Mixing of an asphaltenic oil with light gases (e.g., CO2) and/or depressurizing such a crude oil can lead to phase separation in which a second liquid phase L2 -highly concentrated in asphaltene- is formed. Asphaltene may precipitate or deposit out of the second liquid phase. This causes formation damage, wettability alteration, and recovery reduction. While asphaltene phase behavior have been studied under static conditions (where equilibrium is imposed), the behavior of asphaltene under dynamic flow conditions is relatively unexplored. Here, we investigate the coupling of asphaltene phase behavior and flow in porous media. As such, two asphaltenic crudes are characterized using the PC-SAFT equation-of- state. The fluid models were then used to fit the experimental asphaltene deposition data under static conditions. Subsequently, asphaltene flow and deposition was studied during miscible gas flooding where four phases (water, oil L1, gas, and second liquid L2) are present. Our results show that (i) wettability alteration increases the mixing zone and decreases both the displacement and sweep efficiencies; (ii) asphaltene deposition, hence wettability alteration and formation damage are maximal near the producer.
One major concern for Alkaline Surfactant Polymer (ASP) flooding is the possibility of inorganic scale formation near the wellbore and in the production facility. In this process, the precipitation reactions of multivalent hardness ions present in the carbonate reservoirs with alkalis in high pH brines might damage the formation, production facilities, and cause severe flow assurance issues. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the geochemical reactions and possibility of scale formation and its associated problems to develop mitigation plans. In this paper, we performed geochemical simulations to investigate the likelihood of inorganic scale formation during ASP flooding in a 5-spot pilot project in one of the largest carbonate reservoirs in the Middle East.
We used a coupled chemical flooding simulator and geochemical (IPhreeqc) framework for this study. First, we incorporated published laboratory data in a geomodel realization of the pilot area. Second, we used the pilot model to investigate the possibility of scale formation during ASP flooding considering a comprehensive system of reactions. Using IPhreeqc, we were able to include thermodynamic databases with various geochemical reactions and capabilities such as saturation index calculation, reversible and irreversible reactions, kinetic reaction, and impacts of temperature and pressure on reaction constants and solubility products. Thus, we were able to show how and where the scales may form.
Our results indicated that the mixing of very hard formation water or water from the subzones near the production wellbore with the injected alkaline water causes scale deposition. We observed calcite dissolutions with slight increase in pH near the injection wellbores after soft seawater preflush. As the ASP solution was injected and high pH brine propagated, carbonate scale and to a lesser extent hydroxide scale formed near the producer. Moreover, although some carbonate and magnesium hydroxide deposits in the formation, but there was negligible effect on reservoir properties. Furthermore, according to our simulation results, most of the scales deposited near the production wellbore, which increases the chance of reducing wellbore productivity and production system damage. These results can help in developing mitigation strategies i.e. preflood the reservoir with soft brine before introducing the ASP slug and optimize the soft brine injection time.
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that a comprehensive chemical flood reactive transport simulator is used to assess scale formation during ASP flooding in a carbonate reservoir. Our approach can be used to identify and mitigate challenges and associated design problems for field-scale ASP scenarios.
Aqueous based foam injection has gained interest for conventional oil recovery in recent times. Foam can control the mobility ratio and improve the sweep efficiency in oil reservoirs over gas flooding. However, due to the high viscosity of oil, its application in heavy oil reservoirs is challenging. Moreover, oil-wet nature of carbonate reservoirs makes it difficult for aqueous based foam to efficiently remove the heavy oil. On the other hand, hydrocarbon solvents have been used for decreasing the heavy oil viscosity and increase its recovery by diffusion and mixing mechanisms. However, low rate of diffusion/dispersion and inadequate sweep efficiently, especially in heterogeneous reservoirs, are of the main challenges during solvent injection. Combination of foam and solvent (solvent based foam) can overcome the challenges existing in the separate application of aqueous based foam and solvent injection for heavy oil recovery. The challenge is to understand how the combination of solvent and foam will help us to improve the heavy oil sweep efficiency.
This paper introduced a new approach to increase sweep efficiency during heavy oil recovery with the help of hydrocarbon solvent-based CO2 foam. Foam was generated with the help of a fluorosurfactant in the hydrocarbon solvent. Static bulk performances of foam were analyzed at different concentrations of surfactant. Surface tension measurement was also performed to study the adsorption of surfactant into the liquid-gas interface and its effect on foamability and foam stability. A specially designed fractured micromodel (oil wet, representing fractured carbonate reservoirs) were used to visualize the pore scale phenomena during solvent based foam injection. A high quality camera was utilized to capture high quality images/movies.
According to static experiments, although the value of the surface tension of hydrocarbon solvent was initially low, the addition of surfactant slightly decreased the surface tension further and surfactant adsorption at the interface improved the foam stability. This process was more evident in higher concentration of surfactant. In addition, dynamic pore scale observation through this study revealed that solvent based foam can significantly contribute to heavy oil recovery with different mechanisms. At initial stage, solvent diffuses and mixes with viscous oil and reduce the viscosity. Later, foam bubbles improve the sweep efficiency by diverting the solvent toward untouched part of the porous media. In addition, foam bubbles partially blocked the opening area in matrix/swept-area increasing the contact of solvent and heavy oil, providing better mixing. Therefore, oil is swept much faster and more efficiently from the grain in oil-wet porous media compared to that of conventional solvent flooding.
