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to

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to

GoIt is important to understand rock stress state in civil, mining, petroleum, earthquake engineering and energy development, as well as in geophysics and geology. In general, however, estimating the stress spatial distribution in rock is very difficult. The differences between the estimated and the measured stresses can be first attributed to tectonic stresses, as well as other factors such as topography and inhomogeneity of the rock mass. In this research, a study combining strategy and tactics for the determination of in situ rock stress was undertaken to resolve difficulties and improve accuracy of stress estimation. Numerical and experimental tests of a new borehole jack fracturing probe by loading a steel pipe were carried out. On the other hand, an improved program was developed available for inhomogeneous modeling and its applicability was examined by comparing the numerical results with the corresponding strict solution. A non-linear numerical inverse method is presented for evaluating the in situ state of stress in a rock mass.

On the other hand, for certain geometries, the effect of topography on determination of state of stress can be analyzed by accurate analytical solutions and factors affecting the magnitudes and orientations of in situ stress can be studied.

ISRM-SINOROCK-2009-005

ISRM International Symposium on Rock Mechanics - SINOROCK 2009

SPE Disciplines: Reservoir Description and Dynamics > Reservoir Characterization > Reservoir geomechanics (1.00)

Cai, M. (University of Science and Technology Beijing) | Xie, M. (University of Science and Technology Beijing) | Wang, J. (University of Science and Technology Beijing) | Li, C. (University of Science and Technology Beijing) | Qiao, L. (University of Science and Technology Beijing) | Tan, W. (University of Science and Technology Beijing)

In order to ascertain the risk of collapse of a new road embankment over a historical railway tunnel, a number of intrusive and non intrusive investigations were undertaken. The non- intrusive investigations comprised: a visual inspection, a delamination survey, a ground probing radar survey from the ground surface and an electrical resistance tomography survey from within the tunnel itself. Intrusive investigations comprised of rotary coring of the surrounding rock and of t he tunnel lining. Numerical modeling of the proposed development including it’s construction sequences were undertaken. A number of models were analysed including 2D boundary and finite element analysis and 3D stability analysis of the tunnel itself. The findings of the analysis were that the tunnel ‘bore’ itself was generally stable but the tunnel lining was in a state of degradation with approximately 11% failed to date. This led to the conclusion that a progressive failure mechanism may form, where the tunnel lining degrades further and collapses, leading to block failures throughout the surrounding rock, along the lines of the discontinuities, eventually progressing upwards to affect the embankment and road. The final remedial solution was to incorporate geotextiles within the embankment construction in order to mitigate the risk of catastrophic failure.

1.1 Proposals and site legacy

(Figure in full paper)

Early in the planning stage, it was identified that the proffered line and orientation of the associated development access road would require construction of an embankment up to 12m in height crossing over a former railway tunnel.

The tunnel was constructed approximately 150 years ago and originally formed part of the Great Northern Railway, Erewash Valley Line, which served numerous collieries, ironworks and brickworks in both Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire, including the adjacent Gedling Colliery. Latterly the railway was dismantled and the tunnel line became disused in the 1960’s. Figure 1.1 comprises an aerial photograph of the tunnel and figure 1.2 shows the approximate tunnel geometry.

In addition, the tunnel comprised a registered bat roost, which under UK law is protected from actions which may damage this habitat or otherwise disturb roosting bats.

(Figure in full paper)

ISRM-SINOROCK-2009-135

ISRM International Symposium on Rock Mechanics - SINOROCK 2009

Industry:

- Transportation > Ground > Rail (1.00)
- Materials > Metals & Mining (1.00)

Zhang, Ming (Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Tsinghua University) | Chen, Liang (Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Tsinghua University) | Li, Zhongkui (Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Tsinghua University)

The monitoring feedback analysis with measured data such as displacements, stresses and supporting forces is a common approach to appraise or predict the safety of a project in use or during construction. In this paper, the three-dimensional computer code for fast Lagrangian analysis of continua, FLAC3D, with the explicit finite difference method are used in the numerical simulation, while the artificial neural network (ANN) is exploited to back analyze the material parameters adopted in the final computation. The feedback analysis of the excavation of the underground caverns of Xiluodu hydropower station on Jinsha River in southwest China is conducted as an engineering application. The implementation process of this method is introduced in detail. The process can feed back and forecast displacements, stresses and supporting forces being interested in the plan and construction of underground power stations. It is shown by this paper that the ANN-based feedback analysis method is effective and feasible.

