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- Bo, Gao (1)
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- Yue-An, Zhang (1)
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- Zhengzheng, Wang (1)

**Concept Tag**

- abutment (2)
- abutment trough (1)
- activation energy (1)
- algorithm (1)
- analysis (7)
- Anchor (1)
- anchor cable (1)
- Artificial Intelligence (3)
- Behavior (3)
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- damage (2)
- deep learning (2)
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- design (3)
- development (2)
- discontinuity (2)
**displacement (25)**- Displacement Mag (1)
- Earthquake (3)
- element (6)
- Engineering (3)
- equation (3)
- excavation (8)
- Excavation Slope (1)
- expansion (2)
- extensometer (2)
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- fault (2)
- Fig (2)
- Figure (13)
- foundation (2)
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- Linestyle (1)
- lining (2)
- loading (2)
- Longmen Shan (1)
- machine learning (2)
- material (2)
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- Mayanpo slope (1)
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- Response (1)
- result (4)
- rock (13)
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- section (3)
- Simulation Technique (1)
- slope (4)
- SOIL (1)
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- stress (11)
- support (3)
- surface (2)
- SVR algorithm (1)
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- technology (2)
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**Industry**

**Oilfield Places**

**Technology**

**File Type**

Presently the survey of absolute displacements of targets fixed at the tunnel wall is the state of the art in performance monitoring of tunnels. Monitoring data are used to assess the stabilization process of the tunnel, more recently also for the short term prediction of the ground conditions ahead of the face.

The displacements do not substantially vary in rock mass conditions with nearly constant properties and influencing factors. On the other hand, changes in the rock mass structure or properties result in changes in the displacement characteristics.

For nearly constant conditions, the displacement trends show minor fluctuations within a certain normal range, due to minor variations in the rock mass properties. Deviations from this range are clear indicators for changing conditions ahead of the face or outside of the tunnel. To identify such trend deviations the normal range of the trend lines becomes crucial. Geostatistical methods allow an automatic identification of trends along the tunnel. Using data from completed tunnel projects a “reference trend table” can be established. By comparing actual observed trend characteristics to this reference table changing ground conditions ahead of the face can be identified and hence, the change in the displacement characteristics and magnitudes can be predicted.

During construction the measurement results contain all influences of the ground structure, stresses, and interaction between ground and support. The previously established characteristic behaviors for certain conditions are compared to the monitoring results. In case of agreement it can be established that the observed behavior is “normal”. Deviations from the expected behavior can have various reasons. One may be that the behavior during design was not assessed correctly. In this case, a refinement of the model is required. Another reason for behavior deviating from the expected can be a change in the ground conditions ahead of the face. It is meanwhile well known that trends of displacement vector orientations can be used to predict changing ground conditions ahead of the face (Schubert & Budil 1995, Steindorfer 1997, Jeon et al. 2005).

ISRM-SINOROCK-2009-144

ISRM International Symposium on Rock Mechanics - SINOROCK 2009

Behavior, condition, data, development, displacement, evaluation, expert system, face, Figure, foliation, geologic modeling, ground, ground condition, Influence, interpretation, orientation, reservoir simulation, result, rock, section, Trend, tunnel, tunnel axis

Oilfield Places: North America > United States > Alaska > North Slope > Western North Slope > Alpine Oil Field (0.97)

SPE Disciplines:

Although a number of numerical simulation models were developed and improved in the theory and programs for jointed rock mass, there are many drawbacks to the simulation techniques, such as discontinuity modeling and free expansion. Instead of the spring model of discontinuity, a new numerical model is developed based on the essences of deformability and mechanical characteristics of discontinuity. Discontinuity is considered as a nonrenewable and volumechangeable plastic medium. In addition, Numerical errors between the linear displacement functions and the exact solutions can accumulate when the block rotates continuously. This cause a change in block size called the free expansion phenomenon. Here, the finite rotation theory is adopted to address the drawback of free expansion. Finally, jointed rock mass is considered as a two-media model. The coupling effects between blocks and discontinuities are established. These developments of simulation techniques can reveal the essences of rock mass and improve analysis accuracy for simulation.

In order to overcome the reaction force indeterminacy, one needs to introduce the deformability of the discontinuities. For example, DEM, DDA and BSM use normal and tangential springs at the intersection point between a discontinuity face and a block’s vertex. And they consider the thickness of discontinuity as 0. The interactive forces between discontinuity and block are based on the ‘invasion’. Although this discontinuity model can address the problem of discontinuity simulation, it does not reveal the essences of discontinuity, such as discontinuity deformability, mechanical characteristics.

