Al-Kandary, Ahmad (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Fares, Abdulaziz (Kuwait Oil Company) | Mulyono, Rinaldi (Kuwait Oil Company) | Ammar, Nada Mohammed (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al naeimi, Reem (Baker Hughes) | Hussain, Riyasat (Kuwait Oil Company) | Perumalla, Satya (Baker Hughes)
Role of geomechanics is becoming increasingly important with maturing of conventional reservoirs due to its implications in drilling, completion and production issues. Exploration and development of unconventional reservoirs involve maximizing the reservoir contact and hydraulic fracturing both of which are heavily dependent on geomechanical architecture of the reservoirs and thus require application of geomechanical concepts from the very beginning.
To support the unconventional exploration and conventional reservoir development in Kuwait, country-wide in-situ stress mapping exercise has been carried out in nine fields of Northern Kuwait. Stringent customized quality control measures were put in place to evaluate stress orientation. Cretaceous and sub-Gotnia Salt Jurassic rocks exhibit distinct patterns of stress orientations and magnitudes. While the variations in stress orientation in the Cretaceous rocks are within a small range (N40°E-N50°E) and consistent across major fault systems, the Jurassic formations exhibit high variability (N20°E-N90°E) with anomalous patterns across faults as well as in the vicinity of fracture corridors. Moreover, the overall stress magnitudes were found to be much higher in the strong Jurassic section compared with the relatively less strong Cretaceous strata. During the analysis, it was also observed that several natural fractures in Jurassic reservoirs appear to be critically stressed with evidences of rotation of breakouts.
Using geomechanical models from a specific field, the effects of in-situ stress, pore pressure and rock properties on formations were evaluated in inducing wellbore instability during drilling operations in a tight gas reservoir. It was found that the most favorable orientation for directional drilling is parallel to the maximum horizontal stress (SHmax) within that field.
The geomechanical study provided inputs not only for wellbore stability during drilling, but also regarding the response of natural fractures to in-situ stresses to become hydraulically conductive (permeable) to act as flow conduits. The fracture model of the field shows that the dominant fracture corridor trend in the field is NNE coinciding with present day in-situ maximum principal stress direction.
Acharya, Mihir Narayan (Kuwait Oil Company) | Kabir, Mir Md Rezaul (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Ajmi, Saad Abdulrahman Hassan (Kuwait Oil Company) | Pradhan, San Prasad (Kuwait Oil Company) | Dashti, Qasem M. (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-anzi, Ealian H.D. (Kuwait Oil Company) | Chakravorty, Sandeep (Schlumberger)
The deep, sub-salt reservoir complex is tiered with fractured tight carbonate at bottom and top, with the two sub-units of "upper unconventional kerogen?? and "lower inter-bedded kerogen-carbonate?? in the middle. This depositional setting is challenging for horizontal well placement where the thicknesses of respective sub-units are about 50 and 30 feet with varying geomechanical and petrophysical properties. Additionally, this complexity poses limitations in completions and effective stimulation of the Kimmeridgian-Oxfordian reservoirs in several gas fields at development stage in Kuwait.
A horizontal well is placed in the lower sub-unit of the laminated complex of unconventional kerogen and fractured carbonate reservoir as a Maximum Reservoir Contact (MRC) type well. A pilot mother-bore was drilled and logged to identify the lithological properties across the entire vertical domain - facilitates the optimization of horizontal drain-hole placement within the targeted reservoir units.
No wellbore stability issues in drilling were predicted based on the geomechanical understanding where core-calibrated logs from offset vertical wells were considered. However, this modeling method did not have the functionality to integrate the impact of drawdown on the laminated formation which became unstable and collapsed during the short open-hole drill-stem test (DST) plugging the tubing prior to the final completions. An alternative "book-shelf?? geomechanical model was considered at pre-drill stage for predicting the wellbore stability. Once the drilling was completed, the time-lapsed multi-arm caliper indicated the validity of the alternative methodology in predicting the unstable stack of laminations in kerogen-rich strata.
The paper discusses an optimization methodology to enhance the understanding of static and dynamic geomechanical stability through the use of BHI data. Objective of the proposed method is to help improve the effectiveness of completions where wellbore stability due to geomechanical complexity in stacked-pay reservoirs is a primary wellbore challenge in deploying the completions and executing a subsequent stimulation and testing campaign.
