Al-Kandary, Ahmad (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Fares, Abdulaziz (Kuwait Oil Company) | Mulyono, Rinaldi (Kuwait Oil Company) | Ammar, Nada Mohammed (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al naeimi, Reem (Baker Hughes) | Hussain, Riyasat (Kuwait Oil Company) | Perumalla, Satya (Baker Hughes)
Role of geomechanics is becoming increasingly important with maturing of conventional reservoirs due to its implications in drilling, completion and production issues. Exploration and development of unconventional reservoirs involve maximizing the reservoir contact and hydraulic fracturing both of which are heavily dependent on geomechanical architecture of the reservoirs and thus require application of geomechanical concepts from the very beginning.
To support the unconventional exploration and conventional reservoir development in Kuwait, country-wide in-situ stress mapping exercise has been carried out in nine fields of Northern Kuwait. Stringent customized quality control measures were put in place to evaluate stress orientation. Cretaceous and sub-Gotnia Salt Jurassic rocks exhibit distinct patterns of stress orientations and magnitudes. While the variations in stress orientation in the Cretaceous rocks are within a small range (N40°E-N50°E) and consistent across major fault systems, the Jurassic formations exhibit high variability (N20°E-N90°E) with anomalous patterns across faults as well as in the vicinity of fracture corridors. Moreover, the overall stress magnitudes were found to be much higher in the strong Jurassic section compared with the relatively less strong Cretaceous strata. During the analysis, it was also observed that several natural fractures in Jurassic reservoirs appear to be critically stressed with evidences of rotation of breakouts.
Using geomechanical models from a specific field, the effects of in-situ stress, pore pressure and rock properties on formations were evaluated in inducing wellbore instability during drilling operations in a tight gas reservoir. It was found that the most favorable orientation for directional drilling is parallel to the maximum horizontal stress (SHmax) within that field.
The geomechanical study provided inputs not only for wellbore stability during drilling, but also regarding the response of natural fractures to in-situ stresses to become hydraulically conductive (permeable) to act as flow conduits. The fracture model of the field shows that the dominant fracture corridor trend in the field is NNE coinciding with present day in-situ maximum principal stress direction.
Widening supply and demand gap in natural gas industry, the advent of tight gas policy and increasing interest of operators in tight gas sands and shale has opened new venues for development of unconventional plays in Pakistan.
Middle Indus Basin hosts important gas fields of Pakistan. Most of the wells in this basin are completed in conventional lower Goru Sands. Lower Goru formation consists of inter-bedded sequences of sands and shale. Its unconventional sand and shale plays hold immense potential which has not yet been exploited due to lack of technology and promising economics. Moreover, Sembar shale is the well known source rock in this basin holding large shale gas potential. GIIP estimates for Lower Goru tight sands excluding the shale prospects are 8.4 TCF which are considered pessimistic due to lack of data in many fields.
From the currently suspended or abandoned wellbores of the Middle Indus Basin, a pilot project needs to be defined in each of the fields, to prove the technical and economical feasibility of tight Gas Potential of the Basin. Commencement of production from unconventional sands will enhance the production in a cost effective manner due to availability of infrastructure and facilities.
This paper focuses on the utilization of existing wellbores as well as data set and highlighting additional data acquisition requirements coupled with completion and multi-stage fracturing techniques for designing a pilot project. Case study of a pilot project in one of the fields of this basin is discussed. It encompasses the basic workflow, candidate selection criterion, Geo-mechanics, sector modeling, hydraulic fracture design and risk evaluation coupled with its use in full field development projects.
Background and Introduction
Pakistan's last year 2010-2011 production was about 3.91bcf/d, while its demand was (4.2bcf/d) and supply gap was also started. Since then the production from the conventional fields has decreased, while demand has been increased due to infrastructure and human needs. This huge shortfall in the gas market cannot be fulfilled with existing number of completions/producers. The conventional reserves of the country were 56 TCF out of which the country has already produced 50% of its conventional reserves. The recoverable remaining reserves are 24-28TCF, but will be produced at much lower production rate and in much longer period of time. The country has an infrastructure of Gas Processing Facilities 5bcf/d.
