Haider, Bader Y.A. (Kuwait Oil Company) | Rachapudi, Rama Rao Venkata Subba (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Yahya, Mohammad (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Mutairi, Talal (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al Deyain, Khaled Waleed (Kuwait Oil Company)
Production from Artificially lifted (ESP) well depends on the performance of ESP and reservoir inflow. Realtime monitoring of ESP performance and reservoir productivity is essential for production optimization and this in turn will help in improving the ESP run life. Realtime Workflow was developed to track the ESP performance and well productivity using Realtime ESP sensor data. This workflow was automated by using real time data server and results were made available through Desk top application.
Realtime ESP performance information was used in regular well reviews to identify the problems with ESP performance, to investigate the opportunity for increasing the production. Further ESP real time data combined with well model analysis was used in addressing well problems.
This paper describes about the workflow design, automation and real field case implementation of optimization decisions. Ultimately, this workflow helped in extending the ESP run life and created a well performance monitoring system that eliminated the manual maintenance of the data .In Future, this workflow will be part of full field Digital oil field implementation.
Al-salali, Yousef Zaid (Kuwait Oil Company) | Ayyavoo, ManiMaran (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-ibrahim, Abdullah Reda (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Bader, Haifa (Kuwait Oil Company) | Duggirala, Vidya Sagar (Kuwait Oil Company) | Subban, Packirisamy (Kuwait Oil Company)
This paper discusses the outstanding performance achieved in a deep HPHTJurassic formation drilled using Potassium Formate based fluid. This paper alsodescribes methodology adopted for short term testing and stimulation of anexploratory well and finally the field results.
Drilling and completion of deep Jurassic formations in the state of Kuwaitis generally done with Oil Base Mud (OBM) weighted with Barite. Duringdrilling, barite causes significant formation damage to the carbonates withnatural fractures and it is essential to stimulate the well to evaluate thereal reservoir potential. Formation damage is usually treated with matrix acidstimulation, however barite does not respond to acid. Kuwait Oil Company (KOC)was in search for an alternative drilling fluid causing relatively lessformation damage and also responds to remedial actions. Potassium Formate brinewith suitable weighting agent to achieve sufficient mud weight around 16ppg wasselected for field trial in one of the exploratory wells. Formate based brineis a high-density Water Base Mud (WBM) which maintains rheological stability athigh temperature and minimizes formation damage.
Last 2,000 feet in 6" hole section of 18,000 feet well was drilled using15.9 ppg Potassium Formate WBM. During short term testing, acid wash alone wassufficient to remove the formation damage and productivity has tripled which isunlikely in case of wells drilled with OBM.
This case study shows how Potassium Formate based mud enhanced theproductivity and reduced the testing time and cost. Based on the successfulfield test results, it is planned to drill future Jurassic deep formation withPotassium Formate based fluids in future.
The well drainage pressure and radius are key parameters of real-time well and reservoir performance optimization, well test design and new wells' location identification. Currently, the primary method of estimating the well drainage radius is buildup tests and their subsequent well test analysis. Such buildup tests are conducted using wireline-run quartz gauges for an extended well shut-in period resulting in deferred production and risky operations.
A calculation method for predicting well/reservoir drainage pressure and radius is proposed based on single-downhole pressure gauge, flowing well parameters and PVT data. The proposed method uses a simple approach and applies established well testing equations on the flowing pressure and rates of a well to estimate its drainage parameters. This method of estimation is therefore not only desirable, but also necessary to eliminate shutting-in producing wells for extended periods; in addition to avoiding the cost and risk associated with the wireline operations. The results of this calculation method has been confirmed against measured downhole, shut-in pressure using wireline run gauges as well as dual gauge completed wells in addition to estimated well parameters from buildup tests.
This paper covers the procedure of the real-time estimation of the well/reservoir drainage pressure and radius in addition to an error estimation method between the measured and calculated parameters. Furthermore, the paper shows the value, applicability and validity of this technique through multiple examples.
Gupta, Shilpi (Schlumberger) | Pandey, Arun (Schlumberger) | Ogra, Konark (Schlumberger) | Sinha, Ravi (Schlumberger) | Chandra, Yogesh (ONGC) | Singh, PP (ONGC) | Koushik, YD (ONGC) | Verma, Vibhor (Schlumberger) | Chaudhary, Sunil (Oil & Natural Gas Corp. Ltd.)
