Carbonate formations are very complex in their pore structure and exhibit a wide variety of pore classes. Pore classes such as interparticle porosity, moldic porosity, vuggy porosity, intercrystalline porosity, and microporosity. Understanding the role of pore class on the performance of emulsified acid treatment and characterizing the physics of the flow inside is the objective of our study.
The study was performed using vuggy dolomite cores that represent mainly the vuggy porosity dominated structure, while the homogenous cores represent the intercrystalline pore structure. Core flood runs were conducted on 6 x 1.5 in. cores using emulsified acid formulated at 1 vol% emulsifier and 0.7 acid volume fraction. The objective of this set of experiments is to determine the acid pore volume to breakthrough for each carbonate pore class at different injection rates.
In this paper, a novel approach to interpret the core flood run results using thin section observations, tracer experiments, SEM, and resistivity measurements will be presented. Thin section observations provide means to study the vugs size and their distribution, connectivity, and explain the contribution of the pore class in the acid propagation. Relating the rotating disk experiments of emulsified acid with dolomite to our core flood run results will be also conducted in order.
The acid pore volumes to breakthrough for vuggy porosity dominated rocks were observed to be much lower than that for homogenous carbonates (intercrystalline pore structure). Also, the wormhole dissolution pattern was found to be significantly different in vuggy rocks than that in homogenous ones. Comparison of thin section observations, tracer results and the core flood runs results indicates that the vugs are distributed in a manner that creates a preferential flow path which can cause a rapid acid breakthrough and effective wormholing than those with a uniform pore structure. Rotating disk experiment results, demonstrating that the reaction of emulsified acid with dolomite is much lower than that with calcite, showed that the reaction kinetics played a role in determining the wormhole pattern.
Whole level of the erosion and the resistance of rocks which were composed closured have been studied, besides, the impact of temperature and laser irradiation for more investigation about this issue has been involved before all. This subject more reveals the matter which laser absorption on the laboratory scale using laser to what extent can cause the augment of the relative permeability and secondary porosity of reservoir rock, that of the vertical and horizontal useful connectivity and eventually that of the positive transferability.
This research has been carried out in the form of case study on one of Iranian south west formations in north east of Behbahan city in Iran, either the rate or generation of forming the subtle and large fractures has been studied by considering and preparing this section from rocks of stratified sequence of the laboratory area before and after the laser irradiation operation and various analyzer by the means of Spectrophotometer and advanced electron microscope. It should be noted that during the erosion and ablation in the laser drilling operation in the experimental rocks of considered field, given the capability of the field, the formation and field lithology we observed the creation of fractures at the level of micro and nano simultaneously whose vacant spaces were positive, and reservoir and some others were neutral, this fractures can be created by the rate of crude oil absorption. The main purpose of this study is to advance the operations towards the higher technology in order to the better efficiency in the field of the well completion to be gained improving the rate of oil production by the introduction of this modern method of improving and fracturing reservoir which uses certain specialized parameters and indicators, and, finally, the certain method that might be a better way to use laser irradiation on our chosen formation of Iran.
Mishra, Prasanta Kumar (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Harthy, Abdulrahman (Target Oilfields Services) | Al-Kanderi, Jasem M. (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Raisi, Muatasam (Target Oilfields Services) | Al-Alawi, Ghaliah (Target Oilfields Services) | Alhashmi, Salim (Target Oilfields Services) | Turkey, Shaikha (Kuwait Oil Company)
This paper presents the main steps of rock-typing workflow and the technique applied to estimate permeability.
Reservoir rock typing (RRT) is a process of up-scaling detailed geological and petrophysical information to provide more accurate input for 3D geological and flow simulation models. The reservoir rocks that correspond to a particular rock type should have similar rock fabric, pore types and pore throat size distribution. The study integrated multi-scale data types to develop a robust and predictable rock type scheme. This consists of detailed sedimentological description of depositional environment and associated sedimentary features, detailed numerical petrographic analysis of rock texture, grain types, porosity types and rock mineralogy and petrophysical data grouping using openhole log and core plugs porosity-permeability relationship and pore throat size distribution (MICP).
