Al-Kuait, A.M.S. (Saudi Aramco) | Al-yateem, Karam Sami (ARAMCO Services Company) | Olivares, Tulio (Halliburton) | Zubail, Makki A. (Saudi Aramco) | El Bialy, Moustafa (Halliburton) | Ezell, Ryan G. (Halliburton) | Maghrabi, Shadaab (Halliburton)
Safaniya is one of largest offshore oil fields located north of Dhahran in Saudi Arabia. It is 50 km by 15 km in size and began production in 1956. Lately, a few wells drilled in this field showed reservoir damage where the production dropped or the well had no flow. Workover operations were performed on six wells and two new wells were drilled. For all eight wells, 6?-in. laterals were drilled through the reservoirs with an engineered invert emulsion drilling fluid (RDF). The RDF design was controlled to ensure an acid-soluble, thin, external filter cake with no fines invasion. The vulnerability of the filter cake to be attacked by the acid was fundamental to this RDF design. A delayed filter cake breaker fluid was then designed for use on the 6?-in. laterals; this fluid consisted of an organic acid precursor (OAP) and a water wetting additive. The OAP released acid in a delayed manner, whereas the water wetting additive made the oil-based filter cake water wet, to make it vulnerable to acid attack. With this approach, the filter cake was removed uniformly in all subject laterals across the reservoir. The production data on the eight wells treated with the OAP show an improved oil production rate of more than 4,000 B/D for six of the eight wells, which exceeds the key performance indicator (KPI) set for the laterals. In previous years from 2005-10, the six workover wells showed, on average, very low oil production rates (OPR) comparatively. In addition, after the OAP treatment, these six wells show higher well flow head pressures than in 2005-10. The water cut percentage on these laterals was 0 or less than 1, compared to 2005-10, when the water cut percentage varied from 8% to 50% for these workover wells. This paper discusses the workover operation of the six wells and the drilling and delayed stimulation treatment on two new wells in the Safaniya field, including laboratory evaluation, field application and production data.
Hassan, Hany Mohamed (Petroleum Development Oman) | Al-hattali, Ahmed Salim (Petroleum Development Oman) | Al Nabhani, Salim Hamed (Petroleum Development Oman) | Al Kalbani, Ammar (Petroleum Development Oman) | Al Hattali, Ahmed (Petroleum Development Oman) | Rubaiey, Faisal (Petroleum Development Oman) | Al Marhoon, Nadhal Omar (Petroleum Development Oman) | Al-Hashami, Ahmed (Petroleum Deveopment Oman)
A cluster area "H" consists of 4 carbonate gas fields producing dry gas from N-A reservoir in the Northern area of Oman. These fields are producing with different maturity levels since 1968. An FDP study was done in 2006 which proposed drilling of 7 additional vertical wells beside the already existing 5 wells to develop the reserves and enhance gas production from the fields. The FDP well planning was based on a seismic amplitude "QI" study that recommended drilling the areas with high amplitudes as an indication for gas presence, and it ignored the low amplitude areas even if it is structurally high. A follow up study was conducted in 2010 for "H" area fields using the same seismic data and the well data drilled post FDP. The new static and dynamic work revealed the wrong aspect of the 2006 QI study, and proved with evidence from well logs and production data that low seismic amplitudes in high structural areas have sweet spots of good reservoir quality rock. This has led to changing the old appraisal strategy and planning more wells in low amplitude areas with high structure and hence discovering new blocks that increased the reserves of the fields.
Furthermore, water production in these fields started much earlier than FDP expectation. The subsurface team have integrated deeply with the operation team and started a project to find new solutions to handle the water production and enhance the gas rate. The subsurface team also started drilling horizontal wells in the fields to increase the UR, delay the water production and also reduce the wells total CAPEX by drilling less horizontal wells compared to many vertical as they have higher production and recovery. These subsurface and surface activities have successfully helped to stabilize and increase the production of "H" area cluster by developing more reserves and handling the water production.
