San, Jingshan (New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology) | Wang, Sai (New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology) | Yu, Jianjia (New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology) | Lee, Robert (New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology) | Liu, Ning (New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology)
This paper reports the study of the effect of different ions (monovalent, bivalent, and multiple ions) on nanosilica-stabilized CO2 foam generation. CO2 foam was generated by co-injecting CO2/5,000 ppm nanosilica dispersion (dispersed in different concentrations of brine) into a sandstone core under 1,500 psi and room temperature. A sapphire observation cell was used to determine the foam texture and foam stability. Pressure drop across the core was measured to estimate the foam mobility. The results indicated that more CO2 foam was generated as the NaCl concentration increased from 1.0% to 10%. Also the foam texture became denser and foam stability improved with the NaCl concentration increase. The CO2 foam mobility decreased from 13.1 md/cp to 2.6 md/cp when the NaCl concentration increased from 1% to 10%. For the bivalent ions, the generated CO2 foam mobility decreased from 19.7 md/cp to 4.8 md/cp when CaCl2 concentration increased from 0.1% to 1.0%. Synthetic produced water with total dissolved solids of 17,835 ppm was prepared to investigate the effect of multiple ions on foam generation. The results showed that dense, stable CO2 foam was generated as the synthetic produced water and nanosilica dispersion/CO2 flowed through a porous medium. The lifetime of the foam was observed to be more than two days as the foam stood at room temperature. Mobility of the foam was calculated as 5.2 md/cp.
Polymer flooding is a proven technology to improve sweep efficiency, while being one of the most economical enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes. Partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) has been widely used for polymer flooding. As the HPAM usage for EOR increases, the challenge of produced water management is also raised because residual HPAM in produced water could increase total chemical oxygen demand and unwanted viscosity in discharging or re-injecting the water. As the environmental standards and regulations get more stringent, it is difficult for the conventional methods to meet the requirement for discharging. Use of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) to remove contaminants from produced water is a promising way to treat produced water in an environmentally green way with minimal use of chemicals. The main attraction for MNPs is their quick response to move in a desired direction with application of external magnetic field. Another attraction of MNPs is versatile and efficient surface modification through suitable polymer coating, depending on the characteristics of target contaminants. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of polymer removal using surface-modified MNPs and regeneration of spent MNPs for multiple re-use.
The electrostatic attraction between negatively charged HPAM polymer and positively charged MNPs controls the attachment of MNPs to HPAM molecular chain; and the subsequent aggregation of the now neutralized MNP-attached HPAM plays a critical role for accelerated and efficient magnetic separation.
Griffith, Nicholas (Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin) | Ahmad, Yusra (Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin) | Daigle, Hugh (Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin) | Huh, Chun (Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin)
Interest in silica nanoparticle-stabilized emulsions, especially those employing low-cost natural gas liquids (NGLs), has increased due to recent developments suggesting their use leads to improved conformance control and increased sweep efficiencies. When compared to conventional emulsion- stabilizing materials such as surfactants, nanoparticles are an inexpensive and robust alternative, offering stability over a wider range of temperature and salinity, while reducing environmental impact.
Oil-in-water emulsions with an aqueous nanoparticle phase and either a pentane or butane oil phase at a 1:1 volume ratio were generated at varying salinities for the observations of several emulsion characteristics. The effects of salinity on the stability of silica nanoparticle dispersions and NGL emulsions were observed. Increasing the salinity of the aqueous nanoparticle phase resulted in an increase in effective nanoparticle size due to increased nanoparticle aggregation. Rheology tests and estimates of emulsion droplet sizes were performed. Shear-thinning behavior was observed for all emulsions. Furthermore, overall emulsion viscosity increased with salinity. Nanoparticle-stabilized liquid butane-in-water emulsions were also generated with varying brine concentrations; however, no rheology or droplet size measurements were made due to the volatility of these emulsions.
Residual oil recovery coreflood experiments were conducted (using Boise Sandstone cores) with nanoparticle-stabilized pentane-in-water emulsions as injectant and light mineral oil as residual oil. A recovery of up to 82% residual oil was observed for these experiments. By continuously measuring the pressure drop across the core, a possible mechanism for enhanced oil recovery is proposed. Pentane emulsion coreflood tests indicated that at a slower injection rate, residual oil recovery increases. This contrasts viscous emulsion corefloods (mineral oil or Texaco white oil as the emulsion oil phase), where increasing the injection rate increases the residual oil recovery.
