The success of recent applications in underbalanced drilling (UBD) and managed pressure drilling (MPD) has accelerated the development of technology in order to optimize drilling operations. The increased number of depleted reservoirs and the necessity for reducing formation damage has also increased the need to apply UBD/MPD to such candidate fields. Several methods used the latest mechanistic multiphase flow models in order to predict bottomhole circulation pressure when performing UBD/MPD operations. A new model is developed that utilizes the latest mechanistic multiphase flow models; the developed model calculates the bottomhole circulation pressure as a function of surface injection rates, choke pressure and time.
The developed model can be used in designing and optimizing UBD/MPD operations in terms of determining the correct injection rate and/or choke pressure. In addition, the developed model is used to utilize the reservoir energy to attain correct bottomhole conditions. The developed model in addition to utilizing the latest mechanistic models also reduce the error in calculating the bottom hole pressure by incorporating an algorithm in which the injection rates are calculated in-situ rather than assuming constant injection rates.
The model is validated against data from literature and against a commercial simulator. Results show that the developed algorithm has increased the accuracy in predicting bottomhole pressure by incorporating the changes in new gas and liquid injection rates.
Excessive water production from unwanted zones in oil producing wells is one of the major challenges faced by the oil industry. The applicability of organically crosslinked polymer (OCP) systems as sealants for water shutoff treatments in temperatures up to 350°F is well documented. However, their effectiveness at temperatures above 350°F has not been evaluated. This paper presents experimental data from using an OCP system for water shutoff treatments at 400°F.
At temperatures around 400°F, crosslinking is expected to happen faster and can lead to premature gelation of the recipe before the entire treatment is in place. Thus, controlling the gelation time at such temperatures is extremely crucial. Optimizing the amount of retarder is essential to provide adequate time for placement of the treatment fluid. This paper provides gelation time data at temperatures between 350 and 400°F with different amounts of retarder. With an optimum amount of retarder, the OCP showed a gelation time of 1 hr 20 min.
This paper also describes the experimental setup used to study and determine the long-term stability of the OCP system at 400°F. Sand packs measuring 1-ft long were used for the test to simulate formation conditions. Once the optimized OCP recipe was gelled inside the sand pack, measurements were taken by gradually applying incremental differential pressure (?P) to evaluate the sealant at temperature, as well as the threshold ?P the system could withstand. Even after one month at 400°F, the OCP recipe was able to sustain a ?P of 950 psi over the sand pack.
The data indicates the applicability of this system as an effective conformance product to shut off water-producing zones over an extended period of time at 400°F.
Dashti, Qasem M. (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-anzi, Ealian H.D. (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al- Doheim, Aref (Kuwait Oil Company) | Kabir, Mir Md Rezaul (Kuwait Oil Company) | Acharya, Mihira Narayan (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Ajmi, Saad (Kuwait Oil Company)
Robustness of measurement while drilling (MWD) and logging while drilling (LWD) tools is laboratory-tested and rigorously field-tested for the expected operating and measurement specifications. Such tools have been used in the industry for decades with proven track record of stability. However, a typical tool string deployed as a part of bottom-hole assembly (BHA) has recently failed to withstand the unexpected BH conditions during drilling of the pilot hole using potassium formate mud (KFM), a heavy water based mud. The failure occurred within a deep-fractured calcareous kerogen section (CKS).
The tools had multiple surface communication failures; the first one was resolved as debris was found obstructing the rotor-starter part before drilling the CKS. The second failure occurred in the back-up tools, after drilling into the CKS and remained unexplained throughout drilling with the expectation of BH data recorded on memory. Inspection of the tool components, once the drilling was completed, revealed two major findings: First, some parts of the BHA, specifically the components of the CuBe tool had "vanished??. Secondly, the recovered tool parts had further damage due to corrosion and pitting. In addition, an unexpected color change in metal body parts was observed.
In the paper, the authors explain the unique mystery of tool eating "down-hole ghost??. Similar tools were previously used without an issue at comparable high pressure and temperature conditions and in geological sections alike in Kuwait in drilling with oil-based mud. The service provider's operational experience elsewhere has failed to explain the bizarre outcome, as they had not encountered similar incidents of vanishing tool parts and down-hole color change. The claim was that similar tools were successfully operated in water-based mud drilling including KFM. This claim was confirmed prior to the field execution with metallurgical compatibility tests carried out by the mud supplier.
The need to develop new tools that allow reservoir engineers to optimize reservoir performance is becoming more demanding by the day. One of the most challenging and influential problems facing reservoir engineers is well placement optimization.
