In April 2010 we were reminded that Drilling operations are amongst the most hazardous in the world, having the potential for Major Incidents, with the Deepwater Horizon rig fire and explosion. This incident resulted in 11 lives being lost, almost 5,000,000 million barrels of oil being spilt into the Gulf of Mexico over an 87 day period and significant financial loss for bp. This Major Incident also served to remind us that while traditional "Personal Safety?? programs are important to achieve safe drilling operations, these alone cannot effectively manage Major Incident Hazards. E&P Operations can learn valuable lessons from the Process Industry in this regard.
This paper looks at how "Process Safety Management?? implementation, aimed at reducing the potential for Major Incidents, has commenced at an onshore E&P operation. It also discusses the challenges of integrating the culture of Process Safety into existing company culture for operations involving over 60 land rigs comprising both local and international Drilling Contractors and Service Companies.
Process Safety Management system is used to describe those parts of an organisation's management system intended to prevent major incidents arising out of the production, storage and handling of dangerous substances (UK HSE, 2012). It addresses the potential release of these substances caused by:
• Mechanical Failures
• Process Upsets
• Procedures/Human Error
Kuwait Oil Company (KOC) is a subsidiary of Kuwait Petroleum Corporation (KPC), and is involved in the exploration and production of hydrocarbons on land in the state of Kuwait. Existing production is approximately 2.9 mmbopd, with future production targeted at 3.65mmbopd by 2020.
The Exploration and Production (E&PD) Directorate is involved in identifying reserves, drilling new wells and servicing existing wells. It consists of 8 Groups as shown below, and is headed by a Deputy Managing Director (DMD). As most of the PSM challenges in E&PD Directorate lie with Drilling and Service Company operations, the primary focus of this paper will be in these areas.
The success of recent applications in underbalanced drilling (UBD) and managed pressure drilling (MPD) has accelerated the development of technology in order to optimize drilling operations. The increased number of depleted reservoirs and the necessity for reducing formation damage has also increased the need to apply UBD/MPD to such candidate fields. Several methods used the latest mechanistic multiphase flow models in order to predict bottomhole circulation pressure when performing UBD/MPD operations. A new model is developed that utilizes the latest mechanistic multiphase flow models; the developed model calculates the bottomhole circulation pressure as a function of surface injection rates, choke pressure and time.
The developed model can be used in designing and optimizing UBD/MPD operations in terms of determining the correct injection rate and/or choke pressure. In addition, the developed model is used to utilize the reservoir energy to attain correct bottomhole conditions. The developed model in addition to utilizing the latest mechanistic models also reduce the error in calculating the bottom hole pressure by incorporating an algorithm in which the injection rates are calculated in-situ rather than assuming constant injection rates.
The model is validated against data from literature and against a commercial simulator. Results show that the developed algorithm has increased the accuracy in predicting bottomhole pressure by incorporating the changes in new gas and liquid injection rates.
Whole level of the erosion and the resistance of rocks which were composed closured have been studied, besides, the impact of temperature and laser irradiation for more investigation about this issue has been involved before all. This subject more reveals the matter which laser absorption on the laboratory scale using laser to what extent can cause the augment of the relative permeability and secondary porosity of reservoir rock, that of the vertical and horizontal useful connectivity and eventually that of the positive transferability.
This research has been carried out in the form of case study on one of Iranian south west formations in north east of Behbahan city in Iran, either the rate or generation of forming the subtle and large fractures has been studied by considering and preparing this section from rocks of stratified sequence of the laboratory area before and after the laser irradiation operation and various analyzer by the means of Spectrophotometer and advanced electron microscope. It should be noted that during the erosion and ablation in the laser drilling operation in the experimental rocks of considered field, given the capability of the field, the formation and field lithology we observed the creation of fractures at the level of micro and nano simultaneously whose vacant spaces were positive, and reservoir and some others were neutral, this fractures can be created by the rate of crude oil absorption. The main purpose of this study is to advance the operations towards the higher technology in order to the better efficiency in the field of the well completion to be gained improving the rate of oil production by the introduction of this modern method of improving and fracturing reservoir which uses certain specialized parameters and indicators, and, finally, the certain method that might be a better way to use laser irradiation on our chosen formation of Iran.
Process safety has long embodied the adage, "If you always do what you've always done, you'll always get what you've always got.?? Despite the development of sophisticated technical and management systems in recent decades, major catastrophic incidents continue to occur. Study of these events show us that the technical failures that led to these events were in fact enabled by organizational failures. Yet process safety systems too often exist in isolation from the wider organization, and indeed from other safety activities themselves. In order to achieve next-level improvement, catastrophic event prevention must move from its position of sole (or disproportionate) focus on the safety technical and management systems to a comprehensive focus that encompasses the broader elements of organizational safety as well. This talk presents the problem facing process safety practitioners today and outlines seven principles that can guide leaders both in aligning the organization to support process safety functioning and in assuring the integrity of process safety systems themselves.
Blunt, J.D. (ExxonMobil Upstream Research) | Garas, V.Y. (ExxonMobil Upstream Research) | Matskevitch , D.G. (ExxonMobil Upstream Research) | Hamilton, J.M. (ExxonMobil Upstream Research) | Kumaran, K. (ExxonMobil Corporate Strategic Research)
Safe and economic hydrocarbon exploration, development and productionoperations in the high arctic deepwater require a nuanced understanding of thesea ice environment. Robust image analysis techniques provide methods bywhich this nuance can be more objectively characterized and used for decisionmaking while in operations. Morphological segmentation and windowedstatistical analysis are proposed as two approaches that provide usefulinformation on the tactical scale by rapidly characterizing floe fieldmorphology and relative surface roughness. Their use is demonstratedwithin the context of actual high arctic field program data. Results fromthe method application are shown and the benefits and limitations of their useare discussed.
