Pressure maintenance support in mature fields where permeability heterogeneity is present requires proper distribution of injected water into the respective zones of interest. This process can be extremely challenging, if no method for allocating the proper amount of water into each zone is available. An operator in the South China Sea, who had initiated a water injection project using legacy single-string two-zone completion technologies, found himself in this predicament, since no selective control for pressure maintenance had been considered for the project.
During the past few years, the application of intelligent completion (IC) technology has increased rapidly. This acceptance has been due primarily to its proven capabilities for reservoir monitoring and corresponding optimization of well performance without well interventions. Historically, the majority of IC applications have been in production wells; however, an increasing number of operators have started adopting IC technology for their injector wells.
This paper presents a case study in which IC technology was successfully applied in an offshore field in the South China Sea to provide an efficient water-injection method for optimizing pressure support as well as sweep. The operator selected this technology, as it presented a solution for optimizing the water injection. In addition to eliminating problems experienced with the incapability of the legacy completion technology to monitor water allocation and pressure maintenance for each zone, the IC technology would allow selective well testing for each zone. By evaluating the reservoir properties and characteristics of each zone independently, an intelligent completion would provide another key benefit to the operator, since it would comply with the platform size restrictions for the pumping equipment.
The paper will discuss field objectives, the conceptual design, the design obstacles, and the operational challenges experienced during the job execution.
Bowen, A.D. (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution) | Jakuba, M.V. (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution) | Yoerger, D.R. (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution) | Whitcomb, L.L. (Johns Hopkins University) | Kinsey, J.C. (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution) | Mayer, L. (University of New Hampshire) | German, C.R. (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution)
We describe a new underwater vehicle for under-ice telepresence, NereidUI (Under Ice). This paper discusses potential applications,environmental and logistical constraints, and progress to date. Based on lightdata-only fiber tether technology, Nereid UI will provide operatorswith a capability to teleoperate a ~1000 kg remotely operated vehicle (ROV)under fixed ice at ranges up to 20 km distant from a support ship or otherdeployment site under direct human supervision. When operating from anicebound support vessel, the light fiber technology permits the vehicle toremain stationary on the seafloor or maneuver freely in the water column orunder the ice while its support ship drifts with the sea ice up to 20 kmaway. Nereid UI will facilitate its recovery autonomously in theevent that the tether is severed. Prior experience with the hybrid ROVNereus 11,000 m rated vehicle, along with trade studies and conceptdevelopment devoted to Nereid UI has revealed (1) the light fiberconcept is viable in polar waters; (2) battery operation and the need totransit result in an ROV that occupies a unique trade-space with respect todrag; (3) redundant systems and a focus on reliability are necessary to avoidexpensive losses in productivity or the vehicle itself. The Nereid UIproject is supported by the National Science Foundation and the Woods HoleOceanographic Institution.
The increase in offshore activity in harsh weather areas of the worldpresents a major challenge for those involved in the management and executionof lifting operations. This challenge becomes all the more important whenpersonnel are being transferred by crane. This paper examines some of the newtechnologies and operational philosophies that promise to help operators meetthese new challenges. This includes motion monitoring technology developed inNorway that provides accurate real-time data on vessel responses for mariners,and crane operators, allowing them to increase the safety and extend the limitsof lifting operations.
Crane operational downtime has a major financial impact on arctic projects.Therefore there is pressure to maintain continuity of lifting operations. Thisproven technology - the Deck Motion Monitor (DMM) and the Arctic personnelcarrier - allows the safe transfer of cargo and personnel for a higherpercentage of time and reduces the time spent waiting for an optimal weatherwindow.