XU, Ke (The University of Texas at Austin) | Zhu, Peixi (The University of Texas at Austin) | Tatiana, Colon (Polytechnic University of Puerto Rico) | Huh, Chun (The University of Texas at Austin) | Balhoff, Matthew (The University of Texas at Austin)
Injecting oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions stabilized with nanoparticles or surfactants is a promising option for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in harsh-condition reservoirs. Stability and rheology of flowing emulsion in porous media are key factors for the effectiveness of the EOR method. The objective of this study is to use microfluidics to (1) quantitatively evaluate the synergistic effect of surfactants and nanoparticles on emulsion's dynamic stability and how nanoparticles affects the emulsion properties, and (2) investigate how emulsion properties affect the sweep performance in emulsion flooding.
A microfluidic device with well-defined channel geometry of a high-permeability pathway and multiple parallel low-permeability pathways was created to represent a fracture – matrix dual-permeability system. Measurement of droplets’ coalescence frequency during flow is used to quantify the dynamic stability of emulsions. A nanoparticle aqueous suspension (2 wt%) shows excellent ability to stabilize macro-emulsion when mixed with trace amount of surfactant (0.05 wt%), revealing a synergic effect between nanoparticles and surfactant.
For a stable emulsion, it was observed that flowing emulsion droplets compress each other and then block the high-permeability pathway at a throat structure, which forces the wetting phase into low-permeability pathways. Droplet size shows little correlation with this blocking effect. Water content was observed much higher in the low-permeability pathways than in the high-permeability pathway, indicating different emulsion texture and viscosity in channels of different sizes. Consequently, the assumption of bulk emulsion viscosity in the porous medium is not applicable in the description and modeling of emulsion flooding process.
Flow of emulsions stabilized by the nanoparticle-surfactant synergy shows droplet packing mode different from those stabilized by surfactant only at high local oil saturation region, which is attributed to the interaction among nanoparticles in the thin liquid film between neighboring oil-water interfaces. This effect is believed to be an important contributing mechanism for sweep efficiency attainable from nanoparticle-stabilized emulsion EOR process.
Kim, Ijung (Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin) | Worthen, Andrew J. (McKetta Department of Chemical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin) | Lotfollahi, Mohammad (Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin) | Johnston, Keith P. (McKetta Department of Chemical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin) | DiCarlo, David A. (Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin) | Huh, Chun (Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin)
The immense nanotechnology advances in other industries provided opportunities to rapidly develop various applications of nanoparticles in the oil and gas industry. In particular, nanoparticle has shown its capability to improve the emulsion stability by generating so-called Pickering emulsion, which is expected to improve EOR processes with better conformance control. Recent studies showed a significant synergy between nanoparticles and very low concentration of surfactant, in generating highly stable emulsions. This study's focus is to exploit the synergy's benefit in employing such emulsions for improved mobility control, especially under high-salinity conditions.
Hydrophilic silica nanoparticles were employed to quantify the synergy of nanoparticle and surfactant in oil-in-brine emulsion formation. The nanoparticle and/or the selected surfactant in aqueous phase and decane were co-injected into a sandpack column to generate oil-in-brine emulsions. Four different surfactants (cationic, nonionic, zwitterionic, and anionic) were examined, and the emulsion stability was analyzed using microscope and rheometer.
Strong and stable emulsions were successfully generated in the combinations of either cationic or nonionic surfactant with nanoparticles, while the nanoparticles and the surfactant by themselves were unable to generate stable emulsions. The synergy was most significant with the cationic surfactant, while the anionic surfactant was least effective, indicating the electrostatic interactions with surfactant and liquid/liquid interface as a decisive factor. With the zwitterionic surfactant, the synergy effect was not as great as the cationic surfactant. The synergy was greater with the nonionic surfactant than the zwitterionic surfactant, implying that the surfactant adsorption at oil-brine interface can be increased by hydrogen bonding between surfactant and nanoparticle when the electrostatic repulsion is no longer effective.
