The success of recent applications in underbalanced drilling (UBD) and managed pressure drilling (MPD) has accelerated the development of technology in order to optimize drilling operations. The increased number of depleted reservoirs and the necessity for reducing formation damage has also increased the need to apply UBD/MPD to such candidate fields. Several methods used the latest mechanistic multiphase flow models in order to predict bottomhole circulation pressure when performing UBD/MPD operations. A new model is developed that utilizes the latest mechanistic multiphase flow models; the developed model calculates the bottomhole circulation pressure as a function of surface injection rates, choke pressure and time.
The developed model can be used in designing and optimizing UBD/MPD operations in terms of determining the correct injection rate and/or choke pressure. In addition, the developed model is used to utilize the reservoir energy to attain correct bottomhole conditions. The developed model in addition to utilizing the latest mechanistic models also reduce the error in calculating the bottom hole pressure by incorporating an algorithm in which the injection rates are calculated in-situ rather than assuming constant injection rates.
The model is validated against data from literature and against a commercial simulator. Results show that the developed algorithm has increased the accuracy in predicting bottomhole pressure by incorporating the changes in new gas and liquid injection rates.
Whole level of the erosion and the resistance of rocks which were composed closured have been studied, besides, the impact of temperature and laser irradiation for more investigation about this issue has been involved before all. This subject more reveals the matter which laser absorption on the laboratory scale using laser to what extent can cause the augment of the relative permeability and secondary porosity of reservoir rock, that of the vertical and horizontal useful connectivity and eventually that of the positive transferability.
This research has been carried out in the form of case study on one of Iranian south west formations in north east of Behbahan city in Iran, either the rate or generation of forming the subtle and large fractures has been studied by considering and preparing this section from rocks of stratified sequence of the laboratory area before and after the laser irradiation operation and various analyzer by the means of Spectrophotometer and advanced electron microscope. It should be noted that during the erosion and ablation in the laser drilling operation in the experimental rocks of considered field, given the capability of the field, the formation and field lithology we observed the creation of fractures at the level of micro and nano simultaneously whose vacant spaces were positive, and reservoir and some others were neutral, this fractures can be created by the rate of crude oil absorption. The main purpose of this study is to advance the operations towards the higher technology in order to the better efficiency in the field of the well completion to be gained improving the rate of oil production by the introduction of this modern method of improving and fracturing reservoir which uses certain specialized parameters and indicators, and, finally, the certain method that might be a better way to use laser irradiation on our chosen formation of Iran.
In April 2010 we were reminded that Drilling operations are amongst the most hazardous in the world, having the potential for Major Incidents, with the Deepwater Horizon rig fire and explosion. This incident resulted in 11 lives being lost, almost 5,000,000 million barrels of oil being spilt into the Gulf of Mexico over an 87 day period and significant financial loss for bp. This Major Incident also served to remind us that while traditional "Personal Safety?? programs are important to achieve safe drilling operations, these alone cannot effectively manage Major Incident Hazards. E&P Operations can learn valuable lessons from the Process Industry in this regard.
This paper looks at how "Process Safety Management?? implementation, aimed at reducing the potential for Major Incidents, has commenced at an onshore E&P operation. It also discusses the challenges of integrating the culture of Process Safety into existing company culture for operations involving over 60 land rigs comprising both local and international Drilling Contractors and Service Companies.
Process Safety Management system is used to describe those parts of an organisation's management system intended to prevent major incidents arising out of the production, storage and handling of dangerous substances (UK HSE, 2012). It addresses the potential release of these substances caused by:
• Mechanical Failures
• Process Upsets
• Procedures/Human Error
Kuwait Oil Company (KOC) is a subsidiary of Kuwait Petroleum Corporation (KPC), and is involved in the exploration and production of hydrocarbons on land in the state of Kuwait. Existing production is approximately 2.9 mmbopd, with future production targeted at 3.65mmbopd by 2020.
The Exploration and Production (E&PD) Directorate is involved in identifying reserves, drilling new wells and servicing existing wells. It consists of 8 Groups as shown below, and is headed by a Deputy Managing Director (DMD). As most of the PSM challenges in E&PD Directorate lie with Drilling and Service Company operations, the primary focus of this paper will be in these areas.