One of the major challenges of drilling and completion of oil and gas wells is the uncertainty in the formation fracture gradient and the fracture pressure. It is not uncommon that many drilling companies have spent money, resources and time in drilling and completing wells that should have been simply and optimally done. Fracture gradient evaluation constitutes one of the essential parameters in the pre-design stage of drilling operations, reservoir exploitations and stimulations. Several calculation methods and computer models have been presented in the literature for different regions of the world. Most of these techniques were based on either parametric or empirical correlations, which required a prior knowledge of the functional forms or the use of empirical charts which were not very accurate.
This paper presents an innovative method of predicting formation fracture gradient for Gulf of Guinea region. A combination of "Mathew and Kelly?? correlation, "Hubbert and Willis?? correlation and Ben Eaton mathematical models were used in developing the simplified technique based on field data from the Gulf of Guinea. The model compared favorably with the existing fracture gradient results in the Gulf of Guinea with less than 1 % deviation from other correlations thereby saving the rigors and time in using tables, charts and other long techniques. Although the method was developed specifically for the Gulf of Guinea, it should be reliable for other similar areas provided that the variables reflect the conditions in the specific area being considered.
Heterogeneity and tightness of carbonate retrograde reservoirs are the main challenges to maintain gas well productivities. The degree of heterogeneity changes over the field and within well drainage areas where permeability decreases from few millidarcies to less than 0.2 md. Thorough studies have been conducted to exploit these tight reservoirs and not only focused on well performance, but have extended to assure enhancing and sustaining gas productivity through practical applications of technologies. The main objective of this paper is to assess the performance of Multi-Stage Fracturing (MSF) in horizontal wells that were drilled conventionally and did not meet gas deliverability expectation. This paper gives a detailed analysis of well performances, exploitation approaches, and successful implementation and optimal cases to utilize new completion technologies such as horizontal multi stage fracturing to revive low producing gas wells due to reservoir tightness. Placing the horizontal wellbore reference to the stress directions plays a major role in the success and effectiveness of fracturing in enhancing and sustaining productivity.
Several wells have been drilled in tight reservoirs, but could not achieve or sustain the target gas rate. Recently, two wells were geometrically sidetracked targeting the development intervals based on logs of the original hole and completed with MSF toward the minimum stress direction. Open hole logs showed a low porosity development similar of the vertical holes. However, after conducting multiple stages fracturing, both wells produced a sustainable rate of more than 25 MMSCFD that prompted to connecting them to gas plants. Placing these sidetracks in the minimum stress direction helped to create transverse fractures that connect to sweet spots and sustain gas production. This paper provides thorough guidelines for selecting optimal candidates for MSF based on reservoir heterogeneity, proper design and execution of fracturing. It also addresses various components that contributed to the success of both wells, such as reservoir development, workover pre-planning, geo-mechanics studies, drilling operations and real-time support, completion operations optimization and best-practices, and performance evaluation of other producers in the field. The paper also includes essential recommendations for development of tight gas reservoirs.
Copyright 2012, Society of Petroleum Engineers This paper was prepared for presentation at the Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition & Conference held in Abu Dhabi, UAE, 11-14 November 2012. This paper was selected for presentation by an SPE program committee following review of information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to correction by the author(s). The material does not necessarily reflect any position of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, its officers, or members. Electronic reproduction, distribution, or storage of any part of this paper without the written consent of the Society of Petroleum Engineers is prohibited. Permission to reproduce in print is restricted to an abstract of not more than 300 words; illustrations may not be copied.
Silica nanoparticles are commercially available and can be engineered to meet all specifications needed for the purpose. The particle size can vary between 5 and 100 nm. The right sizes of nanoparticles can be selected, and, in combination with a correct fluid-loss package, the particles can minimize the fluid/rock interaction. Surface treatment on the nanosilica particle has been discovered to have a major influence on the final performance. An investigation into using nanoparticles as a drilling-fluid additive to enhance wellbore stability has been successful. The nanomaterial works by virtually shutting off water movement between the formation and wellbore. In shale formations with nanodarcy permeability, such as the Marcellus, the usual drilling-fluid method of relying on a filter cake to reduce fluid loss (or leakoff) cannot be used because a filter cake may not form because of the extrememly low permeability of the shale. The solution for this problem is to engineer a nanoparticle that will be added to the drilling fluid to plug the pores of the shale and shut off water loss.