In the numerical simulation, the relation between the response of the underground hydropower plants and the adopted rock parameters is very complicated and implicit. As we know, the artificial neural network (ANN) is suitable to solve such kind of problems as finding the nonlinear mapping of inputs and outputs (Sonmez et al. 2006).

As for the numerical computation, there already exists a number of commercial software, among which the three-dimensional computer code for fast Lagrangian analysis of continua, FLAC3D, with the explicit finite difference method is usually the resort in the rock mechanics and rock engineering (Itasca 1997).

Recently, feedback analysis is used in underground projects more and more (Han et al. 1997, Li et al. 1998). The basic idea lies in: after the former excavation, we get the data of displacement or stress of surrounding rocks by measuring; calculate the excavation process using numerical model, adjust the material parameters until the calculation results are consist with the measured data; then calculate the next process, predict the variety of deformation and stress of rocks; forecast risk that may be met and giving the salvations.

Feedback analysis can reduce much more computational efforts, predict hidden risks. It contains two main stages, i.e. the forward calculation and the feedback analysis of parameters.

Thus this feedback analysis process based on ANN can consist of following steps: Firstly, build a FLAC3D model according to the geological data, excavation scheme and caverns’ layout. Secondly, determine the rock-mass parameters which need to be back analyzed and arrange a series of numerical tests following orthogonal designation.

ISRM-SINOROCK-2009-125

ISRM International Symposium on Rock Mechanics - SINOROCK 2009

analysis, Artificial Intelligence, artificial neural network, cavern excavation, deep learning, displacement, Engineering, excavation, feedback analysis, machine learning, management and information, mechanics, method, neural network, process, renewable energy, reservoir description and dynamics, rock, sensitivity, stress, underground hydropower plant, Upstream Oil & Gas

Industry:

- Energy > Renewable > Hydroelectric (1.00)
- Energy > Power Industry > Utilities (1.00)
- Energy > Oil & Gas > Upstream (1.00)

SPE Disciplines:

Technology: Information Technology > Artificial Intelligence > Machine Learning > Neural Networks (1.00)

Zhengzheng, Wang (School of Civil Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong university) | Bo, Gao (School of Civil Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong university) | Yusheng, Shen (School of Civil Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong university) | Wanjun, Zang (SPCD, Yaxi Expressway Engineering Construction Directorate)

The tunnel may have to be constructed across a faulted zone as it is not always possible to avoid crossing active faults. In these situations, the tunnel lining must tolerate the expected fault displacements and seismic action, and allow only minor damages for the assumed life time. This paper presents a method of designing flexible lining for tunnels within the regions of active faults. The effects of the method are analyzed. The results show the tunnel lining with flexible joints allows the tunnel to distort into S-shape through the fault zone without rupture and thus it can provide reference to the design and construction of tunnels located in the active faulted zones.

The tunnel may have to be constructed across a fault zone as it is not always possible to avoid crossing active faults. In these situations, the fault movement may subject the tunnel to differential displacments and generate stress concentrations. Looking through the previous studies and relevant cases, it can be concluded that the current methods of designing the safe secitons for the cases of probable deflection along the longitudinal profile of tunnels can principally be classified into fourth kinds of approaches, i.e.:

(1) excavating a larger diameter section in order to provide enough space for the conditions of earthquake or faulting.

(2) The grouting reinforcement technique, which means grouting the ground in order to increase the strength and ductility of the faulted zones.

(3) The isolation technique, which means filling the space gap between the ground and the lining by some soft materials.

(4) the use of flexible joints, which may be considered to increase longitudinal flexibility of the tunnel. For the present study the fourth method is applied.

The main loading of tunnels is the deformation imposed by the surrounding ground. For design purpose, this deformation must be somehow predicted. This is a very difficult tast called seismic hazard analysis. Prediction can be attempted based on deterministic or probabilistic analysis. In either case the results are highly uncertain but possibly still the best achievable assumption. Assume now that the wave motion. We consider harmonic waves with the circular frequency

<

<

With α being the angle between

ISRM-SINOROCK-2009-173

ISRM International Symposium on Rock Mechanics - SINOROCK 2009

deformation, design, displacement, fault, flexible joint, flexible lining, fracture characterization, ground, isolation joint, longitudinal, longitudinal profile, model, movement, Reservoir Characterization, reservoir description and dynamics, segment, seismic processing and interpretation, stress, strike-slip fault, tunnel, tunnel axis, tunnel lining, Upstream Oil & Gas