The North Kuwait field (NKF) consists of six fields containing four naturally fractured carbonate formations. The reservoirs are composed of relatively tight limestone and dolomite embedded with anhydrate and shale. The fields are divided into isolated compartments based on fault zones and supported by a combination of different fluid compositions, initial pressures, and estimated free-water levels. Due to natural complexity, tightness, and high drilling costs of wells in the NKF, it is very important to identify the sweet spots and the optimum well locations.
This paper presents two intelligent methods that use dynamic numerical simulation model results and static reservoir properties to identify zones with a high-production potential: reservoir opportunity index (ROI) and simulation opportunity index (SOI). The Petrel* E&P software platform was chosen as the integrated platform to implement the workflow. The fit-for-purpose time dependent 2D maps generated by the Petrel platform facilitated the decision-making process used for locating new wells in the dominant flow system and provided immense support for field-development plans.
The difference between the two methods is insignificant because of reservoir tightness, limited interference, and natural uncertainty on compartmentalization. At this stage, pressure is not a key parameter. As a result, unlike brown fields, less weight was given to simulated pressure, and SOI was used to select the well locations.
The results of this study show that implementing these workflows and obtaining the resulting maps significantly improve the selection process to identify the most productive areas and layers in a field. Also, the optimum numbers of wells using this method obtained in less time and with fewer resources are compared with results using traditional industry approaches.
The global economy continues its journey of evolution and progression driven by industrialism as its primary force. With such a fast pace of development and recovery from several recessions over a number of years, dependency on energy sources became inevitable to satisfy the rising demand. This paper represents a proposed global energy price model that has the flexibility of modeling the energy price, using data from specific regions of the world, as well as the global energy pricing equation. The ANM (Alternate Novel Model) is presented here.
The model focuses mainly on oil price modeling, since oil accounts for more than 84% of the current world energy supply. The model duration is 50 years; starting from 1980 to 2030, model matching period from 1980 to 2011, and the prediction period is from 2012to 2030.
The modeling approach used in ANM adopts weighted averaging of individual factors and it relies on line regression technique. Therefore, future trends are being predicted based on the cyclic nature of the market and historical data "the future is reflection of the past??. ANM can then preduct the future oil prices, depending on the factors and variables that have been placed in the process for the output results.
The paper aims to propose a reliable model that accounts for most governing factors in the global energy pricing equation. All steps followed and assumptions made will be discussed in detailto clarify the working mechanism for this model and pave the road for any future modifications.
Offshore production of heavy oil can be challenging due largely to adverse fluid properties, sand production and flow assurance concerns. Recent technology advancements effectively driving management of these challenges and government support through tax relief have significantly contributed to the increased appraisal activity over the last several years in the North Sea heavy oil fields. Application of appropriate technologies and techniques has always been of paramount importance for acquiring high quality information throughout welltest for reservoir characterization at appraisal stage of the fields. It also provides high level of confidence in technology and "proof of concept?? prior to further application in a full field development at investment intensive offshore operating environment.
This paper describes an integrated approach in analytical modeling and design developed and applied in the planning of flow test in a number of North Sea heavy oil fields. This includes a comprehensive pre-evaluation of well productivity, PVT properties modeling as well as design and selection of appropriate artificial lift method. A series of technical solutions considered relevant in relation to enhancing the low flowing well head temperature conditions, typically observed during the cold heavy oil production offshore and often leading to operational constraints on fluid handling capabilities is also discussed. Additionally, a probablistic approach considering base case, low and high case scenarios has been developed and implemented as part of the evaluation process, given the limited amount of available information and high level of uncertainties.
The study demonstrates the benefits of applying analytical techniques for uncertainties handling during flow test planning and thereby enabling accentuation of potential issues, properly planning for mitigation actions and predicting the entire flow test sequence. Finally the study underlines some important guidelines pertaining to planning for further appraisal and development of new heavy oil fields.
Both oil and gold are commodities with price in US Dollars, but they choose different path in trend figure. While gold has been showing great stability over the years, oil keeps changing in price level. Oil price movements have distorted measurement of economic variables measured in dollar values. In economical evaluation for oil and gas field development projects longer than one year, oil price is one of the most critical assumptions.