The Schoonebeek heavy-oil field was first developed by Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij B.V. (NAM) in the late 1940s. Because of economics, it was abandoned in 1996. In 2008, the Schoonebeek Redevelopment Project, using a gravity-assistedsteamflood (GASF) design concept, was initiated with 73 wells (44 producers, 25 injectors, and 4 observation wells). Steam injection and cool-down cycles subject a cement sheath to some of the most severe load conditions in the industry. Wellbore thermal modeling predicted that surface and production sections would experience temperatures in excess of 285°C (545°F) and considerable stress across weak formations. A key design requirement was long-term integrity of the cement sheath over an expected 25- to 30-year field life span. Complicating this requirement was the need for lightweight cementing systems, because lost-circulation issues were expected in both hole sections, particularly in the mechanically weak Bentheim sandstone. The long-term integrity challenge was divided into chemical and mechanical elements. Prior research on high-temperature cement performance by the operator provided necessary guidance for this project. Laboratory mechanical and analytical tests were conducted to confirm the high-temperature stability of the chosen design. In addition to using lightweight components, foaming the slurry allowed the density, mechanical, and economic targets to be met. A standardized logistical plan was put in place to allow use of the same base blend for the entire well, adjusted as needed, using liquid additives, and applying the foaming process when necessary. This single-blend approach greatly simplified bulk-handling logistics, allowing use of dedicated bulk-handling equipment. The first well was constructed in January 2009; all 73 wells have been successfully cemented to surface. The steaming process, initiated in May 2011, has progressed with no well integrity issues to date.
UK's Gas Heritage May Become Its Legacy Tom Pickering, Independent Consultant Tom Pickering is an independent consultant to operators and service companies operating in European unconventional gas, and was chairman of the Unconventional Gas Aberdeen 2012 conference held in November. He was a cofounder of Composite Energy, an early entrant into the United Kingdom unconventional sector before it was sold to Dart Energy in a deal worth more than GBP 40 million last year. Earlier in his career, Pickering worked for Amerada Hess in Aberdeen and London in well technology and global asset performance, and as an executive assistant. He is a graduate of the University of Aberdeen Business School. The United Kingdom is attempting to emulate the unconventional gas bonanza that has transformed the United States from having an energy industry that was in its "sunset" era to a nation rich in energy resources.
In general, all of Shell's new field developments, and redevelopments of existing fields, are equipped with appropriate smart-fields solutions. The elements selected in each field depend on its features and conditions. A screening process is carried out in the early stages of the project to identify requirements and opportunities for implementation. In some cases, application has changed the development concept completely (e.g., field development with smart wells and a remotely controlled platform). In other cases, solutions help improve field management.
Tom Neville, SPE, and Adam Donald, SPE, Schlumberger A two-step analysis can provide the key information needed to design optimal shale completions. The first step is to evaluate reservoir quality, which describes the hydrocarbon potential of a shale. The second step is to evaluate completion quality, which describes stimulation potential. Core analysis provides the basis to help calibrate the results of these two steps. The intersection of good reservoir quality and good completion quality leads to the best chance for success in shale completion.
Operators, as well as engineering, procurement, and construction (EPC) companies facing large capital expenditure projects, such as new-build and brownfield production and process installations, are creating new designs and practices to accommodate the complexity of changing demands and environments. Short time scales, high levels of scrutiny, and compliance with standards contribute to the trend of larger and more complex engineering problems. Design, construction, and installation are being modified in unique ways, offering efficiencies and versatility. In mid-October, BP installed a 750-ton processing unit (18 m long, 13 m wide, and 28 m high) on its existing Andrew platform in the North Sea, 230 km northwest of Aberdeen. The unit will process oil and gas from the Kinnoull and Andrew Lower Cretaceous reservoirs.
Operators, as well as engineering, procurement, and construction (EPC) companies facing large capital expenditure projects, such as new-build and brownfield production and process installations, are creating new designs and practices to accommodate the complexity of changing demands and environments. Short time scales, high levels of scrutiny, and compliance with standards contribute to the trend of larger and more complex engineering problems. Design, construction, and installation are being modified in unique ways, offering efficiencies and versatility. In mid-October, BP installed a 750-ton processing unit (18 m long, 13 m wide, and 28 m high) on its existing Andrew platform in the North Sea, 230 km northwest of Aberdeen. The unit will process oil and gas from the Kinnoull and Andrew Lower Cretaceous reservoirs. The Kinnoull field is one of three reservoirs being developed as part of the rejuvenation of the Andrew area.