Influenced by the success of shale gas production worldwide and to meet requirements for clean energy supply, a multidisciplinary team of petroleum specialists was established in Saudi Aramco. Meeting the growing requirement in industrial consumption and especially electricity production is driving force for developing unconventional gas reserves. "The initial focus is in the northwest and in the area of Ghawar, where gas infrastructure exists. Initial knowledge building from similar plays in North America is being supplemented with internal technical studies and research programs to help solve geological and engineering challenges unique to Saudi Arabia and to locate specific wells planned for 2011. The company is innovatively combining knowledge and research to maximize gas reserves and production from conventional and unconventional resources in order to meet growing domestic demand.?? 
During years 2010 - 2011 major international petroleum industry players - Schlumberger, Halliburton and Baker Hughes - were invited to share their experience in a series of workshops held in Dhahran. Exchange of expert ideas developed into appreciation of complexity of the shale gas reservoir and helped to identify the scope of work for the first Silurian Qusaiba shale gas well. The SHALE-1 well was drilled in 2007 as a gas exploration well. Recent drilling and geophysical data obtained in the well were beneficial for detailed sidetrack and fracture stimulation design.
The Multidisciplinary Saudi Aramco - Halliburton SHALE-1 task group was established and positioned in Dhahran. This allowed them to have regular face-to-face meetings and improve the most critical criteria of any new venture - communication. The draft work plan was developed 8 months before actual operations commenced on the well site. Thorough examination of the draft work plan progressed to the final work plan with a number of improvements. For example, "R?? Nipples were dropped from the monobore 4-1/2?? completion string. The Frac Stimulation design was fine-tuned, involving expertise from Saudi Aramco and Halliburton. The Complete Well on Paper exercise involved over 25 specialists from both sides and helped to rectify remaining completion/stimulation design issues, and put everyone on the same page in terms of the work program. Well site operations commenced in May 2011; the well was successfully re-entered and window cut in 7?? liner. An S-shaped 5-7/8?? hole was drilled in the direction of minimum horizontal stresses, to the required depth in Qusaiba Shale with a maximum DLS of 4°. The well was completed with 4-1/2?? cemented liner and monobore 4-1/2?? string to surface. The Hot Qusaiba interval was perforated; frac stimulated with mixed results and successfully flowed. A temporary isolation FasDrill plug was set above the perforation interval. The Warm Qusaiba interval was perforated; successfully frac stimulated and flowed with mixed results. Finally, the FasDrill plug was drilled out with CTU and both intervals flowed and required production log runs.
All targets set for the SHALE-1 re-entry well were successfully achieved and the well was suspended for future utilization as an observation well.
Arnaout, Arghad (TDE Thonhauser Data Engineering GmbH) | Thonhauser, Gerhard (Montanuniversitat Leoben) | Esmael, Bilal (Montanuniversitat Leoben) | Fruhwirth, Rudolf Konrad (TDE Thonhauser Data Engineering GmbH)
Detection of oilwell drilling operations is an important step for drilling process optimization. If drilling operations are classified accurately, detailed performance reports not only on drilling crews but also on drilling rigs can be produced. Using such reports, the management can evaluate the drilling work more precisely from performance point of view.
Mud-logging systems of modern drilling rigs provide numerous sensors data. Those sensors measurements are considered as indicators to monitor different states of drilling process. Usually real-time measurements of the following sensors data are available as surface measurements: hookload, block position, flow rates, pump pressure, borehole and bit depth, RPM, torque, rate of penetration and weight on bit.
In this work, collected sensors measurements from mud-logging systems are used to detect different drilling operations. Detailed data analysis shows that the surface sensors measurements can be considered as a main source of information about drilling operations. For this purpose, a mathematical model based on polynomials approximation is constructed to interpolate sensors data measurements.
Discrete polynomial moments are used as a tool to extract specific features (moments) from drilling sensors data. Then we use these moments for each drilling operation as pattern descriptor to classify similar operations in drilling time series. The extracted polynomial moments describe trends of sensors data and behavior of rig's sub-systems (Rotation System, Circulation System, and Hoisting System). Furthermore, this paper suggests a method on how to build patterns base and how to recognize and classify drilling operations once sensors data received from mud-logging system. Drilling experts compare the results to manually classified operations and the results show high accuracy.
Malik, Saeed Aslam (Oil & Gas Development Company Limited) | Channa, Munsif Hussain (Oil & Gas Development Company Limited) | Majeed, Arshad (Oil & Gas Development Company Limited) | Latif, Muhammad Khalid (Oil & Gas Development Company Limited) | Asrar, Muhammad (Weatherford)
During this period of energy crisis in Pakistan every effort is being made to produce every molecule of subsurface hydrocarbons. Particularly, the gas reservoirs which were not brought on production, due to low well deliverability or lack of required technology in the past are being explored and exploited. These include Tight, Low BTU, Sour and Acidic gas reservoirs. Such reservoirs pose specific problems related to drilling, production and development aspects.