As more attention is paid to the exploration of oil and gas resources in thehigh north, the settlement of the disputed area between Norway and Russia, andthe world's ever-rising demand for energy resources, more and more oilcompanies and suppliers are moving north. For most oil companies, rig and shipoperators and logistics providers, the Arctic represents a new frontier, whereexisting operational systems and technologies are tested to their limits. Thispaper outlines key challenges facing the development of sustainable and safemaritime offshore operation in Arctic waters. The Arctic offers challengesrelated to harsh weather conditions, long distances from bases, limited orabsent infrastructure, a sensitive ecosystem, ensuring safety at sea, potentialoil spills and operations in ice-infested waters. Arctic operations are thussignificantly different from operations in the North Sea. This state of affairsunderlines the need for new or improved organisational and business models forintegrated logistics operations, value chain management and technologicalsolutions that will ensure sustainable and safe maritime operations. It alsodemands optimised design of ships and structures for operation in the Arcticenvironment as well as improved communication infrastructure based onsatellite, terrestrial, ship-to-ship or ad-hoc systems, radar and opticalsatellites. Key features discussed will include ideas and concepts forarea-specific vessel design and multipurpose vessels, with integrated supportand logistics models and systems, base-to-base operation and tailored businessmodels for robust Arctic field operation. The aim is to ensure a holistic andintegrated transport and logistics infrastructure in sparsely populated areaswith extreme weather conditions (polar lows, darkness, fog, ice and icing),including the interplay between vessel technology and the operationalmanagement.
The purpose of this paper is to introduce various offshore platform conceptsthat can be employed in ice infested waters, particularly shallow waters,depths varying from 65 ft to 500 ft. The paper illustrates five innovativeplatform concepts that for arctic drilling. The proposed platform conceptswould have ability to withstand extreme ice, wind, wave and temperatureconditions to extend the drilling seasons either near to winter sever storm orfor round the year operation. The platforms are designed to operate indifferent water depths in different part of the arctic by accommodating thedrilling structures and equipment on the deck. The emphasis is on theefficient of breaking, moving ice sheets around the structure and withholdingthe topside loads. Some of the platform concepts are fixed and others aredeveloped from the floating solution and the technical details are presented inthis paper.
Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has been extensively used for the derivationof valuable information regarding sea ice properties and conditions. This workfocuses on the use of RADARSAT-2 ScanSAR Wide images (500x500 km swaths with50x50 meter pixels) to provide sea ice information for operations support inthe Arctic. Our developed processes generate several products that supportnavigation and operations in ice infested waters: i) Sea ice images, i.e.delineating and mapping sea ice relative to the open water, ii) Seasonal trendcharts of sea ice over an area of interest and, iii) Automated ice featuretracking and pressure zone mapping.
Using the RADARSAT-2 dual-polarization images and automated techniques, seaice maps are generated to identify regions of open water and of sea ice. Fromthe sea ice maps, total ice concentration is derived and combined withhistorical concentration maps. The output seasonal trend charts can be used toassist in monitoring Arctic sea ice extent and sea ice identification to aidwith navigational safety operations. Finally, we develop an automated icefeature tracking that can track moving ice and from which pressure and driftzones are identified. Future work will involve the development of theprediction of movement of ice floes and packs, using the ice feature trackingtechnique as the foundation.
The prospect of large oil and gas reserves in fields below Arctic waters hasdriven the design development of production solutions for these areas. Thispaper presents the development of an Arctic Turret Mooring System technologywhich facilitates year-round station keeping of floating offshore structures,like FPSOs in the Arctic environment. The Arctic turret mooring system candisconnect the mooring when the FPSO encounters extreme ice loads, which couldotherwise damage its hull or mooring system. When disconnected, a mooring riserbuoy supports the production risers and control umbilicals. The system isdesigned to quickly disconnect and re-connect the mooring riser buoy.Especially the fast re-connection will reduce the downtime to the productionsystem when disconnection is necessary.
The Bluewater Arctic Turret is based on further development of existingBluewater know-how and designs of (quick) disconnectable Turret MooringSystems. However, in addition to existing designs, the Bluewater Arctic Turretuses a unique and patented design that allows the mooring riser buoy to bereleased from the turret, while being subject to the large (horizontal) mooringloads. In this design, the mooring riser buoy is released from the turret tosink below the FPSO hull, before the mooring system is disconnected from theturret. Following disconnection, the mooring riser buoy descends further to asafe equilibrium depth away from ice hazards. This allows the disconnected FPSOto sail from its production location and later return for reconnection andquickly resume production. The paper presents the unique Bluewater ArcticTurret Mooring concept, its design basis, the development process as well asconsideration to key aspects such as operational and safety issues.
The increase in offshore activity in harsh weather areas of the worldpresents a major challenge for those involved in the management and executionof lifting operations. This challenge becomes all the more important whenpersonnel are being transferred by crane. This paper examines some of the newtechnologies and operational philosophies that promise to help operators meetthese new challenges. This includes motion monitoring technology developed inNorway that provides accurate real-time data on vessel responses for mariners,and crane operators, allowing them to increase the safety and extend the limitsof lifting operations.
Crane operational downtime has a major financial impact on arctic projects.Therefore there is pressure to maintain continuity of lifting operations. Thisproven technology - the Deck Motion Monitor (DMM) and the Arctic personnelcarrier - allows the safe transfer of cargo and personnel for a higherpercentage of time and reduces the time spent waiting for an optimal weatherwindow.