In predicting the geotechnical constraint against pipeline movement usingfinite element methods, the treatment of the pipe/soil interface contactbehavior is of utmost importance, especially in the tangential direction. Thisstudy focuses on the interpretation of soil resistance to axial pipe movementin cohesive soil material for oblique loading, specifically the effect ofchanging the interface shear stress limit and friction coefficient. The mainfinding of the present study is that the incorporation of a shear stress limitin the definition of tangential shear behavior has a considerable effect on theaxial pipeline reaction forces. Without the shear stress limit, the maximumaxial forces due to oblique pipe movement are effectively doubled in comparisonto a limit equal to half of the undrained shear strength. A simple analyticalmethod is provided to estimate the maximum oblique axial soil resistance inundrained conditions. The effect of changing the assumed frictional behavior isalso discussed with respect to predicting the soil reaction forces acting on anice keel during an undrained gouging event in cohesive soil.
Research on measuring the ice impact pressure on icebreaker hulls began inthe late 1970's, and its focus was to determine the magnitude of the impactpressures and to obtain long-term statistics of the impacts. Increasedcomputing power in the 1980's allowed the recording of time-histories onmultiple sensors that led to the development of the pressure-contact arearelationship. The aim of these systems, however, was to understand theice impact process and to provide guidance to design engineers. Thispaper presents a new hull structure monitoring system that can benefit both theship designers and operators for ships operating in ice-covered waters. With this system, the ice load monitoring system can measure and process theice impact loads immediately after each impact in near real-time. Theimpact measurements are used to estimate the resulting stresses on the hullstructures which are then compared to the allowable stresses. This systemcan provide meaningful near real-time feedback to the ship's crew of thestresses due to ice impact compared to the allowable stress. Thisinformation can assist the ship's crew in making informed decisions for safeand efficient operations in ice. The main focus of this paper is on themethodology for assessing the hull structural responses under ice impact andthe presentation of this information to the ship's crew.
Arif, Muhammad (University of Engineering and Technology) | Bhatti, Amanat Ali (University of Engineering and Technology) | Khan, Ahmed Saeed (University of Engineering and Technology) | Haider, Syed Afraz (Kuwait Foreign Petroleum Exploration Company (KUFPEC))
It has long been proved experimentally that the tight gas sands are more pronounced to stress changes as compared to moderate and high permeability reservoirs because of the narrow flow channels of the formation . The consideration of the effect of stress in the evaluation and production performance of tight gas reservoirs is very important in order to make right decisions regarding their development. Due to hydrocarbon production, the effective stress increases causing a reduction in permeability and porosity of the porous medium.
The conventional pressure transient analysis techniques in gas wells based on constant permeability would become unreliable . Consequently, the incorrect evaluation of permeability leads towards wrong decision regarding well stimulation. Also the inflow performance modeling of tight gas reservoirs based on constant permeability will not be corrected as far as evaluation of well's production potential is concerned.
Few studies on tight gas reservoirs considering the effect of stress sensitive permeability used the Raghavan's stress dependent pseudo-pressure approach  for which pressure vs. permeability data was determined experimentally. But, if laboratory data is not available then there is need to develop an analytical approach to generate the pressure vs. permeability data required for the use of stress dependent pseudo-pressure in reservoir evaluation and production performance studies in tight gas reservoirs.
The objective of this paper is to develop an analytical approach, in the absence of lab data, to generate pressure vs. permeability data for the determination of stress dependent pseudo-pressure. This stress dependent pseudo-pressure is used for well test analysis to determine the stress sensitive formation permeability and also to generate production performance in tight gas reservoirs. The developed technique has also been implemented on the field data of a tight gas reservoir to validate the results by using actual well's production history.
Oil and gas producers have shown renewed interest in developing reservoirslocated both onshore and offshore within the Arctic regions of Alaska, Canadaand Russia. In many cases, the hydrocarbon reservoirs are known to be overlainby a massive permafrost interval that extends over depths of up to 700 m belowthe surface active layer. These conditions create unique design and operationalchallenges for production and injection wells from the perspective of ensuringthat well integrity will not be compromised by the inevitable thaw subsidenceof the permafrost soil layers.
The permafrost soil layers surrounding arctic wells will thaw gradually withtime due to wellbore heat loss. As the thaw zone advances radially outward fromeach well, the ice-to-water phase change within the pore space of thefrozen/partially frozen sediments will lead to changes in the permafrost soilproperties and to the loading conditions within the thaw column region. Thesechanges will result in soil deformations (including both vertical settlements(subsidence) and horizontal displacements) which can, in turn, inducesignificant well casing strains that need to be considered in selecting thewell design and layout. The magnitude of the soil deformations that occurthroughout the permafrost interval are highly dependent on the depositionhistory, insitu temperature and the physical and mechanical properties of theindividual soil layers. Therefore, in order to accurately predict the soildeformations and resultant localized casing strain levels, it is essential toobtain reliable data to properly characterize the lithology (soil types) withinthe permafrost interval, as well as the frozen state and the relevantmechanical and thermal properties (both frozen and thawed) of individual soillayers. This paper describes the various information and geotechnical test datathat has been used to establish the thaw and deformation response of differentpermafrost soils at a number of arctic locations for the purpose of evaluatingthe effects of thaw subsidence loading on wells. Overall, the paper serves tohighlight the importance of collecting the appropriate geotechnical data toallow thaw subsidence-induced ground deformations and associated casing loadingconditions to be properly considered at the well/project design stage.