ISRM-SINOROCK-2009-127

ISRM International Symposium on Rock Mechanics - SINOROCK 2009

analysis, block, boundary, coupling effect, deformability, deformation, discontinuity, displacement, Engineering, expansion, Figure, force, model, point, reservoir simulation, rock, rock mass, rotation, Simulation Technique

Industry:

- Information Technology > Software (0.55)
- Energy > Oil & Gas > Upstream (0.31)

SPE Disciplines:

It is important to understand rock stress state in civil, mining, petroleum, earthquake engineering and energy development, as well as in geophysics and geology. In general, however, estimating the stress spatial distribution in rock is very difficult. The differences between the estimated and the measured stresses can be first attributed to tectonic stresses, as well as other factors such as topography and inhomogeneity of the rock mass. In this research, a study combining strategy and tactics for the determination of in situ rock stress was undertaken to resolve difficulties and improve accuracy of stress estimation. Numerical and experimental tests of a new borehole jack fracturing probe by loading a steel pipe were carried out. On the other hand, an improved program was developed available for inhomogeneous modeling and its applicability was examined by comparing the numerical results with the corresponding strict solution. A non-linear numerical inverse method is presented for evaluating the in situ state of stress in a rock mass.

On the other hand, for certain geometries, the effect of topography on determination of state of stress can be analyzed by accurate analytical solutions and factors affecting the magnitudes and orientations of in situ stress can be studied.

ISRM-SINOROCK-2009-005

ISRM International Symposium on Rock Mechanics - SINOROCK 2009

borehole, borehole jack, boundary, component, displacement, element, equation, Figure, fracture, friction shell, interface, measurement, method, Probe, reservoir geomechanics, rock, rock mass, steel pipe, stress, stress measurement

SPE Disciplines: Reservoir Description and Dynamics > Reservoir Characterization > Exploration, development, structural geology (0.68)

Zhang, Ming (Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Tsinghua University) | Chen, Liang (Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Tsinghua University) | Li, Zhongkui (Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Tsinghua University)

The monitoring feedback analysis with measured data such as displacements, stresses and supporting forces is a common approach to appraise or predict the safety of a project in use or during construction. In this paper, the three-dimensional computer code for fast Lagrangian analysis of continua, FLAC3D, with the explicit finite difference method are used in the numerical simulation, while the artificial neural network (ANN) is exploited to back analyze the material parameters adopted in the final computation. The feedback analysis of the excavation of the underground caverns of Xiluodu hydropower station on Jinsha River in southwest China is conducted as an engineering application. The implementation process of this method is introduced in detail. The process can feed back and forecast displacements, stresses and supporting forces being interested in the plan and construction of underground power stations. It is shown by this paper that the ANN-based feedback analysis method is effective and feasible.

In the numerical simulation, the relation between the response of the underground hydropower plants and the adopted rock parameters is very complicated and implicit. As we know, the artificial neural network (ANN) is suitable to solve such kind of problems as finding the nonlinear mapping of inputs and outputs (Sonmez et al. 2006).

As for the numerical computation, there already exists a number of commercial software, among which the three-dimensional computer code for fast Lagrangian analysis of continua, FLAC3D, with the explicit finite difference method is usually the resort in the rock mechanics and rock engineering (Itasca 1997).

Recently, feedback analysis is used in underground projects more and more (Han et al. 1997, Li et al. 1998). The basic idea lies in: after the former excavation, we get the data of displacement or stress of surrounding rocks by measuring; calculate the excavation process using numerical model, adjust the material parameters until the calculation results are consist with the measured data; then calculate the next process, predict the variety of deformation and stress of rocks; forecast risk that may be met and giving the salvations.

Feedback analysis can reduce much more computational efforts, predict hidden risks. It contains two main stages, i.e. the forward calculation and the feedback analysis of parameters.

Thus this feedback analysis process based on ANN can consist of following steps: Firstly, build a FLAC3D model according to the geological data, excavation scheme and caverns’ layout. Secondly, determine the rock-mass parameters which need to be back analyzed and arrange a series of numerical tests following orthogonal designation.

