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The reliability of the estimated parameters in well test analysis depends on the accuracy of measured data. Early time data are usually controlled by the wellbore storage effect. However, this effect may last for the pseudo-radial flow or the boundary dominated flow. Eliminating this effect is an option for restoring the real data. Using the data with this effect is another option that can be used successfully for reservoir characterization.
This paper introduces a new technique for interpreting the pressure behavior of horizontal wells and fractured formations with wellbore storage. A new analytical model describes the early time data has been derived for both horizontal wells and horizontal wells intersecting multiple hydraulic fractures. Several models for the relationships of the peak points with the pressure, pressure derivative and time have been proposed in this study for different wellbore storage coefficients. A complete set of type curves has been included for different wellbore lengths, skin factors and wellbore storage coefficients. The study has shown that early radial flow for short to moderate horizontal wells is the most affected flow regime by the wellbore storage. For long horizontal wells, the early linear flow is the most affected flow regime by the wellbore storage effect.
The most important finding in this study is the ability to run a short test and use the early time data only for characterizing the formation. This means there is no need to run a long time test to reach the pseudo-steady state. Therefore, from the wellbore storage dominated flow, the early radial and pseudo-radial flow can be established for horizontal wells and hydraulic fractured formations. A step-by-step procedure for analyzing pressure tests using the analytical models (TDS) and the type curves is also included in this paper for several numerical examples.
This paper analyzes reaction and thermal front development in porous reservoirs with reacting flows, such as those encountered in shale oil extraction. A set of dimensionless parameters and a 3D code are developed in order to investigate the important physical and chemical variables of such reservoirs when heated by in situ methods. This contribution builds on a 1D model developed for the precursor study to this work. Theory necessary for this study is presented, namely shale decomposition chemical mechanisms, governing equations for multiphase flow in porous media and necessary closure models. Plotting the ratio of the thermal wave speed to the fluid speed allows one to infer that the reaction wave front ends where this ratio is at a minimum. The reaction front follows the thermal front closely, thus allowing assumptions to be made about the extent of decomposition solely by looking at thermal wave progression. Furthermore, this sensitivity analysis showed that a certain minimum permeability is required in order to ensure the formation of a traveling thermal wave. It was found that by studying the non-dimensional governing parameters of the system one can ascribe characteristic values for these parameters for given initial and boundary conditions. This allows one to roughly predict the performance of a particular method on a particular reservoir given approximate values for initial and boundary conditions. Channelling and flow blockage due to carbon residue buildup impeded each method's performance. Blockage was found to be a result of imbalanced heating.
Blunt, Martin Julian (Imperial College) | Al-Jadi, Manayer (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Qattan, Abrar (KOC) | Al-Kanderi, Jasem M. (Kuwait Oil Company) | Gharbi, Oussama (Imperial College) | Badamchizadeh, Amin (CMG) | Dashti, Hameeda Hussain (Kuwait Oil Company) | Chimmalgi, Vishvanath Shivappa (Kuwait Oil Company) | Bond, Deryck John (Kuwait Oil Company) | Skoreyko, Fraser A. (CMG)
The Magwa Marrat reservoir was discovered in the mid-1980s and has been produced to date under primary depletion. Reservoir pressure has declined and is approaching the asphaltene onset pressure (AOP). A water flood is being planned and a decision needs to be taken as to the appropriate reservoir operating pressure. In particular the merits of operating the reservoir at pressures above and below the AOP need to be assessed.
Some of the issues related to this decision relate to the effects of asphaltene deposition in the reservoir. Two effects have been evaluated. Firstly the effect of in-situ deposition of asphaltene on wettability and the influence that this may have on water-flood recovery has been investigated using pore scale network modes. Models were constructed and calibrated to available high pressure mercury capillary pressure data and to relative permeability data from reservoir condition core floods. The changes to relative permeability characteristics that would result from the reservoir becoming substantially more oil-wet have been evaluated. Based on this there seems to be a very limited scope for poorer water flood performance at pressures below AOP.