In generating highly stable emulsions for improved control for adverse-mobility waterflooding in harsh-condition reservoirs, we show a procedure to find the optimum choice of surfactant and its concentration to effectively and efficiently generate the nanoparticle-stabilized emulsion exploiting their synergy. The findings in this study propose a way to maximize the beneficial use of nanoparticle-stabilized emulsions for EOR at minimum cost for nanoparticle and surfactant.
An important factor during the life of a heavy crude reservoir is the oil mobility. It depends on two factors, oil viscosity and oil relative permeability. Two characteristics of nanoparticles that make them attractive for assisting IOR and EOR processes are their size (1 to 100 nm) and ability to manipulate their behavior. Due to their nano-sized structure, nanomaterials have large tunable specific surface areas that lead to an increase in the proportion of atoms on the surface of the particle, indicating an increasing in surface energy. Nanoparticles are also able to flow through typical reservoir pore spaces with sizes at or below 1 micron without the risk to block the pore space. Nanofluids or "smart fluids" can be designed by tuning nanoparticle properties, and are prepared by adding small concentrations of nanoparticles to a liquid phase in order to enhance or improve some of the fluid properties. However the use of nanoparticles and nanofluids for oil mobility has been poorly studied. Hence, the scope of this work is to present the field evaluation of nanofluids for improving oil mobility and mitigate alteration of wettability in two Colombian heavy oil fields; Castilla and Chichimene. Asphaltenes sorption tests with two different types of nanomaterials were performed for selecting the best nanoparticle for each type of oil. An oil based nanofluid (OBN) containing these nanoparticles was evaluated as viscosity reducer under static conditions. Displacement tests through a porous media in core plugs from Castilla and Chichimene at reservoir conditions were also performed. OBN was evaluated to reduce oil viscosity varying oil temperature and water content. Maximum change in oil viscosity is achieved at 122°F and 2% of nanofluid dosage. The use of the nanofluid increased oil recovery in the core flooding tests, caused by the removal of asphaltenes from the aggregation system, reduction of oil viscosity, and the effective restoration of original core wettability. Two field trials were performed in Castilla (CNA and CNB wells), by forcing 200 bbl and 150 bbl of nanofluid respectively as main treatment within a radius of penetration of ~3 ft. Instantaneous oil rate increases of 270 bopd in CNA and 280 bopd in CNB and BSW reductions of ~11% were observed. In Chichimene also two trials were performed (CHA and CHB), by forcing 86 bbl of and 107 bbl of nanofluid as main treatment within a radius of penetration of ~3 ft. Instantaneous oil rate increases of 310 bopd in CHA and 87 bopd in CHB were achieved not BSW reduction has been observed yet. Interventions were performed few months ago and long term effects are still under evaluation. Results look promising making possible to think extending application of nanofluid in other wells in these fields.
Kuznetsov, Oleksandr (Baker Hughes) | Mazyar, Oleg (Baker Hughes) | Agrawal, Devesh (Baker Hughes) | Suresh, Radhika (Baker Hughes) | Feng, Xianhua (Baker Hughes) | Behles, Jackie (Baker Hughes) | Khabashesku, Valery (Baker Hughes)
Oil sand ore flotation is a primary method of bitumen recovery from mined Athabasca tar sands. In bitumen flotation, suspended biwettable ore fines, such as clays, tend to migrate to oil-water interfaces, creating slime coating on liberated bitumen droplets. Slime coating significantly reduces the efficiency of the flotation process and overall oil recovery. Ultra-dispersed hydrophilic silica nanoparticles were found to stabilize biwettable ore fines in an aqueous phase by adsorbing onto fines surfaces, even at concentrations as low as 50 ppm. As a result, fine solids move away from oil/water interfaces, reducing the slime coating and increasing bitumen recovery during flotation of low-grade ore by more than 5%. The addition of nanoparticles has no negative effect on froth quality or oil, water and solid separation in naphthenic and paraffinic froth treatment processes. Detailed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations revealed mechanisms that improve bitumen liberation from mined oil sands in a flotation process. The studies demonstrated that colloidal nanoparticles affect many stages of the bitumen extraction process from bitumen separation to clay wettability alteration.
