Neber, Alexander (Schlumberger) | Cox, Stephanie (Schlumberger) | Levy, Tom (Schlumberger) | Schenk, Oliver (Schlumberger) | Tessen, Nicky (Schlumberger) | Wygrala, Bjorn (Schlumberger) | Bryant, Ian David (Schlumberger)
New tools are now available to provide a rigorous and systematic play-based exploration approach to the evaluation of unconventional resources. Coupled with petroleum system modeling, this methodology offers an efficient and effective approach to identify "sweet spots?? early in the life of resource plays. Petroleum system modeling can be applied to predict the type and quantity of hydrocarbon in shale formations, as well as the proportion of adsorbed gas and geomechanical properties that are important for hydraulic fracture stimulation of shale reservoirs. Maps of these properties are then converted to chance-of-success maps for hydrocarbon generation, retention, and pore volume that can be integrated with nongeological factors, such as access and drilling depth required to reach target reservoirs. These play-based maps are expressed in probability units, so simple map multiplication provides a map of the play's overall chance of success, delineating the sweet spots. A similar methodology is applicable to evaluation of coalbed methane resources.
In this paper, we illustrate this methodology using examples from shale oil and gas shale plays in North America. These include data-rich plays from the North Slope of Alaska and data-poor plays from the northeastern and southern regions of the United States, which are more representative of many Asia-Pacific basins. We show how predictions from petroleum system modeling based on sparse data provide a good match with results of subsequent development drilling and production.
Petroleum system-based assessment of resources in place, combined with an assessment of overall play risk, enables companies to make decisions on acquisition of acreage early in the life of unconventional resource plays based on the probability of them containing economically viable resources.
Streever, Bill (BP) | Ellison, William T. (Marine Acoustics, Inc.) | Frankel, Adam S. (Marine Acoustics, Inc.) | Racca, Roberto (Jasco Applied Sciences) | Angliss, Robyn (Alaska Fisheries Science Center, NMFS/NOAA) | Clark, Christopher (Cornell University) | Fleishman, Erica (University of California) | Guerra, Melania (Cornell University) | Leu, Matthias (The College of William and Mary) | Oliveira, Shirley (North Slope Borough) | Sformo, Todd (SEA, Inc.) | Southall, Brandon (North Slope Borough) | Suydam, Robert
Most assessments of multiple, interacting, and/or repeated anthropogenic underwater sounds (sometimes considered to be an aspect of cumulative effects assessment) rely on narrative descriptions rather than systematic evaluations. In 2010, recognizing the need to better understand the potential effects of multiple sound sources (such as vessels, drilling rigs, pile drivers and seismic operations), British Petroleum (BP) sponsored the University of California to convene an expert committee tasked with advancing a method of systematic evaluation. The method developed by the committee (1) identifies the species, region, and period to be assessed, (2) compiles data on relevant sound sources for that region and period, (3) models the acoustic footprint of those sources, (4) models the movement of simulated marine mammals (animats) through the acoustic footprint, and (5) aggregates data on sound exposure and movements for each of the simulated animals. The method was applied to a test case or trial loosely based on data from the Alaskan Beaufort Sea during a period of seismic exploration and other activities. Substantial additional work is needed to better define output metrics related to degradation of acoustic habitat and to understand the potential effects of multiple sound sources on individuals and populations. Nevertheless, the method provides a starting point that will lead to improved understanding of the implications of multiple underwater sound sources associated with industrial activities.
Marine Bio-Security is a global concern with significant relevance to the off-shore gas and oil production and exploration sector. An avalanche of legislation and regulation is delivering enforceable laws which compel ship owners/operators to adopt prescriptive procedures, protocols and practices to ensure that ballast water is eliminated, or at least substantially reduced as a major vector for the translocation of non-indigenous marine pests (NIMPS). The other main vector for the translocation of NIMPS has been identified as the wetted hull of commercial and military shipping and includes offshore support vessels, mobile offshore drilling units, crew transfer vessels, barges, landing craft and pipe laying vessels. Hull bio-fouling and associated niche areas are presently under the scientific microscope...and will follow the same path in terms of legislation and regulation.
During the Front End Engineering Design (FEED) stage of a project; scope, cost and schedule are locked down, the plans for construction are prepared and the licences, permits and access agreements obtained. Health, Environment and Safety (HES) deliverables include: assurance that the selected design options meet corporate and regulatory standards; input to ensure that the design is safe and environmentally responsible; the execution of baseline surveys and impact assessments to obtain required permits; the development of HES exhibits; and the review of tender documentation and contractor HES management plans. These activities, although often critical to project success are typically not tracked to completion alongside other project milestones.
This paper describes how during FEED, the Wheatstone Project built a specific HES Schedule from which were extracted a number of key milestones that were assigned a percentage contribution to the Final Investment Decision (FID). Any milestones interfacing with other delivery teams were integrated into the overall project plan with dependencies and links established. Progress for HES was then tracked alongside the progress of the rest of the project and a monthly dashboard produced as the prime communication vehicle for reporting performance.
This innovative approach put HES on the same footing as all the other project delivery teams and enabled HES conversations to take place in exactly the same manner as for engineering, commercial and technical disciplines. The integration of HES into project planning and progress measurement sharpened discipline around the delivery of milestones and the management attention afforded to them. The content of this paper and approach described can be used for future major capital projects throughout the oil and gas industry.
Technology is now available for real-time Industrial Hygiene monitoring of activities in locations such as offshore facilities, with viewing of the data remotely. The use of this technology can result in a more dynamic approach to hazard control, where the data being collected can be interpreted and control barriers altered in line with the results of monitoring. The data review can take place onshore by Industrial Hygiene specialists without the need to fly offshore. Encrypted data is transmitted via the internet for viewing onshore. No work on this application of real-time monitoring has been published previously. This innovative technology is being trailed by Shell in Australia in what is believed to be a world first.
Real-time personal monitoring equipment is available for monitoring of compounds such as VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds), benzene, heat stress, radiation and dust. The application of this type of monitoring is extremely useful in a dynamic environment such as offshore exploration drilling or during commissioning of new offshore facilities. In these environments there is limited opportunity for specialist resources such as Industrial Hygienists to be present offshore as operationally, manning levels are at their maximum during these periods.
The use of real-time monitoring with remote review by Industrial Hygiene specialist makes it possible to monitor unique, uncommon, or unplanned maintenance tasks that would otherwise be very difficult to capture.
This paper will provide results and conclusions from the trial of this technology during the refit of an LNG Tanker in Singapore and will describe how this technology may be implemented in remote facilities such as Shell's Prelude FLNG facility. The paper will also discuss likely advances in this technology over the next few years.