Production logging has been traditionally used for zonal quantification of layers for identification of most obvious workover for water shut off, acid wash or reperforation candidate identification. The basic sensors help in making some of the critical decisions for immediate gain in oil production or reduction in water cut. However, this technology can be used in a non standard format for various purposes including multilayer testing to obtain layer wise permeability and skin factor using pressure and flow rate transient data acquired with production logging tools. This is very crucial and complements the present wellbore flow phenomenon to better understand relative zonal performance of well at any stage of its production. In addition, production logging along with the pulsed neutron technique is very crucial to evaluate the complete wellbore phenomenon, understand some of the behind the production string fluid flow behaviors. Another major concern in low flow rate wells is recirculation, causing fall back of heavier water phase while lighter phase like oil and gas move upwards. This well bore phenomenon renders the quantification from production logging string, and this in extension also prevents any comprehensive workover decisions on the well because of the risk involved. Oil rate computation from hydrocarbon bubble rates becomes very critical in such scenarios to bring out the most optimal results and enhance confidence in workover decisions. Another key concern in any reservoir is to evaluate the productivity Index; this is even more critical once the field is on production. It is essential to determine the performance of various commingled layers and reform the Injector producer strategy for pressure support or immediate workover. Selective Inflow performance is a technique used to identify the Productivity index of various layers in a commingled situation. This paper elaborates on various non conventional uses of production logging from the western offshore India.
Brown field management has been a key focus in the western offshore region. Over the last decade cased hole production logging for evaluation of reservoir phenomenon has been the backbone of workover operation in western offshore India. Besides the usual operations production logging has been pivotal in determining various important parameters for field development. Various unconventional uses require understanding of the tool physics and limitation. Advanced generation of production logging tools not only provide additional information in terms of wellbore flow fractions, slippage velocities and complex flow regimes but their basic outputs can also be utilized in variety of applications for reservoir evaluation and wellbore flow monitoring. Following sections describe several case studies describing unconventional usage of production logging outcomes.
Unconventional Applications of Production Logging
Case Study 1: Selective Inflow Performance
Field wise production logging has always been an excellent source to evaluate the open hole results and suggest some immediate workover to optimise the production. Selective Inflow performance is new variation in the already existing technique used to identify the Productivity index of various layers in a commingled situation. This operation can provide us with the openhole flow potential of the well and thus help in mapping the flow profile in the reservoir. A multichoke production logging survey usually covering two to three choke sizes is performed and flow profiling for each survey is done.
In recent times the topic of well barrier integrity has become increasingly salient. Within the well completion arena, there have traditionally been two main alternatives for barrier plugs used for packer setting or temporary well abandonment; these are the metallic flapper or ball type isolation plugs. This paper describes the evolution of an innovative glass type barrier plug from its first appearance in the oilfield in 2004, to the deployment of third generation prototype systems into wells in the North Sea today.
Traditional ball or flapper type plug systems need to operate in two states: open and closed. This functionality typically necessitates the use of dynamic seals, which also have to compensate for the pressure differential applied across the plug. Plugs built in this manner can be prone to malfunctions in the dynamic seals and have limitations as to the pressure differentials that can be applied to them when opening. Additionally as the balls or flappers themselves are traditionally manufactured using metallic alloys, in the event that a plug fails to open the only alternative is milling, which if successful, will still leave a restriction in the well limiting options for future well interventions.
Glass barrier plugs have to operate in two slightly different states, solid or shattered. When the plug is run in hole the glass is in a solid state with pressure integrity maintained using static elastomeric seals. Once well operations have progressed to the stage when the plug needs to be opened, a preinstalled trip saver can be activated which would shatter the glass and open well communication. Operating in this manner avoids the use of dynamic seals thereby increasing plug reliability. Other major advantages are that the differential pressure applied across the plug when opening has no effect on the plugs functionality and since the plug is made out of glass, in the event of a trip saver malfunction the plug can be opened using a shoot down tool, a spear, or milled within approximately 10 minutes using a wireline tractor (Welltec, 2011) leaving a full bore ID for future well interventions.
This paper describes how BP Norway and TCO used the lessons learned from two generations of Glass Barrier Plugs (GBPs) to develop a system with increased debris tolerance, improved redundancy and a larger inner diameter.
Pressure maintenance support in mature fields where permeability heterogeneity is present requires proper distribution of injected water into the respective zones of interest. This process can be extremely challenging, if no method for allocating the proper amount of water into each zone is available. An operator in the South China Sea, who had initiated a water injection project using legacy single-string two-zone completion technologies, found himself in this predicament, since no selective control for pressure maintenance had been considered for the project.
