SmartWater flooding through injection of chemistry optimized waters by tuning individual ions is recently getting more attention in the industry for improved oil recovery in carbonate reservoirs. Most of the research studies described so far in this area have been limited to studying the interactions at rock-fluids interfaces by measuring contact angles, zeta potential, and adhesion forces. The other widely reported interfacial tension data at oil-water interfaces do not consider the formation of interfacial monolayer and the interfacial tension is estimated as an average parameter relying on the properties of two individual bulk phases. As a result, such measurements have serious shortcomings to provide any details on complex microscopic scale interactions occurring directly at the interface between crude oil and water to understand the SmartWater flood recovery mechanism.
In this study, two novel interfacial instruments of interfacial shear rheometer and surface potential sensor were used to study microscopic scale interactions of various individual water ions at both air-water and complex crude oil-water interfaces. The measured interfacial rheology data indicated totally different interfacial behavior at crude oil-water interface when compared to air-water interface due to presence of crude oil functional groups. Viscous dominated response was observed at crude oil-water interface for all brine compositions. These interfaces behaved like a viscous fluid without exhibiting viscoelastic solid like properties. Lower interfacial viscous modulus was observed for certain key ions such as calcium, magnesium, and sodium. The interfacial viscous modulus was found to be substantially much higher for sulfates, besides exhibiting some elasticity. The surface potential was gradually decreased by replacing seawater with calcium only brine. The better surface activity with seawater can be attributed to adsorption of more key water ions at the surface.
The interesting results observed with certain water ions at fluid-fluid interfaces are expected to work in tandem with rock-fluids interactions to impact oil recovery in SmartWater flood. At first, they play a role to control the accessibility of active water ions to approach the rock surface, interact with it and subsequently alter wettability. Next oil droplets adhering to the rock surface will be detached and released due to favorable interactions occurring at rock-fluids interfaces. The interfacial film between oil and water can then quickly be destabilized due to less viscous interfaces observed with certain ions to promote drop-drop coalescence and easy mobilization of released oil droplets. This coalescence process is sequential and it would continue until the formation of small oil bank.
This is the first study that showed added importance of fluid-fluid interactions in SmartWater flood by using direct measurements on individual water ions at crude oil-water interface. In addition, a new oil recovery mechanism was proposed by combining both the interactions occurring at fluid-fluid and rock-fluids interfaces. The new fundamental knowledge gained in this study will provide an important guidance on how to synergize water ion interactions at fluid-fluid interfaces with those at rock-fluids interfaces to optimize oil recovery from SmartWater flood.
Hou, Binchi (Research Institute of Shaanxi Yanchang Petroleum (Group) CO., LTD.) | Liu, Hongliang (China Petroleum Logging TuHa Business Division) | Bian, Huiyuan (Xi'an University of Science and Technology) | Wang, Chengrong (China Petroleum Logging TuHa Business Division) | Xie, Ronghua (Daqing Oilfield CO.LTD., PetroChina) | Li, Kewen (China University of Geosciences(Beijing)/Stanford University)
Capillary pressure and resistivity in porous rocks are both functions of wetting phase saturation. Theoretically, there should be a relationship between the two parameters. However, few studies have been made regarding this issue. Capillary pressure may be neglected in high permeability reservoirs but not in low permeability reservoirs. It is more difficult to measure capillary pressure than resistivity. It would be useful to infer capillary pressure from resistivity well logging data if a reliable relationship between capillary pressure and resistivity can be found. To confirm the previous study of a power law correlation between capillary pressure and resistivity index and develop a mathematical model with a better accuracy, a series of experiments for simultaneously measuring gas-water capillary pressure and resistivity data at a room temperature in 16 core samples from 2 wells in an oil reservoir were conducted. The permeability of the core samples ranged from 9 to 974 md. The gas-water capillary pressure data were measured with confining pressures using a semi-porous plate technique. We developed the specific experimental apparatus to measure gas-water capillary pressure and resistivity simultaneously. The results demonstrated that the previous power law model correlating capillary pressure and resistivity works well in many cases studied. A more general relationship between the exponent of the power law model and the rock permeability was developed and verified using the experimental data.