This paper is trying to solve whether:
• gold is more stable than US dollars or other currencies
• gold equivalency is more reliable way to project the future costs/price
• the gold-based oil price can be applied in current economical evaluation template for justification of approval process on field development plan
Considering crude oil prices are moving dynamically for last decade, this paper exercise the model to determine realistic oil price assumption by using more stable "currencies??, thus it can provide more reliable and accurate economical evaluation. It shows that gold-based inflation-adjusted crude-oil price is preferable indampening or mitigating:
• effect of dynamic oil price nature
• impact of inflation
• risks of paper-based currency fluctuation
• discount rate requirement
Using case study of Indonesian Production Sharing Contract (PSC) fiscal terms, gold-based oil price provides more simple economical evaluation, resulting real net cashflow of field development plan. The paper concludes by demonstrating using gold equivalency instead of paper-based currencies provides more consistent and reliable nominal revenue in both perspective of PSC Contractor and Government.
Historically, shale instability is a challenging issue when drilling reactive formations using water-based muds (WBM). Shale instability leads to shale sloughing, stuck pipe, and shale disintegration causing an increase in fines that affects the rate of penetration. To characterize shale instability, laboratory tests including Linear Swell Meter (LSM), shale-erosion and slake-durability are conducted in industry. These laboratory tests, under different flow conditions, provide shale-fluid interaction parameters which are indicative of shale instability. The composition of WBM is designed to optimize these interaction parameters, so that when used in the field the fluid helps achieve efficient drilling.
This paper demonstrates modeling of shale-fluid interaction parameters obtained from the LSM test. In the standard LSM test, a laterally confined cylindrical shale sample is exposed to WBM at a specific temperature and its axial swelling is measured with time. The swelling reaches a plateau which is characterized by a shale-fluid interaction parameter called % final swelling volume (A). A typical LSM test runs for around 48-72 hours and many tests may be needed to optimize fluid composition.
In this work, a method/model is developed to predict final swelling volume (A) as a function of the Cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the shale and salt concentration in the fluid (prominent factors affecting shale swelling). An empirical model in the form of A = f(CEC)*f(salt) which describes the explicit dependence on the influencing variables is developed and validated for 16 different shale samples at various salt concentrations. This model would significantly reduce LSM laboratory trials saving time and money. It could also enable rig personnel to obtain quick measure of shale characteristics so that WBM composition could be adjusted immediately to avoid shale instability issues.
Thread compound "dope?? in the vernacular, has been used routinely in assembling joints of casing and tubing. The practice in almost universal application in the oil and gas industry involves the manual application of the lubricant in a fashion that is rudimentary, non-systematic and unquantifiable. There is evidence presented in this paper that damage to the near-well zone and other unpleasant events may be associated with the thread compound.
This paper presents the results of both laboratory and field investigations quantifying the effects of the dope on near-well damage. During the assembly of tubing and casing a portion of the thread compound is exuded inside and outside the connection and gets access to the well fluids through the tubing and annular space. Studies presented here show that the dope forms a suspension which penetrates and damages the formation. The studies used standard fluid circulation velocities during typical completion operations.
To characterize and quantify the problem, core samples from the El Tordillo field, with different permeabilities were used. The samples were subjected to the circulation of the suspension created by the thread compound and the completion fluid, measuring the change in the core permeability. The work simulated the well conditions during water injection for water injection wells and during acid treatments for producer wells. A significant reduction in permeability, manifested by a fast and a very large increase in pressure, was measured, at the front face of the core sample. The same measurements showed a far smaller impact in the core body suggesting very minor penetration of dope particles.
This paper describes the laboratory and field work, with description of the test protocols, well conditions and laboratory emulation of field conditions that were used.
During recent years there has been a significant increase in the use of filter cake removal systems that involve in-situ release of formic or lactic acid during the clean-up stages of the reservoir section, particularly in limestone formations. Furthermore, there have been opportunities to compare the field performance of these relatively small applications of weak, organic acids with significantly larger application volumes of highly concentrated hydrochloric acid (HCl). Surprisingly, some results showed that the smaller volumes of the weaker, organic acids could have equivalent or better performance than that produced by the more traditional HCl-based treatments. In particular this relationship was also observed in cases where the volume of HCl applied had significantly greater power to dissolve limestone than was the case for treatment with the more successful organic acid.
It is well known that productivity of wells in carbonate reservoirs is usually greatly improved by treatments designed to remove the filter cake and the low-permeability zone created by the drilling process, but it is not obvious why smaller volumes per foot of weak organic acid should be more effective than larger volumes per foot of stronger and more concentrated mineral acid.
It has been observed that the acid precursors which release the in-situ acids are applied to the formation in a neutral condition. The paper discusses the implications of using neutral acid precursors, and laboratory data is presented showing the effects of such treatments on the near-wellbore matrix permeability.