The oil-water interfacial tension (IFT) is by all means important in capillary pressure estimation and fluid-fluid and fluid-rock interactions analysis. Observations from experimental data indicate that oil-water IFT is a function of pressure, temperature, and compositions of oil and water. A reliable correlation to estimate oil-water IFT is highly desire. Unfortunately to our best knowledge no correlation that uses the compositions of oil and water as inputs is available. Our work is to fill this gap.
In this research, we collected data from former studies and investigations and developed a correlation for oil-water IFT. In the proposed correlation oil-water IFT is a function of system pressure, temperature, and compositions of oil and water. Error analysis was conducted to check the accuracy of the equation by comparing the calculated values with the experimental data. The results indicated that the new correlation predicts reliable oil-water IFTs. Our correlation calculates the oil-water IFT from system pressure, temperature, and compositions of oil and water. It addresses the effect of composition of oil on IFT, which is not presented in existing correlations. Therefore it can not only be applied in the calculation of capillary pressure in the compositional simulation, but also be used in daily petroleum engineering calculation such as waterflooding analysis.
Arif, Muhammad (University of Engineering and Technology) | Bhatti, Amanat Ali (University of Engineering and Technology) | Khan, Ahmed Saeed (University of Engineering and Technology) | Haider, Syed Afraz (Kuwait Foreign Petroleum Exploration Company (KUFPEC))
It has long been proved experimentally that the tight gas sands are more pronounced to stress changes as compared to moderate and high permeability reservoirs because of the narrow flow channels of the formation . The consideration of the effect of stress in the evaluation and production performance of tight gas reservoirs is very important in order to make right decisions regarding their development. Due to hydrocarbon production, the effective stress increases causing a reduction in permeability and porosity of the porous medium.
The conventional pressure transient analysis techniques in gas wells based on constant permeability would become unreliable . Consequently, the incorrect evaluation of permeability leads towards wrong decision regarding well stimulation. Also the inflow performance modeling of tight gas reservoirs based on constant permeability will not be corrected as far as evaluation of well's production potential is concerned.
Few studies on tight gas reservoirs considering the effect of stress sensitive permeability used the Raghavan's stress dependent pseudo-pressure approach  for which pressure vs. permeability data was determined experimentally. But, if laboratory data is not available then there is need to develop an analytical approach to generate the pressure vs. permeability data required for the use of stress dependent pseudo-pressure in reservoir evaluation and production performance studies in tight gas reservoirs.
The objective of this paper is to develop an analytical approach, in the absence of lab data, to generate pressure vs. permeability data for the determination of stress dependent pseudo-pressure. This stress dependent pseudo-pressure is used for well test analysis to determine the stress sensitive formation permeability and also to generate production performance in tight gas reservoirs. The developed technique has also been implemented on the field data of a tight gas reservoir to validate the results by using actual well's production history.
Hole enlargement is a serious problem while drilling in permafrostconditions. The hole enlargement problems leads to lost circulation. Irregularand unstable holes also affect the quality of cement jobs. The drilling fluidis generally at a higher temperature than the permafrost formation. This causesa heat transfer from the drilling fluid to the formation. The ice particlesbinding the sediments together start to melt. This loosens up thesediments and causes caving. This paper proposes to minimize this problem witha low thermal conductivity fluid.
The drilling fluid can be cooled at the surface after it comes out of theannulus and before it is circulated back into the drill string. Cooling reducesthe temperature gradient between the fluid and formation. But this cooling isnot enough since the permafrost is at subzero temperatures and cooling to suchlow temperatures is not economically and practically feasible. This is wherethe innovative drilling fluid comes in. The drilling fluid shall have hollowmicrospheres. These microspheres are easily available commercially undervarious trade names. These microspheres lower the heat transfer coefficient ofthe fluid. This means that a significantly small amount of heat will betransferred from the drilling fluid to the formation. Low temperaturegradient and low thermal conductivity will work in conjunction.
The drilling fluid shall have a low heat transfer coefficient of 2.9-3BTU/hr.ft2.oF. The composition of the fluid and the heattransfer coefficient measuring experimental setup shall be discussed in thepaper. The paper shall also discuss the effects of heat transfer coefficient,circulation rates etc. on the thawing of permafrost.
The technique in this paper could go a long way in mitigating drillingproblems in permafrost regions.
Asphaltene Precipitation and Deposition is a serious problem which can reduce the oil recovery by reducing reservoir permeability and altering the wettability. It can plug wells and flow lines through deposition and also cause separation difficulties at the separation facilities. Taking preventive measures are always a wise solution rather than attempting to resolve issues when they are occurred.
This study proposes a strategy and provides the comprehensive review of the methodology required to predict and prevent Asphaltene Precipitation.