When dealing with tunnels in weak rock mass and with high overburden, the high displacements imposed on the lining dictate the application of ductile yielding elements with controllable stiffness and yield load. These properties are chosen with two goals in mind: the time-dependent strength of the shotcrete shell must not be exceeded; however the support pressure must be kept reasonably high and controllable. The attainable load-displacement lines of the ductile support elements are almost arbitrary. There are almost countless possible combinations of their stiffness and yield load, thus enabling the development of custom-tailored support systems and leaving considerable room for adapting to the encountered ground conditions. Tunneling in weak ground should be accompanied by increased efforts on monitoring the system behavior, best by a dense pattern of absolute displacement measurements. A simple technique for calculating the shotcrete utilization ratio has been developed. It applies a Newton- Raphson root-finding algorithm to determine the interpolation parameters while obeying the requirements of force equilibrium and fitting the measured displacements. The influence of non- symmetrical displacement behavior caused by heterogeneity and anisotropy of the rock mass, on the lining loading can be quantified and used for support system optimization.**1. INTRODUCTION**High primary stresses associated with tectonic faulting frequently create problems during construction of Alpine base tunnels. Keeping the displacements in a range which could be sustained by the support would lead to economically unfeasible lining thickness.

Ductile lining systems using in mining cannot be be transferred to traffic tunnels with their requirement of long term stability. First concepts of yielding supports for tunnels date back to the nineteen fifties (Rabcewicz 1950).

The technical requirements posed on a ductile support system are quite clear:

- The load-displacement characteristics should be “steerable” within a broad range, allowing the avoidance of overstressing the shotcrete shell, while enabling easy modifications in order to cope with the ground heterogeneity and usually long-lasting displacement increments.
- The support resistance has to be reasonably high, allowing a certain amount of control over the displacement magnitude.

(Figure in full paper)

ISRM-SINOROCK-2009-162

ISRM International Symposium on Rock Mechanics - SINOROCK 2009

Artificial Intelligence, boundary, calculation, displacement, ductile, equilibrium, function, lining, loading, management and information, method, optimization problem, point, rock, shotcrete, shotcrete lining, shotcrete shell, shotcrete utilization, stress, support, system, tunnel, Upstream Oil & Gas

Technology: Information Technology > Artificial Intelligence > Representation & Reasoning > Optimization (0.34)

Siah Bishe Powerhouse Cavern and other related excavations have been modeled by 3D numerical programs. The main concern in this large span underground space was closely bedded rock formations which are mostly quartzitic sandstones and reddish-brown and blackish siltstone of shaly appearance with low RQD index. This had raised doubts about its long term stability. Sheared and altered zones which cross the cavern axis are the most problematic sections of the project. Excavation sequences in powerhouse cavern as well as support systems have been also simulated. Regarding the closely spaced bedding planes, sections including the sedimentary rocks and shear zones have been simulated as transversely isotropic materials. The results obtained from installed extensometers in sidewalls of powerhouse cavern show good agreement with the displacements obtained from numerical results.Comparing the induced stresses in elements surrounding the excavated opening and their strength, a safety factor is determined for rock mass surrounding the powerhouse cavern. Results obtained from evaluation of safety factor show some unstable zones around the cavern in the first & the second monitoring sections (chainage 26m & 48.7m) due to the existence of the main sheared zone. An unstable zone also extends between transformer and powerhouse caverns in the third monitoring section (chainage 67.1m).

In current study, Siah Bishe powerhouse cavern and related excavations including transformer cavern and main galleries and tunnels joining to the powerhouse cavern have been modeled by 3D finite difference numerical model.

Due to the closely spaced bedded sedimentary rocks around the cavern, the transversely isotropic elastic model was chosen to simulate the powerhouse cavern and related excavations. A safety factor is determined and used to analyze the stability of powerhouse cavern in different sections.

In closely spaced discontinuities, in comparison with the size of span, the excavation space can be treated as a homogeneous but transversely isotropic material where properties in direction parallel to the joints are different from those perpendicular to them (Vicenzi et al. 2001).

The rock mass around the cavern is basically consisted of closely bedded sedimentary rocks, including quartzitic sandstone and reddish brown siltstone of shaly appearance and also an altered sheared zone. The furthest end of the cavern (last 30 meters) is located in volcanic rocks which are simply simulated by isotropic elastic models.

An equivalent transversely isotropic model is used for closely bedded sedimentary rock mass and the sheared zone.

