Alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) flooding is an effective technique to improve oil recovery. It has been applied typically after a water flood. Recently, there has been a successful field test where an ASP flood was conducted after a polymer flood. Is the ASP flood after a polymer flood more effective than an ASP flood after a water flood? It is difficult to conduct this experiment in exactly the same location in a field. The goal of this study is to answer this question in a laboratory heterogeneous quarter 5-spot model. A heterogeneous quarter 5-spot sand pack of size 10″ × 10″ × 1″ was constructed. Two sands with a permeability contrast of 10:1 were packed into a 2D square steel cell. An alkali-surfactant formulation was identified that produced ultra-low interfacial tension with the reservoir oil (27 cp). In one experiment (WF-ASP), waterflood was conducted first followed by the ASP flood. In a second experiment (PF-ASP), polymer flood was conducted first followed by the ASP flood. The ASP formulation and slug size were kept the same. Secondary water flood of the heterogeneous quarter 5-spot recovered 22% OOIP. Post-waterflood ASP flood recovered 32% OOIP additional oil with a cumulative (WF-ASP) oil recovery of 54%. Secondary polymer flood of the same heterogeneous quarter 5-spot yielded 50% OOIP. Post-polymerflood ASP flood recovered 32% OOIP additional oil with a cumulative (PF-ASP) oil recovery of 82% OOIP. The water flood and the subsequent ASP flood swept a large part of the high permeability region and a small part of the low permeability region. The polymer flood swept all of the high permeability region and most of the low permeability region. The subsequent ASP flood swept the polymer-swept regions. These experiments demonstrate that the polymer flood - ASP flood combination is more effective than the water flood - ASP flood combination.
Dang, Cuong (Computer Modelling Group Ltd.) | Nghiem, Long (Computer Modelling Group Ltd.) | Nguyen, Ngoc (University of Calgary) | Yang, Chaodong (Computer Modelling Group Ltd.) | Mirzabozorg, Arash (Computer Modelling Group Ltd.) | Li, Heng (Computer Modelling Group Ltd.) | Chen, Zhangxin (University of Calgary)
Many attempts have been made to understand, design, and optimize a chemical flooding process; however, the current low oil price environment makes its implementation very challenging from an economics point of view. Recently, CoSolvent Assisted Chemical Flooding (CACF) has been considered as a promising approach to reduce the cost of surfactant-based recovery methods, especially in heavy oil reservoirs. More importantly, recent studies indicated that CACF can be efficiently applied at relatively low temperature, i.e., without the need of steam injection. This helps reduce for the cost of steam generation and injection, and the associated greenhouse gas effects. This paper presents a new development in modeling CACF using an Equation-of-State (EOS) compositional reservoir simulator.
We used a new approach to model the behavior of the oil-water-microemulsion system based on solubility data without modeling type III microemulsion explicitly. The results showed an excellent agreement with numerous chemical coreflooding data and are in agreement with a chemical floodingresearch simulator. The new development presented includes the effects of cosolvent on rheological properties and phase behavior of microemulsion in the CACF process, particularly microemulsion viscosity and interfacial tension.
The proposed model showed good agreement with four published CACF coreflood experiments in which surfactant was not used in alkali and polymer chemical slugs. This model efficiently captures the complex chemical reactionsoccurring in the CACF process, i.e., generation of in-situ soap based on reactions between alkali and a rich acid component in heavy crude oil. The model provides consistent results with laboratory coreflood data at different operating temperatures, which is very important for heavy oil reservoirs. The ultimate recovery factor by CACF coreflooding is about 97%, similar to ASP (Alkali, Surfactant and Polymer) coreflooding, but without the need of surfactant injection.