As one of the unconventional resources, tight oil has become one of the most important contributor of oil reserves and production growth. The successful commercial production of tight oil is mainly reliant on the advancement in horizontal drilling and multistage hydraulic fracturing technique. Development of tight oil reservoirs remains in an early stage. Primary oil recovery factor in these reservoirs is very low, leaving substantial volume of oil trapped underground due to the low porosity, low permeability characteristic of tight oil reservoirs. Thus, investigation of enhanced oil recovery methods is more than imperative in tight oil reservoirs. CO2 Huff-and-Puff technology has been effectively applied in conventional reservoirs and can be tailored to adapt for the characteristics of tight oil reservoirs.
In this study, the performance of water flooding in tight oil reservoir is studied and compared with that of the CO2 Huff-and-Puff process. Sensitivity analysis demonstrates that the performance of CO2 Huff-and-Puff is more sensitive to the length of gas injection and production step in each cycle, compared to the soaking time. The CO2 Huff-and-Puff process is optimized and an adaptive CO2 Huff-and-Puff process is conducted for tight oil reservoirs after primary production. Simulation results show that the adaptive cycle length CO2 Huff-and-Puff process can improve the incremental oil recovery by 11.1% over a fixed cycle length process. Finally, the inter-well interference during CO2 Huff-and-Puff is studied, and it is found that a multi-well asynchronous CO2 Huff-and-Puff pattern can improve the incremental oil recovery by 31.6% over that of a synchronous pattern.
Enhanced-oil-recovery techniques by gas injection in shale reservoirs have been introduced and investigated. Laboratory and simulation works have shown good results for enhanced shale oil recovery, but one problem with gas injection is asphaltene precipitation and deposition. Damage due to asphaltene precipitation and deposition in conventional reservoirs has been reported in the literature. In shale reservoirs, pore and throat sizes are much smaller than in conventional reservoirs. Thus, large asphaltene aggregates may cause more serious problems in shale reservoirs.
This experimental study used a nanofiltration technique to investigate the size of asphaltene aggregates precipitated during CO2 and CH4 injection in a shale oil sample. Nano membranes of 200nm, 100nm and 30nm were used to filtrate oil samples injected with different mole fractions of CO2 and CH4 gas. The distribution of asphaltene aggregates’ size at different injected CO2 and CH4 concentrations were obtained and compared with the pore size distribution data of shale cores measured by mercury intrusion porosimeters. Results showed that a higher injected CO2 and CH4 concentration caused more asphaltene precipitation and growth in asphaltene aggregates’ size. The precipitated asphaltene particle size was large enough to cause a pore-blocking problem in tested shale cores.
This paper presents the integrated approach for the redevelopment of the waterflood in Howard-Glasscock field located primarily in Howard County, Texas. Originally discovered in 1925, the majority of production is now commingled across the Guadalupe, Glorieta and Clearfork formations. This is a mature field which is currently in the midst of a 5 and 10 acre infill drilling program that began in 2009. Emphasis has primarily been focused on drilling producing wells, but the basis for this project was to optimize an existing waterflood to guide the development strategy of the field moving forward.
A study of the production of the wells drilled since 2009 identified stronger performance in wells with offset waterflood support. On average, waterflood was responsible for a 22% improvement in the expected recovery per well, despite a lack of patterns or a comprehensive waterflood management plan. As a result, a multi-disciplined team was commissioned to design a strategy for the redevelopment of the flood and more active management of the daily operations. Geology and reservoir engineering aspects were used to characterize the reservoir in conjunction with classical waterflood methods to understand the current performance and validate the expectations for secondary recovery.