The main objective was to develop a reliable reservoir rock type scheme that captures the heterogeneity in Jurassic carbonate reservoir for the Middle Marrat Formation in South East Kuwait area and implementation of the RRT to the permeability prediction within the field. Integration of the thin sections, porosity-permeability, pore throat size and distribution has resulted in the identification of reservoir rock types. A total of 14 different rock types were identified within the reservoir interval in the cored wells, which is subsequently grouped into eight due to modelling limitation. The RRT up-scaling was done in a way to minimize the impact of grouping on permeability and saturation computations. The prediction success between the cored RRT and the predicted RRT using openhole data is more than 85%. As a result, the permeability computation success between core plugs and computed permeability using the RRT is more than 80%.
Permeability provides a measure of the ability of a porous medium to transmit fluid and is significant in evaluating reservoir productivity. A case study that compares different methods of permeability prediction in a complex carbonate reservoir is presented in this paper. Presence of siliciclastic fines and diagenetic minerals (e.g., dolomite) within carbonate breccias has resulted in a tight and heterogeneous carbonate reservoir in this case. Permeability estimations from different methods are discussed and compared. In the first part of the paper, permeability measurements from conventional core analysis (CCAL), mercury-injection capillary pressure (MICP) tests, modular formation dynamic tests (MDTs), and nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR) logs are discussed. Different combinations of methods can be helpful in permeability calculation, but depending on the nature and scale of each method, permeability assessment in heterogeneous reservoirs is a considerable challenge. Among these methods, the NMR log provides the most continuous permeability prediction. In the second part of the paper, the measured individual permeabilities are combined and calibrated with the NMR-derived permeability. The conventional NMR-based free-fluid (Timur-Coates) model is used to compute the permeability. The NMRestimated permeability is influenced by wettability effects, presence of isolated pores, and residual oil in the invaded zone. new modified Timur-Coates model is established on the basis of fluid saturations and isolated pore volumes (PV) of the rock. This model yields a reasonable correlation with the scaled core-derived permeabilities. However, because of the reservoir heterogeneity, particularly in the brecciated intervals, discrepancies between the core data and the modified permeability model are expected.
This article, written by Editorial Manager Adam Wilson, contains highlights of paper SPE 156240, "A New Model of Bit Whirl," by Yevhen Kovalyshen, CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Engineering, prepared for the 2012 SPE/IADC Asia Pacific Drilling Technology Conference and Exhibition, Tianjin, China, 9-11 July. The paper has not been peer reviewed.
Over the last two decades there has been an increase in activity on the pore-scale modeling of multiphase flow in porous media. Excellent progress has been made in many areas of pore-scale modeling, particularly in (1) the representation of the rock itself and (2) our description of the pore-scale displacement physics (in model pore geome-tries). Three-dimensional voxelized images of actual rocks can be generated either numerically (e.g. from 2D thin sections) or from micro-CT imaging. A simplified network involving more idealized nodes and bonds can then be extracted from this numerical rock model and this can be used in modeling pore-scale displacement processes. Much progress has also been made in understanding these pore-scale processes (i.e. piston-like displacement, snap-off events, layer formation/collapse, pore-body filling draining). These processes can be mathematically modeled accurately for pores of non uniform wettability, if the geometry of the pore is sufficiently simple. In fact, in recent years these various pore-level processes in mixed and fractionally wet systems have been classified as "events" in an entire capillary-dominated "phase space" which can be defined in a thermodynamically consistent manner. Advances in our understanding and ability to compute several two- (and three-) phase properties a priori have been impressive and the entire flooding cycle of primary drainage (PD), aging/wetting change, and imbibition can be simulated.