ISRM-SINOROCK-2009-125

ISRM International Symposium on Rock Mechanics - SINOROCK 2009

Industry:

- Energy > Renewable > Hydroelectric (1.00)
- Energy > Power Industry > Utilities (1.00)
- Energy > Oil & Gas > Upstream (1.00)

SPE Disciplines:

A The responses of some lined underground openings under hydrostatic or biaxial stress field are examined numerically for original HB and equivalent MC strength parameters. The rock mass is assumed brittle and the horizontal to vertical stress ratio is varied. Selected tunnel responses of the openings for the original HB rock mass are compared to the responses computed using equivalent MC strength parameters. These include the displacement at the crown and the side walls of the opening, the yielded zone formed around the tunnel and the internal forces within the tunnel lining. Results indicate the cases where deviations in the tunnel performance are computed.

Several methods have been developed for the evaluation of equivalent MC strength parameters for given HB ones. Traditionally, they are based on a linearization procedure of the HB strength envelope for a selected range of the minor principal stress. This range is either considered as independent of the in situ stress field (Hoek and Brown, 1997) or depends on it. In the latter case the internal pressure offered by the tunnel support may either be neglected (Hoek et. al., 2002), covering thus a wider range of rock mass responses, or taken into account (Sofianos and Halakatevakis 2002, Sofianos 2003, Sofianos and Nomikos 2006, Jimenez et. al. 2008), aiming to better approximate the final equilibrium condition of the tunnel.

Most of the existing methods are concerned with the case of an elastic-perfectly plastic rock mass. However, rock mass may exhibit a strain-softening behavior after failure. The importance of post-peak behavior of rock mass for rock engineering design has already been recognized (Hoek & Brown 1997, Russo et. al. 1998, Ribacchi 2000) and recently emphasized (Cai et. al., 2007), since it may have a strong influence on the stability of the underground excavations. Sofianos & Nomikos (2006) presented two methods, BFe and EMR, to calculate the equivalent MC rock mass strength parameters for axisymmetric tunnels in plastic or brittle rock. These are shortly described in the following.

ISRM-SINOROCK-2009-095

ISRM International Symposium on Rock Mechanics - SINOROCK 2009

SPE Disciplines:

Instability analysis about saturated rocks is carried out to understand the initiation and evolution of rock landslides and rock-falling. The spatial development of a single shear band in saturated rocks for anti-plane shear deformation is mainly investigated here. It is shown that if the angle between the proportional loading path and the direction of the localization

The issue of the inception of localized shearing in rocks subjected to undrained deformation has been the object of both theoretical as well as experimental research. Theoretical contributions are related mainly to stability and bifurcation analysis of diffused and localized failure models (Rice, 1975). Typically, the stability problem is formulated by considering small perturbations in field variables ( e.g. displacement and pore pressure ). Classical continuum approach leads, in this case, to the ordinary diffusion equation for the perturbation in pore pressure (Rice, 1975). The results indicated that the uniform response is often followed by the onset of a diffused, nonhomogeneous deformation model, after which distinct shear bands form. However, this problem is often discussed under inertia-free undrained conditions ( Rice, 1975; Pietruszczak et al 1993). Anti-shear is a commonly load bear by Rocks in the condition of earthquake, wind load etc.. Nevertheless, study on the failure under this type of load is few.

In viewpoint of above, we will investigate the spatial development of a single shear band for anti-plane shear deformation in this paper so as to obtain a comprehensive and precise picture of the instability phenomenon by using of the method of Douglas &Chen [1985].

(Equation in full paper)

Substitution of the equation above into the controlling equations (3) and (12) gives the first order.

ISRM-SINOROCK-2009-190

ISRM International Symposium on Rock Mechanics - SINOROCK 2009

abutment, annular pressure drilling, beam, Bridge, damage, design, displacement, Earthquake, foundation, geomechanics, gravity, lifeline engineering, Pier, plate, structure, tunnel, type, wall, wellbore integrity, Wenchuan Earthquake

Oilfield Places:

- Asia > China > Sichuan Province > Sichuan Basin (0.99)
- Asia > China > South China Sea > China Basin (0.97)