This paper depicts drilling and testing of a reservoir which is above sea level and its initial reservoir pressure is approximately 1000 psi below the normal hydrostatic pressure. It is one of the lowest pressure reservoirs of the world which has been drilled with successful flow of gas. Underbalance drilling technology was chosen to drill this challenging reservoir. Primary objective of under balance Drilling (UBD) was to establish reservoir potential by acquiring virgin reservoir characteristics.
Historically, three wells have been drilled to test this reservoir. First two wells were drilled using conventional drilling methodology, both the wells experienced heavy mud loses during drilling and it was difficult to evaluate the production potential of this low pressure reservoir. Afterwards, pay zone of SML in third well X #02 was drilled and tested using Underbalance Drilling technique.
This paper further describes the problems faced by the operator to drill first two wells in terms of mud losses and evaluation of production potential of low pressure reservoir of SML. In conclusion, it was a successful application which happened due to exceptional team work from all project parties. This application has opened new horizons of exploration and production of such reservoirs particularly in Baluchistan and generally in Pakistan.
INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
The E.L of interest is located in Baluchistan province of Pakistan. First well Y # 01 was drilled by another operator back in 1953-54 to depth of 1947 M. This well experienced severe mud losses against carbonates of Habib Rahi (HRL) and Sui Main Limestone (SML), and other down hole problems. Drill Stem tests in SML flowed to maximum of 3 MMSCFD of gas at BHP of 279 Psi. This gas rate was observed after re-perforations, pumping acids and swabbing for many days.
Every operation site, oil and gas drilling, shipping , pipelines and loadingfacilities, need a design basis to be properly planned. Also monitoring of theenvironment when the operation has already started is of utmost importance.This became noticed already in late 1960ies during the Manhattan voyages. Eversince ice data has been collected around various projects both in the westernand eastern Arctic. In Canada the heat was on during the Polar Gas and ArcticPilot Project in the 1970ies and 80ies. The discoveries in the Russian Arcticlaunched systematic arrangements to collect ice data in the in thePechora Sea, Barents Sea, Kara Sea, Ob Bay and offshore Sakhalin Island duringthe last 25 years. This paper describes the main features of typicalarrangements made for a successful data collection expedition, how arrangementsworked and also difficulties met during the execution of such anexpedition.
A three year cycle is generally needed to adequately plan, execute, processand interpret a medium size 2D or 3D seismic program in the Canadian Arctic.The tasks of designing, supervising and monitoring the seismic surveys isdivided between the oil and gas exploration company, a seismic managementcompany and a seismic contractor well experienced in Canadian Arcticacquisition. In order to complete these seismic programs, MGM Energy Corp.dedicated extensive efforts and manpower to mitigate environmentalconsiderations within the survey area while respecting federal, territorial andlocal regulations and maintaining good and productive relationships developedwith the area's first nations and northern groups. A series of "Best PracticeMeasures", based on the extensive northern work knowledge and expertise of MGM,its contractors and the local communities, were adopted in the successfulcompletion of these projects.
Respecting federal, territorial and local regulations and maintainingproductive relationships with the area's First Nations is required in allphases of program implementation. For MGM "Best Practice" in Arctic seismicacquisition means permanently innovating and improving on the set ofenvironmental, safety and technical policies and conventions which are currentin seismic data acquisition in various Arctic physiographic and geologicalsettings.
There is a growing interest in seismic surveys in arctic areas. Normally 2Dsurveys can be carried out with limited risk, as long as the area is reasonablyfree of ice. However, 3D seismic surveys are an essential tool for explorationin order to de-risk prospective areas ahead of expensive and challengingdrilling operations. Acquisition of 3D surveys, with multiple streamers, is farmore difficult than single streamer 2D surveys, as the amount of in-seaequipment is an order of magnitude higher and the data density for a given areacovered is far greater: the physical footprint of a 3D equipment spread beingtowed behind a vessel can be about a kilometer wide by several kilometers long.This significantly increases the risk of equipment damage due to ice. Thispaper summarizes experiences from several 3D surveys in the Arctic, andaddresses how the use of new equipment and techniques can reduce such risks toacceptable levels.