The implementation of chemical fooding such as polymer flooding and alkaline/surfactant/polymer (ASP) flooding in Daqing oilfield is presented in this paper. The annual crude oil production rate by chemical EOR in Daqing oilfield has been kept over 73.3 million barrels per year for 15 consecutive years. According to the actual field production data, the incremental oil recoveries by polymer flooding is over 10% OOIP and incremental oil recovery by ASP flooding is over 20% OOIP. This paper discusses the progresses made in Daqing over the last 30 years, including crucial application strategies, optimized design of surface facilities, field results, methods to solve technical challenges of chemical flooding, strategies to reduce cost for commercial-scale chemical EOR, and future development direction, especially future development plan for ASP. Four major lessons are obtained for the best quality reservoirs defined as First Class oil layers in Daqing oilfield, in which polymer flooding has been completed. The existing problems are described for the medium and poor quality reservoirs defined as Second or Third Class, in which polymer flooding or ASP flooding is in progress, and the strategies are proposed, such as injection mode optimization, optimization of injection parameters, optimization of adjustment measures, optimization of well spacing, subdivision of pay zones, separate layer injection, optimization of slug combination, etc. This paper also proposes policy guidance for chemical flooding adjustment in Daqing oilfield in the coming years and provides references for chemical flooding production in other oilfields.
Doorwar, Shashvat (Chevron Energy Technology Company) | Lee, Vincent (Chevron Energy Technology Company) | Davidson, Andrew (Chevron Energy Technology Company) | Malik, Taimur (Chevron Energy Technology Company) | Dwarakanath, Varadarajan (Chevron Energy Technology Company)
Traditionally, all surfactant processes require viscous polymer to mobilize the oil bank. Recent literature shows that for highly dipping reservoirs, a continuous surfactant injection process can be stabilized with gravity alone, by slowing down the processing rate. We extend the gravity stable approach for surfactant slug processes and demonstrate the importance of maintaining gravity stability between slug and chase in addition to gravity stability between microemulsion and slug. Four sandpack experiments were conducted and pictures of the sandpack were taken at regular intervals to provide visual evidence of stable or unstable interfaces. Different color dyes were used to aid visualization of clear fluids. Gravity-stabilized surfactant-only processes eliminate the need of polymer and other facilities associated with surfactant polymer or alkali-surfactant-polymer processes. The slug process described in this paper is a significant improvement on the continuous surfactant injection gravity stable process published earlier.
Arachchilage, Gayani W. P. Pinnawala (Chevron Energy Technology Company) | Alexis, Dennis (Chevron Energy Technology Company) | Kim, Do Hoon (Chevron Energy Technology Company) | Davidson, Andrew (Chevron Energy Technology Company) | Malik, Taimur (Chevron Energy Technology Company) | Dwarakanath, Varadarajan (Chevron Energy Technology Company)
Chemical costs dominate surfactant enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes. A measure of chemical usage is the pore volume of chemical injected multiplied by the concentration of the chemical in the formulation (PV*C). Recent developments have reduced PV*C to about 30 units for conventional surfactant processes and to about 10 units for ASP processes. Our goal was to demonstrate high oil recovery using conventional surfactant processes at PV*C of 10 units. Under these conditions surfactant polymer flooding becomes just as viable an alternative for oil recovery as the more complex ASP processes.
In this paper, we conducted several phase behavior experiments with the goal of minimizing microemulsion viscosity and maximizing oil solubilization ratios. In addition, we focused on maintaining aqueous stability of both the surfactant slug and dilutions with polymer chase fluids. Both surfactant and co-solvent compositions were optimized to achieve low microemulsion viscosity. The microemulsion viscosity was also measured using three-phase relative permeability experiments. Once an appropriately low microemulsion viscosity was achieved, a series of corefloods at different PV*C units of surfactant were conducted in Bentheimer sandstone. Our baseline formulation included 2 wt% surfactant and 2.8 wt% co-solvent and recovered more than 95% oil in a surrogate Bentheimer coreflood using 30 units of surfactant. The existing surfactant formulation was optimized to match the new crude oil sample and it also recovered more than 95% oil in a Bentheimer coreflood using 30 units of surfactant.
By incorporating large hydrophobe surfactants, we achieved good phase behavior with 1.25% surfactant and 2% co-solvent. The optimized formulation recovered 98% oil with 20 units and 91% with 10 units of surfactant, which translated into a retention of <0.1 mg/g of surfactant. These results indicate that high-performance surfactant formulations have the potential to significantly reduce chemical cost and compete with conventional SP processes in terms of PV*C. Consequently, we illustrate the ability of recovering more than 90% oil with only 10 units of surfactant in conventional surfactant-polymer flooding with high performance surfactants. Such an approach can potentially compete with ASP processes and allow for rapid deployment due to reduced complexity.