During the past few years, the application of intelligent completion (IC) technology has increased rapidly. This acceptance has been due primarily to its proven capabilities for reservoir monitoring and corresponding optimization of well performance without well interventions. Historically, the majority of IC applications have been in production wells; however, an increasing number of operators have started adopting IC technology for their injector wells.
This paper presents a case study in which IC technology was successfully applied in an offshore field in the South China Sea to provide an efficient water-injection method for optimizing pressure support as well as sweep. The operator selected this technology, as it presented a solution for optimizing the water injection. In addition to eliminating problems experienced with the incapability of the legacy completion technology to monitor water allocation and pressure maintenance for each zone, the IC technology would allow selective well testing for each zone. By evaluating the reservoir properties and characteristics of each zone independently, an intelligent completion would provide another key benefit to the operator, since it would comply with the platform size restrictions for the pumping equipment.
The paper will discuss field objectives, the conceptual design, the design obstacles, and the operational challenges experienced during the job execution.
A multilateral (MLT) well with an advanced intelligent completion string was recently completed in the Middle East. The well was designed as a "stacked?? dual producer in the upper and lower reservoir, and was drilled using the latest geo-steering techniques to accurately place the wellbore in a highly faulted and geologically complex structure. Rotary-steerable drilling systems (RSS) were used in several of the hole sections, along with advanced logging-while-drilling (LWD) tools including multi-pole acoustic, azimuthal deep resistivity, and resistivity at bit. Encounters with unstable shale and faults made the drilling difficult, but the decisions made in real-time to navigate the well resulted in a very high percentage of net pay in both laterals.
This well combined TAML Level 4 multilateral (MLT) technology with passive inflow control devices in the laterals and an advanced intelligent completion system in the mainbore. The TAML Level 4 multilateral junction was cemented to isolate unstable shale above the reservoir and to provide zonal isolation from the lateral completions, which were compartmentalized into stages with proprietary swellable packers and inflow control devices (ICDs). The intelligent completion was run in the mainbore with two interval control valves (ICVs) and isolation ball valve (LV ICV) to manage the production from each of the two laterals independently. The ICVs and LV ICV are controlled hydraulically through four control lines to surface, which were run in a flat-pack with one electric line to control a downhole gauge package for each lateral. Finally, the well was configured to allow the installation of a large electric submersible pump (ESP) to be run inside the upper 9-5/8-in. production tubing.
This project required intensive planning and coordination for more than a year in advance, which made the project successful despite the difficult drilling conditions and resulted in very little NPT for wellbore construction operations. This paper will focus on the planning, execution and lessons learned from the project.
In the existing horizontal wells in the target sand reservoir of the target field, premature water breakthrough caused the water cut trend to increase within months of production. . This occurred because the reservoir has a very high permeability sands along with active faults containing high viscous reservoir fluids.
New technologies were required to overcome the issue, maximize reservoir contact and enhance a more uniform oil production from a single location. Introducing the smart TAML Level-4 MLT well design to this reservoir along with inflow control device (ICD), inflow control valve (ICV), isolation ball valve (LV ICV) and other downhole gauges proved to be the optimum solution. It also aided in managing the production and the reservoir proactively to achieve maximum oil recovery. Moreover, drilling several laterals from a single wellbore with the ability to control production from both laterals had a great economic advantage because of the optimized cost effective field management.
