental impacts of the oilfield, thus helping to protect people and the environment. The average operational power consumption for running the NWTP measured for 2011 was only 0.06 kWh per m3 of produced water treated, compared to 3.6 - 5.5 kWh/m3 for the deep well disposal that has traditionally been used. This equates to an energy saving of 98.3 - 98.9 % for managing the produced water and represents a huge saving in energy costs, fossil fuel consumption and subsequent green-house gas emissions making the project not only environmentally friendly but also economically successful for the oil producer. The reduction in CO2 emissions in 2011 was between 40,700 and 62,600 tons. The wetlands and ponds also provide a valuable habitat for migratory birds, with close to 100 different bird species having been identified at the site to date. During 2012, an extension to the wetland system (additional 120 hectares) is being constructed to increase the capacity of the plant to 95,000 m3/day. As part of this extension, approximately 167,000 m3 of oil contaminated soil has been biologically treated and reused as soil substrate in the wetland, providing additional environmental benefits. This paper discusses the details of the plant performance, data analysis and the challenges experienced in the first year operation of the Nimr WTP.
Due to a strong economic and demographic growth around the world, global energy needs are going to increase by about 35% from now until 2030 and energy must be saved. In addition to this, GHG emissions must be reduced in order to limit the consequences of global warming. In this context, TOTAL is working on minimizing flaring and on improving the energy efficiency of its existing and future facilities.
The in-house tool presented in this paper, EAT (Energy Architecture Tool), is primarily designed for future E&P facilities: it aids in the selection of an energy-efficient and low GHG-intensive architecture, during conceptual and pre-project studies. The tool allows doing the case-by-case approach instead of a "dogma?? saying that a specific architecture is equally efficient in every case. It has been validated on four new projects.
Contrarily to studies based on design cases, i.e. extreme cases, this tool simulates the behavior of the energy generation unit (mostly gas turbines) and the energy users (compressors, pumps, furnaces), for the various flows, pressure and heat requirements over the field life. These requirements are less constraining than the design case, but they last much longer, and thus they are to be considered for the energy efficiency purpose.
EAT is a two-steps tool. The first step is to set a reference of energy consumption / GHG emissions. The reference is not a target but it is an ideally optimized case taking into account the process constraints (e.g. the amount of gas to be compressed, its molecular weight, the required suction/discharge pressures per year, site conditions…). The second step is the screening of several architectures to get as close as possible to this reference over the field life. The various alternatives simulated are: number of compression / pumping trains installed, load shedding strategy, use of constant or variable speed drive, all-electric configuration (turbogenerators and electrical drivers only) versus distributed power generation (e.g. turbocompressors), turbine model or other drives, electricity import or export etc.
Once the optimal architectures are identified, the Process, Operations, Technological and Architecture teams check the operability, availability, technical feasibility and economic profitability aspects.
The tool can also be used for existing fields, for building GHG mitigation plans, for setting challenging yet achievable objectives to Operations teams and for developing more accurate forecasts.
The Frigg Field Cessation Project1, operated by TOTAL E&P NORGE AS, is the single largest offshore field decommissioning project during the recent years. This project comprised the execution of the removal of three steel substructures, five topside facilities and several sea-lines from the Frigg Field has formed a complex scope of work involving disposal / recycling of 73,000 tonnes of materials, lasting over five years and involving some 4,500 maritime vessel days. An Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) was performed for the Frigg field installations as part of the decommissioning planning in accordance with the programme approved by Norwegian authorities. This was based upon current knowledge and assumptions. During execution of the project relevant environmental aspects have been quantified and/or recorded. Based on the recorded data and information a comparison is made between the Impact Assessment and the actual experienced environmental performance. Further, an evaluation of the overall impacts or "footprint?? of the disposal work is made. Experiences gained from this can be valuable input to future decommissioning planning processes as well as clarify the actual environmental impacts related to a major offshore field being shut in and associated installations disposed of (decommissioned). In the 2010 SPE HSE conference in Rio a paper was presented on Key Performance Indicators for Energy consumption and CO2 emissions (SPE 126825) developed based on the Frigg Cessation Project.
Technology Focus - No abstract available.