In this paper, we review the successes of pore-scale network modeling and explain how it can be of great use in understanding and explaining many phenomena in flow through porous media. However, we also critically examine the issue of how predictive network modeling is in practice. Indeed, one of our conclusions on pore-scale modeling in mixed-wet systems is that we cannot predict two-phase functions reliably in "blind" tests. Interestingly, we make this statement not because we do not understand the pore-scale physics of the process, but because we do understand the physics. It is hoped that our comments will stimulate a more critical debate on the role of pore-scale modeling and its use in core analysis.
This paper presents a method for determining the Archie saturation exponent, n, from a single, nonequilibrium centrifuge step. The input measurements include detailed 3D saturation distributions from magnetic resonance imaging and the DC conductivity of the sample under examination. The latter is obtained by making use of a patented 4-contact cell. The sample is modeled as a 3D conductivity network and a specially developed algorithm based on random walk (RW) is used to compute its overall conductivity in a very short time. The value of the n exponent is determined by matching the measured conductivity to the calculated one. The entire analysis takes one day. Examples demonstrate the method and details of the impedance cell and the RW algorithm are provided.
Acharya, Mihir Narayan (Kuwait Oil Company) | Kabir, Mir Md Rezaul (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Ajmi, Saad Abdulrahman Hassan (Kuwait Oil Company) | Pradhan, San Prasad (Kuwait Oil Company) | Dashti, Qasem M. (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-anzi, Ealian H.D. (Kuwait Oil Company) | Chakravorty, Sandeep (Schlumberger)
The deep, sub-salt reservoir complex is tiered with fractured tight carbonate at bottom and top, with the two sub-units of "upper unconventional kerogen?? and "lower inter-bedded kerogen-carbonate?? in the middle. This depositional setting is challenging for horizontal well placement where the thicknesses of respective sub-units are about 50 and 30 feet with varying geomechanical and petrophysical properties. Additionally, this complexity poses limitations in completions and effective stimulation of the Kimmeridgian-Oxfordian reservoirs in several gas fields at development stage in Kuwait.
A horizontal well is placed in the lower sub-unit of the laminated complex of unconventional kerogen and fractured carbonate reservoir as a Maximum Reservoir Contact (MRC) type well. A pilot mother-bore was drilled and logged to identify the lithological properties across the entire vertical domain - facilitates the optimization of horizontal drain-hole placement within the targeted reservoir units.
No wellbore stability issues in drilling were predicted based on the geomechanical understanding where core-calibrated logs from offset vertical wells were considered. However, this modeling method did not have the functionality to integrate the impact of drawdown on the laminated formation which became unstable and collapsed during the short open-hole drill-stem test (DST) plugging the tubing prior to the final completions. An alternative "book-shelf?? geomechanical model was considered at pre-drill stage for predicting the wellbore stability. Once the drilling was completed, the time-lapsed multi-arm caliper indicated the validity of the alternative methodology in predicting the unstable stack of laminations in kerogen-rich strata.
The paper discusses an optimization methodology to enhance the understanding of static and dynamic geomechanical stability through the use of BHI data. Objective of the proposed method is to help improve the effectiveness of completions where wellbore stability due to geomechanical complexity in stacked-pay reservoirs is a primary wellbore challenge in deploying the completions and executing a subsequent stimulation and testing campaign.
A project study has been performed in order to evaluate a number of reservoir characterization and petrophysical parameters using Digital Rock Physics (DRP) technology in complex carbonate reservoir, on-shore Abu Dhabi. High-resolution images (X-ray micro-tomographic) of the rock's pores and mineral grains were obtained, processed and the rock properties were evaluated by numerical simulation of the physical processes of interest at the pore scale.