Secondly the scope for impaired well performance has been evaluated. This has been done using a field trial where a well was produced at pressures above and substantially below AOP and pressure transient data were used to estimate near wellbore damage "skin??. Also compositional simulation has been used to estimate near wellbore deposition effects. This has involved developing an equation of state model and identifying, using computer assisted history matching, a range of parameters that could be consistent with core flood experiments of asphaltene deposition. Results of simulation using these parameters are compared with field observation and used to predict the range of possible future well productivity decline.
Overall this work allows an evaluation of the preferred operating pressure, which can drop below the AOP, resulting in lower operating costs and higher final recovery without substantial impairment to either water-flood efficiency or well productivity.
Thread compound "dope?? in the vernacular, has been used routinely in assembling joints of casing and tubing. The practice in almost universal application in the oil and gas industry involves the manual application of the lubricant in a fashion that is rudimentary, non-systematic and unquantifiable. There is evidence presented in this paper that damage to the near-well zone and other unpleasant events may be associated with the thread compound.
This paper presents the results of both laboratory and field investigations quantifying the effects of the dope on near-well damage. During the assembly of tubing and casing a portion of the thread compound is exuded inside and outside the connection and gets access to the well fluids through the tubing and annular space. Studies presented here show that the dope forms a suspension which penetrates and damages the formation. The studies used standard fluid circulation velocities during typical completion operations.
To characterize and quantify the problem, core samples from the El Tordillo field, with different permeabilities were used. The samples were subjected to the circulation of the suspension created by the thread compound and the completion fluid, measuring the change in the core permeability. The work simulated the well conditions during water injection for water injection wells and during acid treatments for producer wells. A significant reduction in permeability, manifested by a fast and a very large increase in pressure, was measured, at the front face of the core sample. The same measurements showed a far smaller impact in the core body suggesting very minor penetration of dope particles.
This paper describes the laboratory and field work, with description of the test protocols, well conditions and laboratory emulation of field conditions that were used.
Transverse fractures created from horizontal wells are a common choice in tight and shale gas reservoirs. Previous work has shown that proppant pack permeability reduction due to non-Darcy flow in a transverse fracture from a horizontal well causes significant reduction in the fracture performance when the gas formation permeability exceeds 0.5 md. There are other configurations and architectures such as aligning the well trajectory with the fracture, either by drilling horizontal wells in the direction that results in longitudinal fractures or by just sticking with drilling vertical wells. However, when drilling and fracturing costs are considered, productivity is not the only optimization consideration.
The field example illustrates a case when the apparent choice to use transverse fractures from horizontal wells proved to be suboptimal from the productivity perspective, but fundamental considering economics. Parametric studies for permeability ranging from 0.01 to 5 md illustrate the importance of economics in addition to physical performance. For similar reservoir characteristics, the optimum fractured well architecture varies considerably, and therefore an extensive reservoir engineering approach may be necessary beyond the well completions and/or current prejudices and inadequate understanding.
Al-Kandari, Ibrahim (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Jadi, Manayer (Kuwait Oil Company) | Lefebvre, Christian (Beicip-Franlab) | Vigier, Louise (Beicip) | De Medeiros, Maitre (Beicip) | Dashti, Hameeda Hussain (Kuwait Oil Company) | Knight, Roger (KOC) | Al-Qattan, Abrar (KOC) | Chimmalgi, Vishvanath Shivappa (Kuwait Oil Company) | Datta, Kalyanbrata (KOC) | Hafez, Karam Mohamed (KOC) | Turkey, Laila (KOC) | Bond, Deryck John (Kuwait Oil Company)
Copyright 2012, Society of Petroleum Engineers This paper was prepared for presentation at the SPE Kuwait International Petroleum Conference and Exhibition held in Kuwait City, Kuwait, 10-12 December 2012. This paper was selected for presentation by an SPE program committee following review of information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to correction by the author(s). The material does not necessarily reflect any position of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, its officers, or members. Electronic reproduction, distribution, or storage of any part of this paper without the written consent of the Society of Petroleum Engineers is prohibited. Permission to reproduce in print is restricted to an abstract of not more than 300 words; illustrations may not be copied. The abstract must contain conspicuous acknowledgment of SPE copyright. Abstract A pilot water flood was carried out in the Marrat reservoir in the Magwa Field. The main aim of this pilot was to allow an assessment of the ability to sustain injection, better understand reservoir characteristics. A sector model was built to help with this task. An evaluation of the injectivity in Magwa Marrat reservoir was performed with particular attention to studying how injectivity varied as injected water quality was changed. This was done using modified Hall Plots, injection logs, flow logs and time lapse temperature logs. Data acquisition during the course of the pilot was used to better understand reservoir heterogeneity.