Successful application of solvent based foam can significantly improve the heavy oil recovery in reservoirs with high heterogeneity and oil-wet matrix. Cooperation of diffusion/dispersion and mobility reduction will result in faster oil production and lesser amount of oil will leave behind improving the sweep efficiency.
The importance of tuning injection water chemistry for upstream is getting beyond formation damage control/water incompatibility to increase oil recovery from waterflooding and different improved oil recovery (IOR)/enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes. The water chemistry requirements for IOR/EOR have been relatively addressed in the recent literature, but the key challenge for field implementation is to find an easy, practical, and optimum technology to tune water chemistry. The currently available technologies for tuning water chemistry are limited, and most of the existing ones are adopted from the desalination industry, which relies on membrane based separation. Even though these technologies yield a doable solution, they are not the optimum choice to alter injection water chemistry in terms of incorporating selective ions and providing effective water management for large scale applications. In this study, several of the current, emerging, and future desalination technologies are reviewed with an objective to develop potential water treatment solutions that can most efficiently alter injection water chemistry for SmartWater flooding in carbonate reservoirs.
Standard chemical precipitation technologies, such as lime/soda ash, alkali, and lime/aluminum based reagent, are only applicable for removing certain ions from seawater. The lime/aluminum based reagent process looks interesting, as it can remove both sulfates and hardness ions to provide some tuning flexibility for key ions included in the SmartWater. There are some new technologies under development that use chemical solvents to extract salt ions from seawater, but their capabilities to selectively remove specific ions need further investigation.
Forward osmosis and membrane distillation are the two emerging technologies, and these can provide good alternatives to reverse osmosis seawater desalination for the near-term. These technologies can offer a better cost-effective solution where there is availability of low grade waste heat or steam. The two new desalination technologies, based on dynamic vapor recovery and carrier gas extraction, are well suited to treat high salinity produced water for zero liquid discharge (ZLD). These technologies may not be able to provide an economical solution for seawater desalination. Carbon nanotube desalination, graphene sheet-based desalination, and capacitive deionization are the three potential future seawater desalination technologies identified for the long term. Among these, carbon nanotube based desalination is much attractive, although the technology is still largely under research and development.
This review study results show that there is no commercial technology yet available to selectively remove specific ions from seawater in one step and optimally meet desired water chemistry requirements of SmartWater flooding. As a result, different novel schemes involving selected combinations of chemical precipitation, conventional/emerging desalination, and produced water treatment technologies are proposed. These schemes represent both approximate and improved solutions to selectively incorporate specific key ions in the SmartWater, besides presenting the key opportunities to treat produced water/membrane rejects and provide ZLD capabilities in SmartWater flooding applications. The developed novel schemes can provide an attractive solution to capitalize on existing huge produced water resources in Saudi reservoirs to generate SmartWater and minimize wastewater disposal during field-wide implementation.
Fracturing fluids are commonly formulated with fresh water to ensure reliable rheology. However, fresh water is becoming more costly, and in some areas, it is difficult to obtain. Therefore, using produced water in hydraulic fracturing has received increased attention in the last few years. A major challenge, however, is its high total dissolved solids (TDS) content, which could cause formation damage and negatively affect fracturing fluid rheology. The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using produced water to formulate crosslinked-gel-based fracturing fluid. This paper focuses on the compatibility of water with the fracturing fluid system and the effect of salts on the fluid rheology.
Produced water samples were analyzed to determine different ion concentrations. Solutions of synthetic water with different amounts of salts were prepared. The fracturing fluid system consisted of natural guar polymer, borate-based crosslinker, biocide, surfactant, clay controller, scale inhibitor, and pH buffer. Compatibility tests of the fluid system were conducted at different cation concentrations. Apparent viscosity of the fracturing fluid was measured using a high-pressure high-temperature rotational rheometer. All rheology tests were conducted at a temperature of 180°F and were conducted according to API 13m procedure with a three-hour test duration. Fluid breaking test was also performed to ensure high fracture and proppant pack conductivity.
Produced water analysis showed a TDS content of 125,000 ppm, including Na, Ca, K, and Mg ion concentrations of 36,000, 10,500, 1,700, and 700 ppm, respectively. Results indicated the potential of produced water to cause formation damage. Therefore, produced water was diluted with fresh water and directly used to formulate the fracturing fluid. Divalent cations were found to be the main source of precipitation, and the reduced amounts of each ion were determined to prevent precipitation. The separate and combined effects of Na, K, Ca, and Mg ions on the viscosity of the fracturing fluid were also studied. Fluid viscosity was found to be significantly affected by the concentrations of divalent cations regardless of the concentrations of monovalent cations. Monovalent cations reduced the viscosity of fracturing fluid only in the absence of divalent cations, and showed no effect in the presence of Ca and Mg ions. Water with reduced concentrations of monovalent and divalent cations showed the most suitable environment for polymer hydration and crosslinking.
This paper contributes to the understanding of the main factors that enable the use of produced water for hydraulic fracturing operations. Maximizing the use of produced water could reduce its disposal costs, mitigate environmental impacts, and solve fresh water acquisition challenges.