When dealing with tunnels in weak rock mass and with high overburden, the high displacements imposed on the lining dictate the application of ductile yielding elements with controllable stiffness and yield load. These properties are chosen with two goals in mind: the time-dependent strength of the shotcrete shell must not be exceeded; however the support pressure must be kept reasonably high and controllable. The attainable load-displacement lines of the ductile support elements are almost arbitrary. There are almost countless possible combinations of their stiffness and yield load, thus enabling the development of custom-tailored support systems and leaving considerable room for adapting to the encountered ground conditions. Tunneling in weak ground should be accompanied by increased efforts on monitoring the system behavior, best by a dense pattern of absolute displacement measurements. A simple technique for calculating the shotcrete utilization ratio has been developed. It applies a Newton- Raphson root-finding algorithm to determine the interpolation parameters while obeying the requirements of force equilibrium and fitting the measured displacements. The influence of non- symmetrical displacement behavior caused by heterogeneity and anisotropy of the rock mass, on the lining loading can be quantified and used for support system optimization.**1. INTRODUCTION**High primary stresses associated with tectonic faulting frequently create problems during construction of Alpine base tunnels. Keeping the displacements in a range which could be sustained by the support would lead to economically unfeasible lining thickness.

Ductile lining systems using in mining cannot be be transferred to traffic tunnels with their requirement of long term stability. First concepts of yielding supports for tunnels date back to the nineteen fifties (Rabcewicz 1950).

The technical requirements posed on a ductile support system are quite clear:

- The load-displacement characteristics should be “steerable” within a broad range, allowing the avoidance of overstressing the shotcrete shell, while enabling easy modifications in order to cope with the ground heterogeneity and usually long-lasting displacement increments.
- The support resistance has to be reasonably high, allowing a certain amount of control over the displacement magnitude.

(Figure in full paper)

ISRM-SINOROCK-2009-162

ISRM International Symposium on Rock Mechanics - SINOROCK 2009

behaviour, boundary, calculation, displacement, element, Figure, function, lining, loading, measurement, method, optimization problem, parameter, point, position, shotcrete, shotcrete utilization, stress, support, system

SPE Disciplines:

Hyun, K. (The university of Tokyo) | Yamatomi, J. (The university of Tokyo) | Murakami, S. (The university of Tokyo) | Kurakami, T. (Sumitomo Metal Mining Co.,Ltd.) | Sagawa, Y. (Sumitomo Metal Mining Oceania Pty. Ltd)

The Hishikari Mine, the only gold mine operating in Japan, consists of epithermal gold-silver veins. In 2007, the mine produced 183,000 tonnes of ore, with gold grade of 46 g/t. The veins are extracted mainly by drifting and bench stoping with backfill. Blasted waste rocks are generally used as backfill materials and crushed waste rocks with cement are used for larger stopes. In order to extract one of the veins with wider mineralization and lower grade, closely located to the narrower vein with higher grade of gold, we have studied the applicability of the sub-level open stoping with backfill through in-situ measurements and numerical analyses. Backfilling controls the displacement of excavated surfaces and increases the stope stability, but practical evaluation of a larger open stope created by the sub-level open stoping than the conventional drifting and bench stoping in conjunction with supporting effects of backfilling has not been established yet. The paper presents an approach to estimate supporting effects of backfilling by using FLAC3D numerical analyses and design the backfill quality and mining sequence for more stable and steady operations.

In the earliest years, bench stoping of smaller dimension with the height of 11 m was adopted. Then the engineering evaluation of the rock mass was employed, and as the mining operators have advanced in skill and experience, the stope dimension has been getting larger (Sato et al. 2007). Today the height of stope dimension is 19 m in the Honzan district and 24 m in the Yamada district of the mine.

Large stope dimensions in bench stoping and sublevel open stoping make it possible to achieve higher productivity, but have a risk of inducing instability of the stope. Backfilling controls the displacement of excavation surface and increases the stope stability, but practical evaluation for stope dimension in conjunction with backfilling effects has not been established yet. In this paper, we have proposed an approach to evaluate supporting effects of backfilling by using numerical analyses and design the backfill quality and mining sequence for more stable and steady operations.

(Figure in full paper)

ISRM-SINOROCK-2009-121

ISRM International Symposium on Rock Mechanics - SINOROCK 2009

analysis, backfill, dimension, displacement, effect, expansion, Figure, Hishikari Mine, measurement, mining, pillar, reservoir geomechanics, reservoir simulation, rock mass, stability, stope, surface, vein, wellbore integrity

SPE Disciplines:

An excavation slope in left abutment trough of Xiluodu arch dam has 380 meters or so. In order to ensure safety of the excavation slope, the designed excavation and reinforcement process of the slope is simulated systematically with self-developed 3D elasto-viscoplastic finite element method (FEM) analysis program based on the model of reinforced jointed rock masses. Distribution patterns of displacements, stresses and point safety factors of the rock slope and reinforcement effects under tectonic initial geostress field are analyzed and the slope stability is evaluated in each excavation step. The simulation results show that displacements of the excavated slope between 470 meter and 400 meter in elevation are relatively bigger and its yield zone extends deeper into the mountain body in the designed excavation and reinforcement scheme. Supplementary reinforcements with some pre-stress cables are suggested for strengthening the excavation slope from 470 meter to 400 meter in elevation. The numerical simulation results show that the new reinforcements help improve the stability of the excavation slope in left abutment trough and ensure the safety of the slope.