Fracture orientation was studied based on cases of early breakthrough and was utilized in pattern identification and well placement to maximize sweep and discourage direct communication between injectors and producers. Further, the success of the waterflood in Howard-Glasscock relies on the ability to control the flow of water over a 2,000 foot vertical interval. To address this, the team has implemented a surveillance plan with improved monitoring and communication with the operations team to enhance the collection of data and in order to react to the dynamics of a waterflood. The rapid response to injection observed in this field requires proper surveillance and timely control of water flow which ultimately drives the success of the program by moving water from high water cut intervals to bypassed oil zones.
This paper details the systematic approach that was used to design the redevelopment plan for a waterflood in a 90 year old field. The scope of work is being implemented and represents an adjustment in the development plan of Howard-Glasscock moving forward. Ultimately, the enhanced performance observed in recent drilling programs and the continued success of development in this mature field hinges on understanding and managing the waterflood moving forward.
Given limited CO2 supply, operational constraints, and pattern specific reservoir performance, WAG schedule can be customized such that NPV or other metrics are optimized. Depending on the WAG schedule, recovery can fluctuate between 5–15% at the pattern scale due to reservoir heterogeneity causing variations in sweep efficiency. An analytical method was developed to optimize WAG schedules that couples traditional reservoir modeling and simulation with machine learning, enabling the discovery of optimal WAG schedules that increase recovery at the pattern level. A history-matched reservoir model of Chaparral Energy's Farnsworth Field, Ochiltree County, TX was sampled intelligently to perform predictive reservoir flow simulations and artificially build an intelligent reservoir model that samples a broad range of possible WAG scenarios for optimization. The intelligent model generates the next "best" sample to investigate in the numerical simulator and converges on the optima, quickly reducing the number of runs investigated. Results in this paper demonstrate that there can be significant improvements in net present value as well as net utilization rates of CO2 using this analytical technique. The WAG design generated by the intelligent reservoir model should be deployed in the field in early 2016 for validation. It is intended that the intelligent reservoir model will be updated on a regular basis as injection and production data is obtained. This effort represents the beginning of a paradigm shift in the application of modeling and simulation tools for significant improvements in field production operations.
Fluorinated benzoic acids (FBA) have been widely used in the oil industry as conservative tracers. However, some of these tracers have been shown to rapidly degrade when tested at temperatures above 121°C within three weeks. Naphthalene sulfonates (NSAs) have been shown to be excellent tracers in geothermal applications. However, a broader study was required to determine tracer conservation in reservoir fluids and formations typically encountered in the oil field.
In this study we compare the oil field industry standard FBA tracers to NSA tracers under dynamic test conditions in the presence of reservoir oil, sandstone, carbonates and clays. We also compare the two sets of tracers under static conditions in the presence of four crude oils and different clay mineralogy to establish tracer conservation. Seven different sodium salts of naphthalene sulfonic acids were tested to determine if the tracers were adsorbed onto natural porous media (reservoir rock) at reservoir conditions. A broad range of conditions were selected to target typical reservoirs encountered. In addition, reservoir rock and a pseudo formation containing 10 Wt.% clay in silica sand were used in sand packs saturated with surrogate brine to ensure the tracer recovery under dynamic conditions.
High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC-FLD) separation was used for simultaneous detection of seven NSAs while FBAs were analyzed using HPLC-UV. GC analysis of isopropyl alcohol (IPA) was used as a standard against which the others were measured.
Dynamic tracer tests demonstrated that the sodium salts of naphthalene sulfonates behaved similarly to the control, IPA, with none of the tracers adsorbing on to the rock surface or partitioning into the oil phase. The naphthalene sulfonates can be successfully used as conservative tracers most specifically for high temperature applications. NSA tracers are an attractive replacement for conservative FBA tracers in the oil field due to their superior thermal stability, solubility in oil field brine, lower detection limits and cost.