Kumar, Devendra (Schlumberger) | Singh, Hemant (Schlumberger Asia Services Limited) | Kumar, Rajeev Ranjan (Schlumberger Asia Services Ltd) | Rao, Dhiresh Govind (Schlumberger) | Sundaram, K.M. (Oil & Natural Gas Corp. Ltd.)
Assurance of wellbore stability (WBS) is of utmost concern and a key challenge in drilling an inclined well in ultra deep water of the East Coast of India. The WBS analysis requires accurate modeling of earth stresses and rock mechanical properties. These processes are primarily based on sonic logs (compressional and shear slowness), bulk density and lithological distribution. To understand and address drilling complications in the study area, post-drill (offset well analysis) and real-time drilling geomechanics is carried out in this well.
1D mechanical earth model (MEM) and WBS model is constructed for offset wells, which is calibrated with caliper log, pressure test and leak-off data sets. WBS analysis suggested drilling with lower mud weight in the zones of shear failure and pack-off. Disparity in resistivity values is also observed when wireline logs and Logging-While-Drilling (LWD) logs are analyzed. This might be due to mud invasion or fluid-shale interaction in the open hole, as it is resolved by changing mud system from water based mud (WBM) to synthetic oil base mud (SOBM). The post-drill analysis of offsets wells established parameters for the upcoming inclined well.
The planned well is the first inclined well (horizontal drift more than ~2000m) in ultra deepwater of the East Coast of India to avoid the drilling risks; real-time drilling geomechanics is first time put into operation. Required sonic and density data is received in reasonable time intervals to perform real-time analysis. Timely updates on rock mechanical properties are provided to client, which helped in optimizing drilling parameters. As a result, first inclined well in ultra deep water in the East Coast of India was drilled successfully.
Significance of real-time pore pressure monitoring has already been recognized in the petroleum industry and with times it moving towards domain of real-time geomechanics during drilling. Successful real-time geomechanics depends on availability of data and feasibility of data acquisition. Wireline or logging-while-drilling (LWD) data in conjunction with other data sets can be used for modeling pre-drill part, to understand the regional and local drilling complexities. Recent advances in LWD techniques provides reasonable quality data for quantitative analysis in real-time. This paper discusses the workflow and a case study of an inclined well drilled in East Coast of India.
In this paper, several new developments regarding the failure, fracture and fragmentation of rocks will be discussed. The first topic discussed is the development of true-triaxial failure criteria that involve all three principal stresses. The next topic is a new approach to modelling the propagation of cracks and fractures using accurate local calculations of the stress intensity factor. Lastly, a method for fracture-driven rock fragmentation with a velocity-dependent propagation law is discussed.
Gas drilling has many advantages such as high drilling speed and reservoir protection, however, there are many problems limiting its development. For example, when gas drilling encounters geological risks, drilling fluid must be filled. The process of gas-liquid medium transition will make liquid flow into the fractures in the rock around borehole wall, which may lead to serious borehole wall collapse. In this way, the problems brought by gas drilling counteract its advantages. Thus, this paper puts forward using nanotechnology to reverse the wetting of hole-wall rock before filling drilling fluid into the well bore. The core of this technique is the application of the high-speed gas current jetted by the nozzle of bit to atomize the solution. The low-activity and low-tension solution will carry nano wetting reverse agent and shale anti-swelling agent to ascend with gas along borehole wall. In this way, the dry rock will absorb the solution with agent, and the wetting of fractures can be reversed. After drilling fluid is filled. The capillary effect can prevent further penetration of drilling fluid, and the film on the fracture can avoid the swelling of argillaceous earth. Thus, the fracture won't expansion on the surrounding rock of the borehole. Compaired with existing techniques, the strength of the borehole wall can be improved by 50% by taking advantage of this technique. Instead of the previous research method from perspective of drilling fluid, the technique can directly change the nature of fracture surface with small amount of treating agent to avoid the expansion of fractures. Besides, the technique can effectively reduce the friction between drilling pipe and borehole wall. The technique is expected to avoid the problems of high cost, pollution, ineffectiveness, and achieve the goal of keeping the wellbore stability in gas liquid medium transition in gas drilling process.