Gadd, Peter E. (Coastal Frontiers Corporation) | Leidersdorf, Craig B. (Coastal Frontiers Corporation) | Hearon, Greg E. (Coastal Frontiers Corporation) | McDougal, William G. (Oregan State University)
Eighteen artificial (man-made) islands have been constructed in the AlaskanBeaufort Sea to support oil exploration and production. The first islands,constructed in the late 1970s, were in shallow nearshore waters where wave andice conditions are relatively benign. By the early 1980s, island constructionhad ventured to more exposed sites with water depths approaching 15 m.Innovative slope protection systems and construction methods were developed toaddress the remote Arctic locations, short construction seasons, scarce localresources, and the challenging, yet poorly defined, offshore wave and iceclimate. This paper provides an overview of the history of island developmentin the Alaskan Arctic and discusses design evolution, construction, andperformance.
The extreme conditions and harsh environment for which FPSO's andhydrocarbon gathering facilities are being considered introduces distinctchallenges to effective and efficient project management and execution. The presentation is based on the experiences gathered during the design phasesof two contemporary harsh environment FPSO's and the associated subsea,flowline, pipeline and riser systems (Chevron Rosebank and GAZPROMShtokman). This presentation will focus on the adjustments that must beconsidered to "standard" project execution and management in order toincorporate the elemental distinctions without sacrificing efficiency, logicalsequencing, safety or project schedule. Specifically, the presentationwill focus on the following:
The paper is intended to inform the audience as to the distinctivecharacteristics of harsh environment design management contrasted with the morefamiliar benign environment design projects.
Industrial benefits planning (IBP) can greatly assist oil companies inseeking to access or operate in frontier regions, including the Arctic. Anumber of ‘good practice' approaches in the design and implementation ofsuccessful benefits plans have emerged. There is a general need for initiativesin such areas as supplier development, procurement/contracting, education,training and hiring. However, these initiatives, and an IBP program as a whole,will be most effective if the following approaches are adopted: cooperation,collaboration and education; building on existing strengths and capabilities;and seeking a diversified and more sustainable economy.
The Hebron Benefits Plan provides a recent and often innovative example ofpetroleum industry benefits planning. Of particular interest is the emphasis itplaces on: the role of contractors and suppliers, leaving a lasting legacy, andcooperation and collaboration with other stakeholders. In a further benefitsplanning innovation, ExxonMobil Canada Properties states that it will establishand maintain a ‘benefits culture,' based on the well-established model ofsafety culture, within its organization and all Hebron contracting companies.The Plan presents policies, guidelines and procedures with respect to supplierdevelopment, contracting and procurement, employment and training, research anddevelopment (R&D), diversity, and monitoring and reporting.
Recent initiatives in Greenland illustrate the challenges faced inimplementing more limited benefits initiatives in an Arctic and near-Arcticenvironment. Cairn exploration programs have had Government of Greenlandmandated benefits plans and agreements that have delivered both employment andbusiness to Greenland residents and companies. They have also put in place newinfrastructure, for example related to weather forecasting and oil spillcontingency equipment. However, not all of the employment, business andinfrastructure initiatives have delivered the desired effects.
Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, is an example of a jurisdiction where,facilitated by well-established IBP processes, the offshore petroleum industryhas delivered substantial and sustainable economic development. This is partlya result of the creation of a new offshore petroleum sector of the economy thatprovides employment and business and makes a major contribution to theProvince's GDP and tax base. Newfoundland and Labrador also now has anexpanding university sector, large numbers of university graduates, a small butthriving R&D community, an increasingly diverse and cosmopolitan urbanculture, and improved external transportation links, all of which can be atleast partly attributed to the oil industry.
The process of selecting a field development concept following a discoveryinvolves a complex iterative interaction between its key elements ofsubsurface, drilling and completions, surface facilities, and commercial andregulatory considerations. The objective being to understand how differentrisks and uncertainties impact each scenario, leading to the final selection ofthe tsingle concept that best balances the key elements and extracts maximumvalue for all stakeholders.
A recommended procedure for Arctic concept selection has been developed,using a building-block approach matched with a practical and systematic methodfor understanding the key drivers and uncertainties in a project. In order tocomplete this type of anyalysis, experienced professionals are equipped with atoolkit and set of processes that allow a disciplined approach to only doingwork that is focused on each decision that has to be made. This then leads tothe development of a decision based plan to extract the maximum value from anyopportunity.
Also discussed are some of the common traps that can befall a conceptselection study such as: solving the wrong problem due to an inadequate projectframe; utilizing incorrect, invalid or out of date data; having inadequatesystems and tools in place to maintain focus and alignment; an inability toarticulate key insights; a lack of team integration; and finally the dangers ofan activity based workscope instead of a decision based one.