ISRM-SINOROCK-2009-093

ISRM International Symposium on Rock Mechanics - SINOROCK 2009

One improved SVR algorithm was introduced into the field of elasto-plastic displacement back analysis in this paper. The strong nonlinear and uncertain relation between calculation parameters of rock mass and displacement of surrounding rock was described by the improved SVR algorithm. In order to find the optimal parameters of this improved SVR model during samples training course, the Genetic Algorithm (GA) was combined with it to form the improved GA-SVR algorithm. After the optimal non-linear mapping between the elasto-plastic mechanical parameters and displacement had been established, GA was used to identify these mechanical parameters within their search interval. By dint of MATLAB toolbox, GA also was integrated with BP neural network to form the GABP algorithm. Compared the back analysis results of the same elasto-plastic model parameters in BAOZHEN long and large railway tunnel by the two different algorithms, it can be concluded that the improved GA-SVR algorithm can obtain a more high inversion precision and calculation efficiency than that of GA-BP algorithm, so the improved GA-SVR can be applied in similar geotechnical engineering.

Support vector regression (SVR) algorithm has many merits such as small sample and global optimization etc. Compared with ANN, SVR algorithm based on the structure risk minimization principle can avoid the overfitting (Vapnik, 1995). So it is more appropriate to be applied into underground engineering than ANN algorithm (Zhao 2003, Liu 2004). During the process of BAOZHEN tunnel construction in Yichang-Wanzhou railway, SVR algorithm was introduced into the displacement back analysis in this paper.

The section from DK73+430 to DK73+480 of left line is the study part in this paper which possess high crustal stress and soft surrounding rock.

ISRM-SINOROCK-2009-089

ISRM International Symposium on Rock Mechanics - SINOROCK 2009

SPE Disciplines: Management and Information > Information Management and Systems > Artificial intelligence (1.00)

Technology: Information Technology > Artificial Intelligence > Machine Learning > Statistical Learning (1.00)

Iwata, N. (Chuden Consultants Co.,Ltd.) | Sasaki, T. (Suncoh Consultants Co.,Ltd.) | Yosida, J. (Suncoh Consultants Co.,Ltd.) | Sasaki, K. (Suncoh Consultants Co.,Ltd.) | Yoshinaka, R. (Saitama University)

This paper describes the validity of the Multiple Yield Model (MYM) based on the comparison between the prediction by MYM analysis and the measurement results of two cases history about the large vertical excavation about 30m in depth and 100m in width for nuclear power plants. MYM is a kind of finite element method constituted the mechanical properties of intact rock and discontinuity systems in rock mass, and can be analyzed the non-linearity of deformation under loading and unloading stress paths. For analyzing, the geometrical model of rock mass were determined from test adit and borehole observations about the discontinuity conditions such as orientation, spacing, persistence, and the physical parameters were determined by laboratory test using core specimens and also considering scale effect. As the results of MYM analysis, both of the deformation mode and displacement were well corresponded to the measurement and we have been confirmed that the actual behavior of discontinuous rocks can estimate by MYM in practical accuracy"

As well known, the mechanical properties of discontinuous rocks are strongly influenced by the geometrical distribution and its mechanical properties of discontinuities which those strength and deformation behavior are non-linear. However, the practical parameters for design are generally setting by performing

(Equation in full paper)

Thus it is assumed that the joints are distributed periodically and the volume of each joint set is ignored in comparison with the volume of intact rock. And it is assumed that the stresses of the intact rock and joints coincide. The stiffness matrix of joint set I in the local coordinate system is transformed for the global coordinate system using the coordinate transformation matrix by equation (2).

ISRM-SINOROCK-2009-102

ISRM International Symposium on Rock Mechanics - SINOROCK 2009

Comparison, deformation, deformation behavior, discontinuity, discontinuous rock, displacement, excavation, Horizontal, large-scale vertical excavation, model, numerical analysis, prediction, Reservoir Characterization, reservoir description and dynamics, rock, rock mass, shear, site, stiffness, Wellbore Design, wellbore integrity

SPE Disciplines:

Ji-Liang, Zhu (Guangxi Electric Power Industry Investigation Design and Research Institute, Nanning) | Xian-Ting, Chen (Guangxi Electric Power Industry Investigation Design and Research Institute, Nanning)

Based on the simplified structure of rock mass, FLAC3D numerical modeling technique is used to systematically analyze the distribution features of the secondary stress field, strain field and plastic zones in the surrounding rock mass of the underground cavities after the excavation. And the variation characteristics of stress field, strain field and plastic failure zones in the surrounding rock mass of the underground cavities are summarized. The results show that the underground workshop building caverns are whole stable, but parts of them are unstable and the unstable parts are shallow. The results provide basic information and reference for the evaluation of underground cavities stability and project construction.