Al-Kuait, A.M.S. (Saudi Aramco) | Al-yateem, Karam Sami (ARAMCO Services Company) | Olivares, Tulio (Halliburton) | Zubail, Makki A. (Saudi Aramco) | El Bialy, Moustafa (Halliburton) | Ezell, Ryan G. (Halliburton) | Maghrabi, Shadaab (Halliburton)
Safaniya is one of largest offshore oil fields located north of Dhahran in Saudi Arabia. It is 50 km by 15 km in size and began production in 1956. Lately, a few wells drilled in this field showed reservoir damage where the production dropped or the well had no flow. Workover operations were performed on six wells and two new wells were drilled. For all eight wells, 6?-in. laterals were drilled through the reservoirs with an engineered invert emulsion drilling fluid (RDF). The RDF design was controlled to ensure an acid-soluble, thin, external filter cake with no fines invasion. The vulnerability of the filter cake to be attacked by the acid was fundamental to this RDF design. A delayed filter cake breaker fluid was then designed for use on the 6?-in. laterals; this fluid consisted of an organic acid precursor (OAP) and a water wetting additive. The OAP released acid in a delayed manner, whereas the water wetting additive made the oil-based filter cake water wet, to make it vulnerable to acid attack. With this approach, the filter cake was removed uniformly in all subject laterals across the reservoir. The production data on the eight wells treated with the OAP show an improved oil production rate of more than 4,000 B/D for six of the eight wells, which exceeds the key performance indicator (KPI) set for the laterals. In previous years from 2005-10, the six workover wells showed, on average, very low oil production rates (OPR) comparatively. In addition, after the OAP treatment, these six wells show higher well flow head pressures than in 2005-10. The water cut percentage on these laterals was 0 or less than 1, compared to 2005-10, when the water cut percentage varied from 8% to 50% for these workover wells. This paper discusses the workover operation of the six wells and the drilling and delayed stimulation treatment on two new wells in the Safaniya field, including laboratory evaluation, field application and production data.
Hassan, Hany Mohamed (Petroleum Development Oman) | Al-hattali, Ahmed Salim (Petroleum Development Oman) | Al Nabhani, Salim Hamed (Petroleum Development Oman) | Al Kalbani, Ammar (Petroleum Development Oman) | Al Hattali, Ahmed (Petroleum Development Oman) | Rubaiey, Faisal (Petroleum Development Oman) | Al Marhoon, Nadhal Omar (Petroleum Development Oman) | Al-Hashami, Ahmed (Petroleum Deveopment Oman)
A cluster area "H" consists of 4 carbonate gas fields producing dry gas from N-A reservoir in the Northern area of Oman. These fields are producing with different maturity levels since 1968. An FDP study was done in 2006 which proposed drilling of 7 additional vertical wells beside the already existing 5 wells to develop the reserves and enhance gas production from the fields. The FDP well planning was based on a seismic amplitude "QI" study that recommended drilling the areas with high amplitudes as an indication for gas presence, and it ignored the low amplitude areas even if it is structurally high. A follow up study was conducted in 2010 for "H" area fields using the same seismic data and the well data drilled post FDP. The new static and dynamic work revealed the wrong aspect of the 2006 QI study, and proved with evidence from well logs and production data that low seismic amplitudes in high structural areas have sweet spots of good reservoir quality rock. This has led to changing the old appraisal strategy and planning more wells in low amplitude areas with high structure and hence discovering new blocks that increased the reserves of the fields.
Furthermore, water production in these fields started much earlier than FDP expectation. The subsurface team have integrated deeply with the operation team and started a project to find new solutions to handle the water production and enhance the gas rate. The subsurface team also started drilling horizontal wells in the fields to increase the UR, delay the water production and also reduce the wells total CAPEX by drilling less horizontal wells compared to many vertical as they have higher production and recovery. These subsurface and surface activities have successfully helped to stabilize and increase the production of "H" area cluster by developing more reserves and handling the water production.
The time taken to safely optimise a reservoir produced by artificial lift can be measured in weeks or months.
Typically the well by well process is as follows:
• Well testing
• Amalgamation of the well test data with down hole gauge and ESP controller data
• Analysis of the data to find the existing operation conditions
• Analysis of the ESP pump curve operating point and optimisation limitations
• Sensitivity studies in software to assess the optimum frequency and WHP
• Notification for the field operations to action the changes
• Further well tests to verify the new production data.
• Analysis of the data to ensure the ESP and well are running optimally and safely at the new set points
New technology enables this process to be performed in real time across the entire reservoir or field, significantly shortening the time to increased production and enabling real time reservoir management.
Each artificially lifted well in the reservoir was equipped with an intelligent data processing device programmed with a real time model of the well. The processors were linked to a central access point where the operation of field could be remotely viewed in real time.
Each well's processor was provided with a target bottom hole flowing pressure to enable the optimum production of the reservoir. The real time system automatically compared the desired target drawdown values with the capability of the pumping system installed in each well, and automatically suggested the optimum operating frequency and well head pressure to achieve the target. Where the lift system was not capable of producing to the target bottom hole pressure, a larger pump was automatically recommended. As production conditions change the system adapted its recommended operating points to compensate and maintain target production.
This paper discusses three case studies where real time optimisation and diagnosis lead to improved production from the reservoir.