Producing and delivering North West Australia (NWA) deepwater gas reserves to LNG plants poses unique challenges. These include extreme metocean conditions, unique geotechnical conditions, long distances to infrastructure and high reliability/availability requirement of supply for LNG plants. A wet or dry tree local floating host platform will be required in most cases. Whereas semisubmersible, TLP, Spar and floating LNG (FLNG) platform designs all have the attributes to be a host facility, none has been installed in this region to date.
This paper will address important technical, commercial and regulatory factors that drive the selection of a suitable floating host platform to develop these deepwater gas fields off NWA. Linkages between key reservoir and fluid characteristics and surface facility requirements will be established. A focus will be on the unique influence of regional drivers and site characteristics including metocean and geotechnical conditions, water depths and remoteness of these fields.
There have been 17 FPSOs producing oil in Australian waters. These facilities have been chosen because of the remoteness of the fields and the lack of pipeline and process infrastructure. Storing oil on the FPSO for offloading and shipping from the fields becomes an obvious solution. Semisubmersible, TLP or Spar platforms show little advantage in such developments.
For deepwater gas developments, the product has to be processed, compressed and piped to shore for liquefaction. As host processing facilities, Semisubmersible, TLP and Spar platforms have clear advantages over FPSOs because of their superior motion performance in the harsh Australian metocean environment and other benefits such as facilitating drilling, dry tree completion and well services. FPSOs or FSOs may be applied for storage of associated oil and condensates. For marginal and remote gas field developments, an LNG FPSO (FLNG) may be an attractive option as it eliminates long pipelines and land-based liquefaction plants.
As discussed by Dorgant and Stingl (2005), a deepwater field development life cycle following discovery usually involves five distinct phases, Figure 1. The "select?? phase occurs after a discovery has been appraised sufficiently to further evaluate it for development. It consists of evaluating multiple development concepts and scenarios and selecting the one that will most likely achieve the identified commercial and strategic goals. Selecting a floating platform and its functions for a deepwater development is an important subset of the select phase and the overall field development planning.
The process of field development planning involves a complex iterative interaction of its key elements (subsurface, drilling and completions, surface facilities) subject to regional and site constraints (D'Souza, 2009). The objective is to select a development plan that satisfies an operator's commercial, risk and strategic requirements. It entails developing a robust and integrated reservoir depletion plan with compatible facility options. The selection occurs while uncertainty in critical variables that determine commercial success (well performance, reserves) is high. One of the challenges is to select a development plan that manages downside reservoir risk (considering the very large capital expense involved) while having the flexibility to capture its upside potential.
Napalowski, Ralf (BHP Billiton) | Loro, Richard (BHP Billiton) | Anderson, Calan Jay (BHP Billiton) | Andresen, Christian Andre (ResMan AS) | Dyrli, Anne Dalager (ResMan AS) | Nyhavn, Fridtjof (ResMan AS)
This paper describes the interventionless approach that was successfully executed during the Pyrenees early production phase to identify the timing and location of water breakthrough. Chemical inflow tracers were installed in key production wells within the lower completion along the horizontal production sections. Results from this work have supported the reservoir simulation history matching process and confirmed the performance of the inflow control devices (ICDs). These data in conjunction with the real time rate information from subsea multiphase meters has allowed proactive reservoir and production management that has contributed to the early identification of additional infill opportunities.
In May 2011 Shell announced its commitment to the development of a Floating Liquefied Natural Gas (FLNG) concept by taking the Financial Investment Decision on the Prelude FLNG Project. Prelude is located in Australian offshore waters, approximately 475 km north-northeast of Broome and 825 km west of Darwin, and will be Shell's and possibly the world's first FLNG development. FLNG offers a number of environmental advantages over traditional onshore LNG developments. This paper describes some of these and the associated environmental permitting/approval conditions for the project.
The Santos Health & Well Being program has been running since 2006. Integrated with a range of proactive human resource initiatives implemented over a number of years and guided by Santos values, significant improvements in health related indicators as well as improvements in human resource outcomes have been achieved. These results are built on a foundation of leadership development, employee engagement, targeted interventions and a range of Santos policies that support and focus on people development and encouraging healthy environments across the business.
Overview of Santos
Santos is an Australian energy pioneer that has operated since 1954 and is one of the country's leading gas producers, supplying Australian and Asian customers. The company today is the largest producer of natural gas to the Australian domestic market, supplying 16% of the nation's gas needs from remote outback operations in South Australia and Queensland and offshore operations in Western Australia and Victoria. Santos has also developed major oil and liquids businesses in Australia and operates in all mainland Australian states and the Northern Territory. In addition to it's Australian businesses, Santos has significant operations in Indonesia and Bangladesh, is developing it's business in Vietnam and is conducting exploration activities in Central Asia.