Yantan hydropower station lies in Hongshuihe in Yantan town, Dahua County, Guangxi. Four generating units of the first phase project of hydropower station had been built in 1995, the reservoir's normal water level is 223m, the maximum height of the concrete gravity dam is 110m, the powerhouse at the dam toe in right bank, and the installed capacity is 1210MW. The underground powerhouse of second phase extension project locates in the right mountain of the first phase powerhouse and dam project, including diversion tunnel, main powerhouse tunnel, main transformer cavern tunnel and tailrace tunnel etc., installed capacity is 2×300MW. The type of underground powerhouse is one unit with one tailrace tunnel in pressure, the maximum excavation width of over crane beam of main powerhouse is 30.8m and the length is 129m, the highest height difference of the powerhouse is 76.67m[1]. The water diversion and power generation system of extension project is placed in the mountain in the right bank, the thickness of overlying rocks is 75m~120m in the underground powerhouse area, and the surrounding rock is hard diabase. The diversion tunnel and underground powerhouse cavern group located in F48 fault footwall, the rock mass is relatively integrated and belongs to II class surrounding rock. The stress-deformation field of cavern surrounding rock will be changed by excavation of underground cavern group. On the basic of the excavated geological model, to simulate excavation of underground powerhouse cavern group in whole process by FLAC3D and analyze the change of stress field and deformation field. Many users at home and abroad have used the software[2~6], the results show that it has enough reliability and rationality. Particularly, its function is more powerful in deformation calculation and rock and soil mass stability analysis than finite element method.

The direction of valley is N160W. The altitude of low water level is 148m~150m, width of river level is 100m and water depth is 18m~20m. The lowest altitude of riverbed is 129m, both sides of riverbed are stone floodplains, the altitude floodplain face is 155m~168m. The two sides of riverbed is flood plain, flood plain altitude is 155m~168m. The first terrace over flood plain whose altitude is 185m ~200m. Landform of two banks is middle-low mountain whose altitude of crest is 500m, and its hillside gradient is 27°~36°.

ISRM-SINOROCK-2009-130

ISRM International Symposium on Rock Mechanics - SINOROCK 2009

Artificial Intelligence, cavern, cavern roof, deformation, displacement, Displacement Mag, excavation, Itasca Consulting Group, Linestyle, management and information, Minneapolis, Model Perspective, plane, plane orientation, renewable energy, Reservoir Characterization, reservoir description and dynamics, rock, stability, stress, Upstream Oil & Gas, wall

Industry:

- Energy > Power Industry > Utilities (0.69)
- Energy > Renewable > Hydroelectric (0.55)
- Energy > Oil & Gas > Upstream (0.47)

SPE Disciplines:

Technology:

A nonlinear, three-dimensional finite element model was applied to simulate the conventional procedure of underground workhouse excavation. The Drucker-Prager elastic-perfectly plastic material model was used for the simulation of rock mass, faults and the supporting structures. The material non-linearity was dealt with using an incremental technique. In monitor the stability of powerhouse cavern, the displacements of surrounding rock were measured during excavation. The field measurement results show that the surrounding rock of cavern is stable while the rock bolt and shotcrete were designed as the supporting structures. Maximum deformation of cavern surface is less than 6mm after 840 days. The most deformations of surrounding rock reached the stable states after the cavern excavation was finished. The principal and secondary factors affecting deformations of surrounding rock are spatial and temporal effect, respectively. The rock excavation for different stage in the measurement section played important role for the deformations of surrounding rock of cavern.

ISRM-SINOROCK-2009-086

ISRM International Symposium on Rock Mechanics - SINOROCK 2009

Artificial Intelligence, cavern, convergence, deformation, deformation curve, displacement, excavation, field, finite element method, management and information, powerhouse, powerhouse cavern, powerhouse cavern excavation, Reservoir Characterization, reservoir description and dynamics, reservoir geomechanics, rock, rock mass, stability, stress, technology, tunnel, Upstream Oil & Gas

Industry:

- Energy > Oil & Gas > Upstream (0.47)
- Energy > Power Industry (0.30)

SPE Disciplines:

Thank you!