In order to ensure the stability and safety of the excavation slope, many supports should be utilized to reinforce the slope in a construction period, which are pre-stress cables, pre-stress bolts, systematic bolts, etc.. Which position should be reinforced, and how many bolts and cables should be adopted are focuses of engineering design and construction. Unsuitable reinforcement measures and reinforced locations will not prevent slope from instability effectively and only increase engineering investments. Consequently it has a great significance to study excavation slope stability and reinforced effects of corresponding reinforcement measures with computer aided simulation technologies before the slope excavation (FENG Xue-min, WANG Wei-ming, et al., 2004)

Finite element method has gained popularity in analyzing geotechnical problems for fewer assumptions and more powerful functions (Chen, S.H., Egger, P.,1999; Chen Sheng-hong, Qing Wei-xin, Shahrour Isam, 2007).The excavation and reinforcement process of rock slope can be simulated conveniently by finite element method with suitable constitutive models of geomaterials.

ISRM-SINOROCK-2009-101

ISRM International Symposium on Rock Mechanics - SINOROCK 2009

condition, criterion, displacement, equation, failure criterion, geomechanics, model, parameter, plastic, plastic zone, radial, reservoir simulation, rock, rock mass, solution, strain, strength, stress, tunnel, wellbore integrity

SPE Disciplines:

Siah Bishe Powerhouse Cavern and other related excavations have been modeled by 3D numerical programs. The main concern in this large span underground space was closely bedded rock formations which are mostly quartzitic sandstones and reddish-brown and blackish siltstone of shaly appearance with low RQD index. This had raised doubts about its long term stability. Sheared and altered zones which cross the cavern axis are the most problematic sections of the project. Excavation sequences in powerhouse cavern as well as support systems have been also simulated. Regarding the closely spaced bedding planes, sections including the sedimentary rocks and shear zones have been simulated as transversely isotropic materials. The results obtained from installed extensometers in sidewalls of powerhouse cavern show good agreement with the displacements obtained from numerical results.Comparing the induced stresses in elements surrounding the excavated opening and their strength, a safety factor is determined for rock mass surrounding the powerhouse cavern. Results obtained from evaluation of safety factor show some unstable zones around the cavern in the first & the second monitoring sections (chainage 26m & 48.7m) due to the existence of the main sheared zone. An unstable zone also extends between transformer and powerhouse caverns in the third monitoring section (chainage 67.1m).

In current study, Siah Bishe powerhouse cavern and related excavations including transformer cavern and main galleries and tunnels joining to the powerhouse cavern have been modeled by 3D finite difference numerical model.

Due to the closely spaced bedded sedimentary rocks around the cavern, the transversely isotropic elastic model was chosen to simulate the powerhouse cavern and related excavations. A safety factor is determined and used to analyze the stability of powerhouse cavern in different sections.

In closely spaced discontinuities, in comparison with the size of span, the excavation space can be treated as a homogeneous but transversely isotropic material where properties in direction parallel to the joints are different from those perpendicular to them (Vicenzi et al. 2001).

The rock mass around the cavern is basically consisted of closely bedded sedimentary rocks, including quartzitic sandstone and reddish brown siltstone of shaly appearance and also an altered sheared zone. The furthest end of the cavern (last 30 meters) is located in volcanic rocks which are simply simulated by isotropic elastic models.

An equivalent transversely isotropic model is used for closely bedded sedimentary rock mass and the sheared zone.

ISRM-SINOROCK-2009-093

ISRM International Symposium on Rock Mechanics - SINOROCK 2009

cavern, Chainage, Closely, displacement, excavation, extensometer, Figure, formation evaluation, model, monitoring section, powerhouse cavern, rock, rock mass, safety factor, transversely, zone

SPE Disciplines: Reservoir Description and Dynamics > Reservoir Characterization > Exploration, development, structural geology (0.98)