Franco, C. A. (Universidad Nacional de Colombia - Sede Medellin) | Cardona, L. (Universidad Nacional de Colombia - Sede Medellin) | Lopera, S. H. (Universidad Nacional de Colombia - Sede Medellin) | Mejía, J. M. (Universidad Nacional de Colombia - Sede Medellin) | Cortés, F. B. (Universidad Nacional de Colombia - Sede Medellin)
Heavy (HO) and extra–heavy oil (EHO) production is complicated due to its high asphaltene content that lied to adverse rheological properties. In addition, the upgrading of these unconventional oils at surface or sub-surface conditions is a low cost-effective process because of the large amounts of energy needed. Accordingly, several in-situ techniques for enhancing HO and EHO recovery with objective of upgrading the oil and improving its viscosity and mobility have been employed. In this sense, nanoparticulated catalysts have demonstrated a synergistic effect in the enhancement of oil recovery and the improvement of the pyshicochemical properties of HO and EHO such as viscosity, API gravity and content of heavy hydrocarbons such as asphaltenes. Hence, this work aims at investigate the effect of catalytic active nanoparticles in the improvement of the efficiency in recovery of a continuous steam injection process.
Nanoparticles were selected trough batch-adsorption experiments and the subsequent evaluation of the temperature for catalytic steam gasification in a thermogravimetric analyzer. A nanoparticulated support was functionalized with 2 wt% of NiO and/or PdO nanocrystals in order to improve the catalytic activity of the nanoparticles.
Also, successfully a methodology for evaluating the effect of nanoparticulated catalyst in processes of continuous vapor injection was developed. Oil recovery was evaluated using a slim tube filled with a non-confined sand pack in steam injection scenarios in absence and presence of a water-based nanofluid. The displacement test was carried out by (1) constructing the base curves, (2) estimating the oil recovery by the continuous injection of vapor in absence of nanofluid and (3) identifying the influence of the nanoparticles in the enhanced recovery of oil.
It was found that functionalized nanoparticles lead to higher adsorption of asphaltenes, higher degrees of asphaltenes self-association and lowered the temperature of
Foamed fluids with the gas phase of carbon dioxide (CO2) have been applied as fracturing fluids to develop unconventional resources. This type of fracturing fluids meets the waterless requirements by unconventional reservoirs, which are prone to damage by clay swelling and blocking pore throat in water environment. Conventional CO2 foams with surfactants have low durability under high temperature and high salinity, which limit their application. Nanoparticles provide a new technique to stabilize CO2 foams under harsh reservoir conditions. It's essential to determine in-situ rheology of CO2 foams stabilized by nanoparticles in order to predict proppant transport in reservoir fractures and improve oil production.
The shear viscosity and foam texture of non-Newtonian fluids under reservoir conditions are critical to transport proppant and generate effective micro-channels. This study determined the in-situ shear viscosity of supercritical CO2 foams stabilized by nano-SiO2 in the Flow Loop apparatus with shear rates of 5950~17850 s-1 at the pressure of 1140±20 psig and the temperature of 40 °C. Supercritical CO2 with the density of 0.2~0.4 g/ml and the viscosity of 0.02~0.04 cp under typical reservoir conditions were applied to generate foams. The foams were tested with high foam quality up to 80% to minimize the usage of water. The effects of shear rates, salinity, surfactant, and nanoparticle sizes and on the rheology of gas foams with different foam qualities were experimentally investigated. The foam texture and stability were observed through an in-line sapphire tube. Further, proppant transport by CO2 foams and the placement in fractures were analyzed by considering the rheology of non-Newtonian fluids and the mechanisms of gravity driven settling and hindered settling/slurry flow.
The conditions of nanoparticle foaming systems were optimized through orthogonal experimental design. The dense and stable foams were generated and observed under high pressure and elevated temperature conditions. It was observed that CO2 foams with high quality of 80% demonstrated the highest viscosity and stability under optimal conditions. The foams with nanoparticles demonstrated both shear- thinning and shear-thickening behaviors depending on foam quality and components. The salinity and nanoparticle size affect foam rheology in two ways depending on components, foam quality, and shear rates.
While the viscosities of CO2 foam stabilized by nanoparticles have been widely studied recently, no work has been done to observe the stability and texture of supercritical CO2 foam after shearing under high pressure and high temperature, not to mention proppant transport by CO2 foam. This study provided a pioneering insight to the proppant transport by viscous supercritical CO2 foam stabilized by nanoparticles.