From this base, Santos is pursuing a transformational liquefied natural gas (LNG) strategy with interests in four exciting LNG projects. This strategy is led by the cornerstone GLNG project in Queensland - a leading project in converting coal seam gas into LNG. Also in Santos' LNG portfolio are the PNG LNG project, which was formally approved in December 2009, Bonaparte LNG, a proposed floating LNG project in the Timor Sea, and Darwin LNG, Santos' first LNG venture, which began production in 2006.
In 2011, Santos' total production was 47.2 million barrels of oil equivalent. We have the largest Australian exploration and production portfolio by area of any company circa 152,000 square kilometres. Santos has about 2,700 employees working across its operations in Australia and Asia and is one of Australia's Top 30 listed companies.
An Integrated Approach
The Santos health programme is aligned with the company's values and the broader HR strategy. Such an integrated approach has enabled Santos to develop its organisational culture and achieve broader people related outcomes which support and sustain the business achieve its long term goals.
Conference review - No abstract available.
Li, Zhigang (Offshore Oil Engineering Co. Ltd.) | He, Ning (Offshore Oil Engineering Co. Ltd.) | Duan, Menglan (Offshore Oil/Gas Research Center, China University of Petroleum) | Wang, Yingying (Offshore Oil/Gas Research Center, China University of Petroleum) | Dong, Yanhui (Offshore Oil/Gas Research Center, China University of Petroleum)
This paper presents an overview of wet gas multiphase metering and a new meterdesign to meet future offshore challenges. The design introduces new microwaveelectronics, transmission as well as resonance measurements, a salinitymeasurement system, reduced PVT dependence and a new HP/HT design.
Building on the success of wet gas metering in accuracy and reliability, thenew meter increases operators' ability to detect the onset of formation waterproduction and accurately measure flow rates where an increasing amount ofliquid and water is present in the flow (due to gas wells produced over a widerrange of process conditions).
The new meter design will have an increased importance for subsea tiebacksapplications. While today's wet gas meters are well suited for subsea tiebacks,current subsea developments require longer horizontal production pipelines,where accurate and sensitive measurement of water is crucial to ensure flowassurance and maintain maximum production capacity of the pipeline.
Furthermore, the restrictive and remote nature of subsea fields means that thecosts for subsea interventions and periodic fluid sampling (PVT) are high. Thenew meter is more robust to changes in PVT (fluid composition) and reduces theneed for frequent fluid sampling.
The paper will describe the development and technology choices of the newinstrument and how it will meet future subsea field demands.
It will explain how the new microwave electronics provides more stable andaccurate measurements; how transmission and resonance measurements extend theoperating range to 80-100% GVF and 0-100% WLR; how two complementarytechnologies - a salinity probe for liquid film measurements at low GVF andFormation Water Detection Function software for droplets measurements at highGVF, provide the first complete salinity measurement system in wet gasapplications.
The paper will also show how multivariate analysis and new measurements enablethe meter to compensate automatically for changes in produced fluidcomposition.
The paper will be highly significant to oil and gas operators looking toincrease flow assurance and oil & gas production from wet gas fields andmeet the growing offshore challenges of varying process conditions,intervention costs, and subsea tie-backs.
Exploitation of thin oil zones in a mature field with complex carbonate geology under strong water drive offers many challenges. The primary objective is effective oil recovery from the thin oil zones without excessive water production. The initial development phase targeting thin remaining oil zones in a giant, mature carbonate field in Saudi Arabia has been guided by reservoir simulation results, with performance generally exceeding expectations. However, performance of individual horizontal wells has varied greatly. Multivariate statistical methods have been applied across the gamut of reservoir parameters for these wells to gain further insights into critical success factors and mechanisms. Response variables were established (producing time to reach various watercut thresholds) to gauge well performance. Principal component, factor, and multiple regression analyses were applied to independent reservoir parameters for a population of 20 horizontal wells placed in the target zone. These parameters included zone thickness, standoff from fluid contacts, vertical permeability contrast, thickness of low-permeability interval, reservoir contact, net/gross ratio, completion design, extent of fracturing, zone porosity, proximity to injectors, and trajectory orientation. Multivariate analysis conclusively demonstrated that the principal factor governing well performance in the early period (up to three years) was the vertical permeability contrast or in other words, the extent to which a permeability baffle exists between the thin low-permeability zone and the underlying thick high-permeability zone. Other parameters may contribute to well performance beyond the 30% watercut threshold and will be addressed in a future paper. The findings from this study have been translated into Best Practices for exploiting thin oil zones and have been applied in further developing the thin oil zone in the subject field.
There is plenty to be optimistic about in the upstream oil and gas oil sector. In this article, the Energy Industries Council (EIC) focuses on offshore opportunities globally, and identifies the hot spots of activity. It will also examine some of the key issues facing the sector and the energy supply chain today, such as the need to maximize oil and gas recovery from challenging environments and new offshore fields, and the need to reduce costs and innovate.