This paper presents the basic reservoir characteristics and the key improved oil recovery/enhanced oil recovery (IOR/EOR) methods for sandstone reservoir fields that have achieved recovery factors toward 70%. The study is based on a global analog knowledge base and associated analytical tools. The knowledge base contains both static (STOIIP, primary and ultimate recovery factors, reservoir/fluid properties, well spacing, drive mechanism, and IOR/EOR methods etc.) and dynamic data (oil rate, water-cut, and GOR, etc.) for more than 730 sandstone oil reservoirs. These reservoirs were subdivided into two groups: heavy and conventional oil reservoirs. This study focuses on the reservoirs with recovery factors great than 50% for heavy oil, and recovery factors from 60% to 79% for conventional oil with a view to understand the key factors for such a high recovery efficiency. These key factors include reservoir and fluid properties, wettability, development strategies and the IOR/EOR methods.
The high ultimate recovery factors for heavy oil reservoirs are attributed to excellent reservoir properties, horizontal well application, high efficiency of cyclic steam stimulating (CSS) and steam flood, and very tight well spacing (P50 value of 4 acres, as close as 0.25 acres) development strategy. The 51 high recovery conventional clastic reservoirs are characterized by favorable reservoir and fluid properties, water-wet or mixed-wet wettability, high net to gross ratio, and strong natural aquifer drive mechanism. Infill drilling and water flood led to an incremental recovery of 20% to 50%. EOR technologies, such as CO2 miscible and polymer flood, led to an incremental recovery of 8% to 15%. Homogeneous sandstone reservoirs with a good lateral correlation can reach 79% final recovery through water flood and adoption of close well spacing.
The lessons learned and best practices from the global analog reservoir knowledge base can be used to identify opportunities for reserve growth of mature fields. With favorable reservoir conditions, it is feasible to move final recovery factor toward 70% through integrating good reservoir management practices with the appropriate IOR/EOR technology.
Depth to Surface Resistivity (DSR) has been shown to be effective at mapping CO2, water flood, and residual oil aerially and vertically. Provided there is sufficient resistivity contrast between injected and in-situ fluids and subject to the reservoir depth and overburden resistivity, the technique is applicable for monitoring IOR/EOR fields. This information can be used to evaluate cap rock integrity, fluid loss to faults, and migration paths. The following paper presents a study of a CO2 flood followed by water alternating gas (WAG) injection.
Wang, Haitao (Petroleum Exploration & Production Research Institute, Sinopec) | Lun, Zengmin (Petroleum Exploration & Production Research Institute, Sinopec) | Lv, Chengyuan (Petroleum Exploration & Production Research Institute, Sinopec) | Lang, Dongjiang (Petroleum Exploration & Production Research Institute, Sinopec) | Pan, Weiyi (Petroleum Exploration & Production Research Institute, Sinopec) | Luo, Ming (Petroleum Exploration & Production Research Institute, Sinopec) | Wang, Rui (Petroleum Exploration & Production Research Institute, Sinopec) | Chen, Shaohua (Petroleum Exploration & Production Research Institute, Sinopec)
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was used to investigate the exposure between CO2 and matrix with permeability of 0.218 mD at 40 °C and 12 MPa. Before NMR experiment, the core was saturated with oil. To investigate the effects of exposure time on EOR, the saturated core was exposed to CO2 and T2 test was continuously performed with NMR system until the obtained T2 spectrum was unchanged. After the first exposure, CO2 and matrix reached equilibrium state. The second exposure started when CO2 injection was under a constant pressure of 12 MPa and at a constant rate to keep fresh CO2 in system. The procedure of T2 test was unchanged. The third and fourth exposures were conducted in sequence. The results showed that (1) Oil in all pores can mobilize as exposure time increases. (2) The recovery is 46.6% for oil in pores with the diameter of pore larger than 1 µm, this result is higher than the recovery (12.8%) for oil in pores with the diameter of pore smaller than 1 µm. (3) Recovery can be divided into two stages according to the exposure time: a fast-growing stage and a slow-growing stage. (4) Initially, the oil exists in pores with maximum radius of 21 µm in the originally saturated core. After CO2 injection, oil flows to pores with radius greater than 21 µm, suggesting that oil in tight matrix "diffuses" to the surface of core with exposure between CO2 and matrix. (5) The final recoveries of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th exposure experiments are 23.7%, 7.2%, 2.6% and 1.5%, respectively.