Light crude oil samples were taken to be characterized for their thermodynamic properties. The saturation pressure and Asphaltene Onset Point (AOP) were measured at different pressures, temperatures and compositional changes using the Solid Detection System (SDS). Phase diagram and Asphaltene Precipitation Envelopes (APE) were developed. Cubic Plus Association (CPA) equation of state was used to develop the Asphaltene phase envelope using Multiflash (infochem). Titration technique was used to obtain the AsphalteneFloculation point (AFP) using the dead oil and n-Heptane as a precipitant. Effect of different inhibitors was then evaluated using the Solid Detection System (SDS) equipment using the titration technique. Rock-Inhibitor Compatibility was then checked in the reservoir core samples by performing the dynamic core flooding test in the laboratory.
Conclusively, this strategy helps to enhance the reservoir performance by minimizing the asphaltene precipitation and will save the cost associated with the consequences of high asphaltene precipitation.
Asphaltene is a complex fraction of crude oil which is normally defined as a solubility class rather than chemical. Asphaltene is insoluble in n-alkanes but soluble in aromatics such as benzene or toluene . It is a semi solid material which is precipitated from the crude oil upon the change in composition, pressure or temperature. Asphaltene instability which causes precipitation is unrelated to the amount of asphaltene in the crude oil. However, Asphaltene stability depends on the properties of asphaltene itself and the properties of the rest of the fractions of crude oil. 
There are large oil and gas resources in the shear zone region of theBeaufort Sea. Development of these resources would entail many factorsfor consideration. One of the most important is the ice load on drillingand production platforms. However, there is very large uncertainty on theice loads in this region due to a clear lack of knowledge of the pack icedriving forces. This pack ice driving force is one of the primarymechanisms that dictate how much force the ice can exert on an offshoreplatform, even if large multi-year ice floes are present. Improvedknowledge of this force would significantly reduce uncertainty in the designice loads, provide essential baseline engineering knowledge and a more reliablestructure, leading to greater regulatory certainty and safer and moreeconomical offshore operations.
The pack ice driving force, as a function of width, can be calculatedthrough an equation in the ISO Arctic Offshore Structures Standard. However, a relevant parameter is still poorly defined for this equationand spans a large range. As a result, calculations of driving forces arevery uncertain, yet it is the key limiting force mechanism for the BeaufortSea. This paper presents the results of a study that investigated meansof refining uncertainty when calculating pack ice driving forces. Anoverview of the standard method of determining these forces is given, as wellas a discussion of the historical development of, and implications ofuncertainty in, calculating the pack ice force. Methods for refining theuncertainty are presented and comparisons are discussed. Numericalmodelling studies offer the greatest potential for refining the uncertaintybased on cost, usefulness, confidence in the results and studyopportunities. The information provided in this paper has applicationsfor refinement of pack ice driving force calculations in current engineeringstandards. A clear understanding of the magnitude of pack ice drivingforces would help to reduce the risk of failure of engineering structures andimprove their safety, by enabling a significantly better definition of theanticipated ice loads and the upper limit of the loads for the BeaufortSea.
Hydrocarbon exploration in the Arctic environment will very much depend onour ability to continuously track ice floes and forecast ice events that maygenerate dangerous loads on exploration and production infrastructure. Wepresent a first-of-its-kind computational framework which is centered aroundnear-real-time satellite imagery and incorporates real-time metocean data,providing automated analysis of such hazards in regions where moving ice ispresent. Our automated framework carries out several ongoing operations: icedetection and classification from satellite images, floe tracking from oneimage to the next, forecasting of floe trajectories beyond the observed tracks,and estimation of an uncertainty cone around the trajectory forecast. Weutilized the IBM InfoSphere™ Streams real-time analytics platform to deploy oursoftware, which made it possible for us to concentrate exclusively onprototyping algorithms, taking for granted the streaming infrastructure neededfor real-time data ingestion and flow between operators. Given our experiencedeveloping this prototype we conclude that a production-worthy, automatedtracking and forecasting capability is computationally feasible and within ourreach.
A robust and efficient simulation technique is developed on the basis of the extension of the mimetic finite-difference method (MFDM) to multiscale hierarchical-hexahedral (corner-point) grids by use of the multiscale mixed-finite-element method (MsMFEM). The implementation of the mimetic subgrid-discretization method is compact and generic for a large class of grids and, thereby, is suitable for discretizations of reservoir models with complex geologic architecture. Flow equations are solved on a coarse grid where basis functions with subgrid resolution account accurately for subscale variations from an underlying fine-scale geomodel. The method relies on the construction of approximate velocity spaces that are adaptive to the local properties of the differential operator. A variant of the method for computing velocity basis functions is developed that uses an adaptive local/global (ALG) algorithm to compute multiscale velocity basis functions by capturing the principal characteristics of global flow. Both local and local/global methods generate subgrid-scale velocity fields that reproduce the impact of fine-scale stratigraphic architecture. By using multiscale basis functions to discretize the flow equations on a coarse grid, one can retain the efficiency of an upscaling method, while at the same time produce detailed and conservative velocity fields on the underlying fine grid.