The selection of core samples in carbonate reservoir was performed with considering reservoir rock type, logs and routine core analysis data for validation and application phase. A set of special core analysis (SCAL) data were acquired earlier on the core samples in different carbonate reservoir rock types of varying levels of heterogeneity, lithology, porosity, and absolute permeability. This set of measurements formed the baseline for our validation study, then similar DRP approach and improvement is applied for non-SCAL cores. This process is used in DRP study to evaluate cementation exponents ‘m', saturation exponents ‘n', water-oil relative permeabilities, capillary pressures and elastic parameters such as compressional/shear wave velocities.
An integration of core and logs data in particular carbonate reservoir has been used to provide accurate and reliable results in the validation phase of DRP. It has been observed in DRP that connected micrite phase conductivity contribution has been determined for improvement approach by assigning a finite conductivity smic to the micrite phase to get reliable formation factor, cementation and saturation exponent. DRP and core J-capillary were integrated to provide reliable saturation-heights in this carbonate reservoir. The integration of formation evaluation in this case study has provided improvement, reliability in DRP results for formation evaluation and the potential to improve the quality and timeliness of carbonate reservoir characterization.
Rock typing is a key factor in reservoir characterization studies. It is often assumed that Static Reservoir Rock Types (SRRTs) are capable of assigning multi-phase flow characteristics, such as capillary pressure and relative permeability curves to the cells of dynamic simulation models. However, SRRTs fail to capture the actual reservoir variability, due to lack of representation of wettability difference at different elevations above Free Water Level (FWL), especially in highly heterogeneous thick carbonate reservoirs. These shortcomings of SRRTs can be resolved through Dynamic Reservoir Rock Types (DRRTs), in which wettability effect is imposed on SRRTs to generate saturation functions for simulation models.
This research proposes a modified DRRT approach by integrating the data from geological models and SCAL tests. First, the defined static rock types are sub-divided into sub-static rock types using either porosity or permeability frequency distribution. Second, a modified correlation equation is proposed and applied to more accurately estimate the initial water saturation versus height above FWL from well logs. Third, each sub-static rock type is further divided into a number of DRRTs by determining the capillary pressure and relative permeability curves in the oil zone from the Gas-Oil Contact (GOC) to the Dry-Oil Limit (DOL). The DRRTs are extended to the zone from DOL to the FWL by including wettability effect which would affect the curvature of the relative permeability curves but not its saturation end points, through changing the Corey exponents in the modified Brooks-Corey model.
This modified DRRT approach is applied in terms of the dynamic rock typing plug-ins to generate sub-rock types from static rock types, and build a comprehensive and automatic approach to generate saturation tables for dynamic rock types that can be prospectively loaded into commercial simulators for reliable reservoir initialization, history match and prediction processes.
1. Introduction and Background
Reservoir characterization provides a good description of the storage and flow properties of reservoirs, as well as the basis for developing simulation models. The essential part of reservoir characterization is rock typing, which is an integrated and multidisciplinary process comprising input data from sedimentology, sequence stratigraphy, diagenetic overprint, and petrophysics. Geologists, petrophysicists and reservoir engineers engaged in generating reservoir models face complex challenges to identify the regions with similar features for accurate reservoir characterization, modelling and simulation.
Saturation functions, i.e., capillary pressure and relative permeability, are important for the reservoir initialization and reservoir flow dynamics, while reservoir rock types are critically important to assign the saturation functions to different parts of the reservoir model. A reservoir rock type is defined as "the unit of rock deposited under similar conditions that experienced similar diagenetic processes having a unique porosity-permeability relationship, capillary pressure curve and water saturation for a certain distance above free water level in the reservoir". Reservoir engineers describe a rock type based on similar pore size distribution, capillary pressure curves, and relative permeability at a given wettability in the limited depths.
Mineralogy data, porosity, permeability, Mercury Injection Capillary Pressure (MICP), and relative permeability data are commonly utilized to describe reservoir rock types. When properly classified, a given rock type is imprinted by a unique permeability-porosity relationship, capillary pressure profile (or J function), and set of relative permeability curves.