The oil and gas industry is increasingly focusing its interests andactivities on areas that are prone to ice cover, in the form of sea ice andicebergs. The authors have noticed two significant trends with respect to theice charting to support operations in oil and gas operations:
As a consequence, the authors have embarked on a project to address thisdeficiency by identifying minimum standards and best practices for theprovision of ice information derived from satellites for companies operating inthe polar and sub-polar regions. The development of a guideline governing icecharts is the primary focus of this project. The project has identifiedrequirements through the oil and gas project lifecycle, has matched these todifferent regions and has categorised satellite-derived ice information byservices and products. The project has reviewed current practices and willestablish a guideline with input and validation from the industry, taking intoaccount current constraints and future opportunities. Ice charting guidelineswill provide clear options to industry. Companies will be able to buildprocesses and systems around guidelines and can be assured that compliantservice providers will be compatible with their systems. Guidelines will alsoincrease access of the market to service providers, leading to increasedcompetition and lower costs. Ultimately, the knowledge of ice chartingcapabilities will be well documented so that they are not lost with staffattrition. This paper presents an overview of the ice charting guidelinesproject and its objectives, schedule, status and deliverables. This project isbeing coordinated through the Oil and Gas Earth Observation Group (OGEO) of theInternational Association of Oil and Gas producers (OGP) with initial seedfunding from the European Space Agency and Shell E&P International.
Index Terms— ice charting, ice information, sea ice, icebergs,guideline
The Western and South Western Barents Sea is the offshore area south ofBjørnøya and east towards the newly agreed delineation boundary between Norwayand Russia while limited by the Norwegian mainland to the south.
In this area, the Snøhvit gas field is in production and the Goliat oilfield is being developed. Recently, encouraging oil finds (Skrugard and Havsul)have increased the interests in the geology and the oil and gas potential ofthe area. The older seismic (acquired more than 30 years ago) of the formerdisputed area between Russia and Norway shows potential for large hydrocarbonfinds, although there would be a possibility that the hydrocarbons might haveleaked out from the prospects.
This paper summarizes the large challenges for the marine constructioncontractors working in these areas and discusses various phenomena that affectthe marine operations at extreme cold climate conditions:
The marine construction contractor will have to show patience when workingin the area. Joint efforts, improved knowledge, top standard equipment and goodunderstanding of the roles of the contractor and the oil company should,however, ensure successful project execution, also in this cold climateregion.
This article, written by Editorial Manager Adam Wilson, contains highlights of paper SPE 156098, "Deal With Startup and Commissioning Threats and Challenges at an Early Stage of the Project for a Successful Handover and Project Completion," by M. Al-Bidaiwi, SPE, M.S. Beg, SPE, and K.V. Sivakumar, Qatar Petroleum, prepared for the 2012 SPE International Production and Operations Conference and Exhibition, Doha, 14-16 May. The paper has not been peer reviewed.
A sour carbonate reservoir has been identified for water flooding to improve hydrocarbon recovery. The field is situated in the South of Oman and was discovered by PDO in 2005. Production began in 2007 and contains crude oil with 30° API oil gravity and solution GOR of 80 Sm3/m3, as well as, sour fluid contaminants of 5 mol% H2S and 3 mol% CO2. Reservoir water fluid samples confirm salinity is more than 220,000 mg/L chloride ions. While the reservoir is over-pressured at more than 600 bara with a bubble-point pressure of 140 bara, reservoir pressure continues to decline during the initial depletion phase of the field development.
Although water flooding will arrest pressure decline in the reservoir, due to subsurface challenges and uncertainties, artificial-lift is considered a key project requirement during the expected field life. Initially, reservoir water salinity is expected to contribute to an increased risk of salt precipitation and related flow assurance concerns as the water flood approaches the production wells. In addition, expected producing conditions are considered to be extremely corrosive.
This paper will provide a summary of the expected field conditions, water flood project background and key artificial-lift application challenges including the proposed conceptual well completion designs to support the field development. A summary of artificial-lift selection, design and implementation strategy will be explained including objectives, scope and results of the recent jet-pump field trial. Finally, a brief summary of the key conclusions and plans forward will be shared.