Onshore and offshore pipelines may be subjected to mechanical damage duringinstallation and operation due to environmental loads, external forces andthird parties. The type and severity of pipe damage may influence operational,repair and intervention strategies. For conventional pipelines, the assessmentof mechanical damage plays a role in the development of integrity managementprograms that can be of greater significance for pipeline systems located inremote, harsh environments. The current study highlights the effect of plaindents and interaction of plain dents with girth weld on pipe mechanicalresponse using continuum finite element methods. The modelling procedures arecalibrated with available physical datasets and also demonstrate excellentcorrelation with third party simulations. Confidence in the numericalsimulation tool provides a basis to evaluate the effects of mechanical damagethrough a broader parameter study and assess effects on fatigue lifeperformance.
For multistage hydraulic fracturing of horizontal wells with cased-hole completion, multiple perforation clusters are used typically to create multiple fractures in any single stage. How to place these perforation clusters is a critical issue because the number of perforation clusters to be used and the space between them significantly impact how effectively the fractures can be created in the formation. To optimize the spacing of perforation clusters, stress distributions and fracture mechanics need to be well understood.
In this study, the displacement-discontinuity method is used to construct a boundary-element model, which is able to analyze the stress distributions around multiple transverse fractures and the geometries of those fractures. With the boundary-element model, multiple cases are investigated for a different number of fractures and fracture spacings. Changes of both minimum and maximum stresses and shear stress around these fractures are illustrated first. It is found that for the cases with more than two parallel fractures, there is a strong stress concentration around the center fractures. The calculated displacements indicate that the created fractures are no longer elliptic-like, and the widths of the center fractures are reduced significantly compared with those of a single fracture. For the case of two parallel fractures, the stress concentration between two fractures also results in asymmetrical fracture shape, but the fracture widths are not reduced significantly.
This study indicates that the number and spacing of the fractures need to be selected carefully to create effective fractures with appropriate fracture geometries. The boundary-element model provides a useful tool to relate rock geomechanic properties to stress distribution and fracture geometries for multiple fractures in hydraulic fracturing of horizontal wells, which can be used as a guide to space the perforation clusters.
Techbits - No abstract available.
Crespo, Freddy E. (University of Oklahoma) | Ahmed, Ramadan Mohammed (University of Oklahoma) | Saasen, Arild (Det norske oljeselskap ASA) | Enfis, Majed (University of Oklahoma) | Amani, Mahmood (Texas A&M University at Qatar)
Surge and swab pressures have been known to cause formation fracture, lost circulation, and well-control problems. Accurate prediction of these pressures is crucially important in estimating the maximum tripping speeds to keep the wellbore pressure within specified limits of the pore and fracture pressures. It also plays a major role in running casings, particularly with narrow annular clearances. Existing surge/swab models are based on Bingham plastic (BP) and power-law (PL) fluid rheology models. However, in most cases, these models cannot adequately describe the flow behavior of drilling fluids. This paper presents a new steady-state model that can account for fluid and formation compressibility and pipe elasticity. For the closed-ended pipe, the model is cast into a simplified model to predict pressure surge in a more convenient way. The steady-state laminar-flow equation is solved for narrow slot geometry to approximate the flow in a concentric annulus with inner-pipe axial movement considering yield-PL (YPL) fluid. The YPL rheology model is usually preferred because it provides a better description of the flow behavior of most drilling fluids. The analytical solution yields accurate predictions, though not in convenient forms. Thus, a numerical scheme has been developed to obtain the solutions. After conducting an extensive parametric study, regression techniques were applied primarily to develop a simplified model (i.e., dimensionless correlation). The performance of the correlation has been tested by use of field and laboratory measurements. Comparisons of the model predictions with the measurements showed a satisfactory agreement. In most cases, the model makes better predictions in terms of closeness to the measurements because of the application of a more realistic rheology model. The correlation and model are useful for slimhole, deepwater, and extended-reach drilling applications.