Alkaline-Surfactant-Foam flooding is a novel enhanced oil recovery process which increases oil recovery over water flooding by combining lowering of the oil-water interfacial tension by two to three orders of magnitude and foaming. We report an experimental study of the formation of the oil bank and its displacement by foam drives of varying qualities. Experiments include: (a) bulk phase behaviour and foam testing studies using n-hexadecane and a single internal olefin sulfonate surfactant which was found to lower the oil-water interfacial tension by at least two orders of magnitude and (b) series of CT scanned core-floods using Bentheimer sandstone cores. A major goal of this study was to investigate the effect of drive foam quality on oil bank displacement. Core-flood results, performed at under-optimum salinity conditions yielding an oil-water interfacial tension in the order of 10−1 mN/m, showed similar ultimate oil recovery factors for the range of drive foam qualities studied. Although the total oil recovery is not affected by drive foam quality, results indicate a more frontal oil bank displacement at lower foam qualities. The findings in this study suggest that a) a lower drive foam quality favours oil bank displacement and b) the amount of clean oil produced by the oil bank is not effected by drive foam quality.
Alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) flooding of a viscous oil (100 cp) is studied here in a two-dimensional (2D) sand pack. An ASP formulation was developed by studying the phase behavior of the oil with several alkaline-surfactant formulations. The effectiveness of the ASP formulation was validated in a 1D sand pack by conducting a water flood followed by a stable ASP flood. Reservoir sand was then packed into a 2D square steel cell similar to a quarter five-spot pattern. Several ASP floods were then conducted in this 2D cell to study both the displacement and sweep efficiency of ASP floods. First, the polymer concentration was varied to find an optimum polymer concentration. Then the waterflood extent was varied (0–1 PV) after which the ASP flood was initiated. The oil recovery, oil cut, effluent concentration and pressure drop were monitored during the floods. The tertiary ASP flood was very effective in 1D and validated the ASP formulation. The 2D tertiary ASP flood also recovered most of the oil (~98% of OOIP) when the ASP slug viscosity exceeded the oil viscosity, but the pressure gradients were high at ~ 1ft/d injection. When the ASP slug viscosity was lowered to ~1/3 of oil viscosity, oil recovery dropped slightly to 90% OOIP. However, it also decreased the pressure gradient 5 times, which would give good flow rates in the field conditions. As the extent of waterflood preceding ASP got shorter, the oil was recovered faster (for the same pore volumes injected), but the pressure gradient was higher for the ASP flood than the water flood. The ultimate recovery was independent of the extent of waterflood.
Al Ayesh, A. H. (Department of Geoscience and Engineering, Delft University of Technology) | Salazar, R. (Department of Geoscience and Engineering, Delft University of Technology) | Farajzadeh, R. | Vincent-Bonnieu, S. | Rossen, W. R.
Foam can divert flow from higherto lower-permeability layers and thereby improve vertical conformance in gas-injection enhanced oil recovery. Recently,
The effectiveness of diversion varies greatly with injection method. In a SAG (surfactant-alternating-gas) process, diversion of the first slug of gas depends on foam behavior at very high foam quality. Mobility in the foam bank during gas injection depends on the nature of a shock front that bypasses most foam qualities usually studied in the laboratory. The foam with the lowest mobility at fixed foam quality does not necessarily give the lowest mobility in a SAG process. In particular, diversion in SAG depends on how and whether foam collapses at low water saturation; this property varies greatly among the foams reported by Kapetas et al. Moreover, diversion depends on the size of the surfactant slug received by each layer before gas injection. This of course favors diversion away from high-permeability layers that receive a large surfactant slug, but there is an optimum surfactant slug size: too little surfactant and diversion from high-permeability layers is not effective; too much and mobility is reduced in low-permeability layers, too. For a SAG process, it is very important to determine if foam collapses completely at irreducible water saturation.
In addition, we show the diversion expected in a foam-injection process as a function of foam quality. The faster propagation of surfactant and foam in the higher-permeability layers aids in diversion, as expected. This depends on foam quality and non-Newtonian foam mobility and varies with time of injection. Injectivity is extremely poor with foam injection, but is not necessarily worse than waterflood in some effective SAG foam processes