The accuracy and efficacy of the multiscale method is compared with those of fine-scale models and of coarse-scale models with no subgrid treatment for several two-phase-flow scenarios. Numerical experiments involving two-phase incompressible flow and transport phenomena are carried out on high-resolution corner-point grids that represent explicitly example stratigraphic architectures found in real-life shallow-marine and turbidite reservoirs. The multiscale method is several times faster than the direct solution of the fine-scale problem and yields more-accurate solutions than coarse-scale modeling techniques that resort to explicit effective properties. The accuracy of the multiscale simulation method with adaptive local-/global-velocity basis functions is compared with that of the local velocity basis functions. The multiscale simulation results are consistently more accurate when the local/global method is employed for computing the velocity basis functions.
We simulate flow and transport directly onto pore-space images obtained from a microcomputed-tomography (microCT) scan of rock cores. An efficient Stokes solver is used to simulate low-Reynolds-number flows. The flow simulator uses a finite-difference method along with a standard predictor/corrector procedure to decouple pressure and velocity. An algebraic multigrid technique solves the linear systems of equations. We then predict permeability, and the results are compared with lattice-Boltzmann-method (LBM) numerical results and available experimental data.
For solute transport, we apply a streamline-based algorithm that is similar to the Pollock algorithm common in field-scale reservoir simulation, but which uses a novel semianalytic formulation near solid boundaries to capture, with subgrid resolution, the variation in velocity near the grains. A random-walk method accounts for molecular diffusion. The streamline-based algorithm is validated by comparison with published results for Taylor-Aris dispersion in a single capillary with a square cross section. We then predict accurately the available experimental data in the literature for the longitudinal dispersion coefficient for a range of Péclet numbers (10-2 to 106). We introduce a characteristic length on the basis of the ratio of volume to pore/grain surface area that can be used for consolidated porous media to calculate the Péclet number.
Oil wells typically have multiple concentric casing strings. For a set of two concentric strings, if the inner pipe has a compressive axial force, it will typically buckle within the outer string. The buckling of pipe can be important in the analysis of a well-completion design because the buckled pipe can develop bending stresses that may be significant. Most analyses of this problem assume that the outer casing is rigid. In reality, this external casing is also elastic and would displace owing to the loads generated by contact with the inner pipe. Further, if both strings have compressive axial forces, both strings will buckle, and the resulting buckled configuration must fit together so that contact forces between the two strings are positive and the pipes do not each occupy the same space. If the two strings have an external, cylindrical rigid wellbore, then any contact forces with this wellbore must also be positive, and the buckled pipe system must lie within this wellbore. The only known solution to the multiple concentric pipe-buckling problem is that of Christman (1976), who proposed a composite pipe based on the summed properties of the individual pipes. This analysis does not conform to the requirements posed in the preceding paragraph. This paper presents the various ways that two concentric pipes can interact when one or both pipes are in compression and would then have a tendency to buckle. The contact forces between the pipes and with the external wellbore are explicitly calculated, and contact or noncontact conditions are determined. All results are analytical so that they can easily be used in spreadsheets or hand calculations. Several examples of calculations are presented to illustrate how these results might be used.
The multiscale finite-volume (MSFV) method is designed to reduce the computational cost of elliptic and parabolic problems with highly heterogeneous anisotropic coefficients. The reduction is achieved by splitting the original global problem into a set of local problems (with approximate local boundary conditions) coupled by a coarse global problem. It has been shown recently that the numerical errors in MSFV results can be reduced systematically with an iterative procedure that provides a conservative velocity field after any iteration step. The iterative MSFV (i-MSFV) method can be obtained with an improved (smoothed) multiscale solution to enhance the localization conditions, with a Krylov subspace method [e.g., the generalized-minimal-residual (GMRES) algorithm] preconditioned by the MSFV system, or with a combination of both. In a multiphase-flow system, a balance between accuracy and computational efficiency should be achieved by finding a minimum number of i-MSFV iterations (on pressure), which is necessary to achieve the desired accuracy in the saturation solution. In this work, we extend the i-MSFV method to sequential implicit simulation of time-dependent problems. To control the error of the coupled saturation/pressure system, we analyze the transport error caused by an approximate velocity field. We then propose an error-control strategy on the basis of the residual of the pressure equation. At the beginning of simulation, the pressure solution is iterated until a specified accuracy is achieved. To minimize the number of iterations in a multiphase-flow problem, the solution at the previous timestep is used to improve the localization assumption at the current timestep. Additional iterations are used only when the residual becomes larger than a specified threshold value. Numerical results show that only a few iterations on average are necessary to improve the MSFV results significantly, even for very challenging problems. Therefore, the proposed adaptive strategy yields efficient and accurate simulation of multiphase flow in heterogeneous porous media.