Gupta, Shilpi (Schlumberger) | Pandey, Arun (Schlumberger) | Ogra, Konark (Schlumberger) | Sinha, Ravi (Schlumberger) | Chandra, Yogesh (ONGC) | Singh, PP (ONGC) | Koushik, YD (ONGC) | Verma, Vibhor (Schlumberger) | Chaudhary, Sunil (Oil & Natural Gas Corp. Ltd.)
Production logging has been traditionally used for zonal quantification of layers for identification of most obvious workover for water shut off, acid wash or reperforation candidate identification. The basic sensors help in making some of the critical decisions for immediate gain in oil production or reduction in water cut. However, this technology can be used in a non standard format for various purposes including multilayer testing to obtain layer wise permeability and skin factor using pressure and flow rate transient data acquired with production logging tools. This is very crucial and complements the present wellbore flow phenomenon to better understand relative zonal performance of well at any stage of its production. In addition, production logging along with the pulsed neutron technique is very crucial to evaluate the complete wellbore phenomenon, understand some of the behind the production string fluid flow behaviors. Another major concern in low flow rate wells is recirculation, causing fall back of heavier water phase while lighter phase like oil and gas move upwards. This well bore phenomenon renders the quantification from production logging string, and this in extension also prevents any comprehensive workover decisions on the well because of the risk involved. Oil rate computation from hydrocarbon bubble rates becomes very critical in such scenarios to bring out the most optimal results and enhance confidence in workover decisions. Another key concern in any reservoir is to evaluate the productivity Index; this is even more critical once the field is on production. It is essential to determine the performance of various commingled layers and reform the Injector producer strategy for pressure support or immediate workover. Selective Inflow performance is a technique used to identify the Productivity index of various layers in a commingled situation. This paper elaborates on various non conventional uses of production logging from the western offshore India.
Brown field management has been a key focus in the western offshore region. Over the last decade cased hole production logging for evaluation of reservoir phenomenon has been the backbone of workover operation in western offshore India. Besides the usual operations production logging has been pivotal in determining various important parameters for field development. Various unconventional uses require understanding of the tool physics and limitation. Advanced generation of production logging tools not only provide additional information in terms of wellbore flow fractions, slippage velocities and complex flow regimes but their basic outputs can also be utilized in variety of applications for reservoir evaluation and wellbore flow monitoring. Following sections describe several case studies describing unconventional usage of production logging outcomes.
Unconventional Applications of Production Logging
Case Study 1: Selective Inflow Performance
Field wise production logging has always been an excellent source to evaluate the open hole results and suggest some immediate workover to optimise the production. Selective Inflow performance is new variation in the already existing technique used to identify the Productivity index of various layers in a commingled situation. This operation can provide us with the openhole flow potential of the well and thus help in mapping the flow profile in the reservoir. A multichoke production logging survey usually covering two to three choke sizes is performed and flow profiling for each survey is done.
Copyright 2012, Society of Petroleum Engineers This paper was prepared for presentation at the SPE Kuwait International Petroleum Conference and Exhibition held in Kuwait City, Kuwait, 10-12 December 2012. This paper was selected for presentation by an SPE program committee following review of information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to correction by the author(s). The material does not necessarily reflect any position of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, its officers, or members. Electronic reproduction, distribution, or storage of any part of this paper without the written consent of the Society of Petroleum Engineers is prohibited. Permission to reproduce in print is restricted to an abstract of not more than 300 words; illustrations may not be copied. The abstract must contain conspicuous acknowledgment of SPE copyright. Abstract During recent years there has been a significant increase in the use of filter cake removal systems that involve in-situ release of formic or lactic acid during the cleanup stages of the reservoir section, particularly in limestone formations.
Facies modeling forms an integral part of geological numerical modeling. Over the last two decades, different facies modeling methods have been developed using geostatistical algorithms. Most of these methods rely on the assumption of discrete or binary modeling during which each model cell is assigned a single facies. In this study, the size of the cells is on average 100 meters by 100 meters laterally by one meter thick. Based on comparisons to outcrops and subsurface data, such cells should, in fact, include a mixture of facies.
The discrete-facies approach assumes a single facies per cell. The distribution of the facies between wells is described using classical categorical geostatistical algorithms. Reservoir properties are then populated by facies within mapped environments of deposition. This process is well-established and straightforward, especially with regard to tying well data, handling property trends, and applying net rock cut-offs.
A mixed-facies approach can be performed using effective property modeling in which multiple small, fine-scale models are built for each environment of deposition. These models are re-sampled to the full-field cell volume using static and flow-based upscaling methods. The resulting statistics are then used with geostatistics, conditioned to the proportion of each facies present, to populate the full-field model. Such models allow the incorporation of core-scale heterogeneity potentially important in improved oil recovery projects, and may reduce modeling cycle times, especially when multiple iterations are required, such as during history-matching or uncertainty analysis.
This paper compares the impact on simulated fluid flow of modeling facies using discrete modeling versus a mix of facies per cell. Shoreface and subordinate fluvial environments of deposition facies, and five reservoir lithofacies, were modeled.
Fluid-flow simulation of the mixed-facies model, under both primary depletion and pressure maintenance conditions, was smooth and uniform, with a highly conformable flood front. The discrete model was more stratified, with faster and less conformable water movement.
The assignment of discrete facies to large model cells (few hundred meters laterally & few meters vertically) takes less time than a mixed-facies approach and does a better job of preserving organized extremes of permeability important at the production timescale. In the early stages of field development, when there is much uncertainty and a rapid, scenario-based modeling approach is desirable, the discrete approach can be used to flag heterogeneity-related risks more quickly and confidently than the mixed-facies technique. Inaccuracies in performance parameters resulting from the assignment of unscaled discrete values can be corrected using fine-scale sector models tailored to the highest risk cases.
Carbonate formations are very complex in their pore structure and exhibit a wide variety of pore classes. Pore classes such as interparticle porosity, moldic porosity, vuggy porosity, intercrystalline porosity, and microporosity. Understanding the role of pore class on the performance of emulsified acid treatment and characterizing the physics of the flow inside is the objective of our study.
The study was performed using vuggy dolomite cores that represent mainly the vuggy porosity dominated structure, while the homogenous cores represent the intercrystalline pore structure. Core flood runs were conducted on 6 x 1.5 in. cores using emulsified acid formulated at 1 vol% emulsifier and 0.7 acid volume fraction. The objective of this set of experiments is to determine the acid pore volume to breakthrough for each carbonate pore class at different injection rates.
In this paper, a novel approach to interpret the core flood run results using thin section observations, tracer experiments, SEM, and resistivity measurements will be presented. Thin section observations provide means to study the vugs size and their distribution, connectivity, and explain the contribution of the pore class in the acid propagation. Relating the rotating disk experiments of emulsified acid with dolomite to our core flood run results will be also conducted in order.
The acid pore volumes to breakthrough for vuggy porosity dominated rocks were observed to be much lower than that for homogenous carbonates (intercrystalline pore structure). Also, the wormhole dissolution pattern was found to be significantly different in vuggy rocks than that in homogenous ones. Comparison of thin section observations, tracer results and the core flood runs results indicates that the vugs are distributed in a manner that creates a preferential flow path which can cause a rapid acid breakthrough and effective wormholing than those with a uniform pore structure. Rotating disk experiment results, demonstrating that the reaction of emulsified acid with dolomite is much lower than that with calcite, showed that the reaction kinetics played a role in determining the wormhole pattern.