Root cause analysis (RCA) is a class of problem solving methods aimed at identifying the root causes of problems/ incidents. By directing corrective measures at core causes, it is hoped that the chances of problem recurrence will be minimized. Thus, RCA is frequently considered to be an iterative process, and is frequently viewed as a tool of continuous improvement.RCA, initially is a reactive method of problem detection & solving. This means that, the analysis is done after an incident has occurred. By gaining proficiency in RCA it becomes a pro-active method. This means that RCA is able to estimate the possibility of an incident even before it could occur. Root cause analysis mainly consists of three steps A): Define the problem. B): Analyze the problem. C): Find the solutions for the problem.
In view of the accident which took place recently i.e. Gulf of Mexico oil spill 2010, there were eight catastrophic failures which led to the explosion that destroyed the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig in the Gulf of Mexico .These failures included the sending of unofficial cement by specialist cementing services, no indications of testing done on the surface by drilling rig provider company before deploying it, pressure test which would have revealed problems in the drill was incorrectly deemed as a success by operator company and drilling rig provider company rig personnel. A complex and interlinked succession of mechanical failures, human judgments, engineering design, operational implementation and team interfaces caused this tragedy. Consequences of these plain errors were quite hazardous. It affected the humanity, environment, economy and also the settlements.
The core objective of the paper is to bring about a detailed analysis so as to throw light on new techniques and how they can be utilised to prevent such disasters. To achieve this objective we acknowledged all the possible solutions for this issue so that the most excellent solutions can be selected and the challenges that are to be faced are studied thoroughly and examined to prevent future errors. However, it is recognized that complete prevention of reappearance by a single intrusion is not always possible. On the belief that problems are best solved by attempting to correct or eliminate root causes, as opposed to merely addressing the immediately obvious symptoms.
In April 2010 we were reminded that Drilling operations are amongst the most hazardous in the world, having the potential for Major Incidents, with the Deepwater Horizon rig fire and explosion. This incident resulted in 11 lives being lost, almost 5,000,000 million barrels of oil being spilt into the Gulf of Mexico over an 87 day period and significant financial loss for bp. This Major Incident also served to remind us that while traditional "Personal Safety?? programs are important to achieve safe drilling operations, these alone cannot effectively manage Major Incident Hazards. E&P Operations can learn valuable lessons from the Process Industry in this regard.
This paper looks at how "Process Safety Management?? implementation, aimed at reducing the potential for Major Incidents, has commenced at an onshore E&P operation. It also discusses the challenges of integrating the culture of Process Safety into existing company culture for operations involving over 60 land rigs comprising both local and international Drilling Contractors and Service Companies.
Process Safety Management system is used to describe those parts of an organisation's management system intended to prevent major incidents arising out of the production, storage and handling of dangerous substances (UK HSE, 2012). It addresses the potential release of these substances caused by:
• Mechanical Failures
• Process Upsets
• Procedures/Human Error
Kuwait Oil Company (KOC) is a subsidiary of Kuwait Petroleum Corporation (KPC), and is involved in the exploration and production of hydrocarbons on land in the state of Kuwait. Existing production is approximately 2.9 mmbopd, with future production targeted at 3.65mmbopd by 2020.
The Exploration and Production (E&PD) Directorate is involved in identifying reserves, drilling new wells and servicing existing wells. It consists of 8 Groups as shown below, and is headed by a Deputy Managing Director (DMD). As most of the PSM challenges in E&PD Directorate lie with Drilling and Service Company operations, the primary focus of this paper will be in these areas.
The high-profile blowout at Macondo well in the US Gulf of Mexico, brought the challenges and the risks of drilling into high-pressure, high-temperature (HPHT) fields increasingly into focus. Technology, HSE, new standards, such as new API procedures, and educating the crew seem to be vital in developing HPHT resources. High-pressure high-temperature fields broadly exist in Gulf of Mexico, North Sea, South East Asia, Africa, China and Middle East. Almost a quarter of HPHT operations worldwide is expected to happen in American continent and the majority of that solely in North America. Oil major companies have identified key challenges in HPHT development and production, and service providers have offered insights regarding current or planned technologies to meet these challenges. Drilling into some shale plays such as Haynesville or deep formations and producing oil and gas at HPHT condition, have been crucially challenging. Therefore, companies are compelled to meet or exceed a vast array of environmental, health and safety standards.
This paper, as a simplified summary of the current status of HPHT global market, clarifies the existing technological gaps in the field of HPHT drilling, cementing and completion. It also contains the necessary knowledge that every engineer or geoscientist might need to know about high pressure high temperature wells. This study, not only reviews the reports from the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement (BOEMRE) and important case studies of HPHT operations around the globe but also compiles the technical solutions to better maneuver in the HPHT market. Finally, the HPHT related priorities of National Energy Technology Laboratories (NETL), operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE), and DeepStar, as a strong mix of large and mid-size operators are investigated.
The extreme conditions and harsh environment for which FPSO's andhydrocarbon gathering facilities are being considered introduces distinctchallenges to effective and efficient project management and execution. The presentation is based on the experiences gathered during the design phasesof two contemporary harsh environment FPSO's and the associated subsea,flowline, pipeline and riser systems (Chevron Rosebank and GAZPROMShtokman). This presentation will focus on the adjustments that must beconsidered to "standard" project execution and management in order toincorporate the elemental distinctions without sacrificing efficiency, logicalsequencing, safety or project schedule. Specifically, the presentationwill focus on the following:
The paper is intended to inform the audience as to the distinctivecharacteristics of harsh environment design management contrasted with the morefamiliar benign environment design projects.
The paper will describe the existing regulatory systems for the offshore inthe Arctic. Drawing from offshore disasters and the responses thereto bythe Coastal States around the world the paper will point to the arguments forand against international regulation of Arctic offshore areas. Organizations that might create such regulation are considered such as theArctic Council, the International Maritime Organization, The InternationalRegulators Forum, the oil company operators. Current debates concerninginternational regulation such as that of the EU (October 2011) proposal tocreate EU regulations for the offshore and the opposition by the Great Britainwill be reviewed, as will be the Helix Mutual Aid solution in the Gulf ofMexico, the new Canadian filing requirements for Arctic Oil and Gas (December2012) and others.
In light of the recent increasing interest in the oil and gas developmentsin the arctic region, Huisman Equipment B.V. has developed a Mobile OffshoreDrilling Unit (MODU) named JBF Arctic suited for arctic condition. The stationkeeping in ice is one of the crucial factors determining the feasibility of thedesign. As one of the first steps of the design process ice model tests wereperformed at the Krylov Shipbuilding Research Institute (KSRI) to gain insightin the ice forces acting on the unit. During the model tests the model of theJBF Arctic was retained in a fixed position while being towed through the ice.In reality the station keeping of the unit will be ensured by a mooring system,which has certain flexibility compared to the rigid constrains in the modeltests. This paper elaborates on the creation of a numerical model that canperform time-domain simulations of the dynamic interaction between the vesseland the ice-loads. Using these simulations the mooring system is optimized inorder to cope with the ice loads corresponding to unbroken level ice withthickness up to 3.1m. Several important conclusions were drawn. One is the factthat no dominating frequencies of the ice failing could be identified from themodel tests. This can be explained by a large ratio between the diameter of theunit and the ice thickness. So the ice failure mechanism has a chaoticcharacter. Another conclusion is that the unit does not exhibit significantdynamic behavior. This means that a quasi-static approach can be generally usedfor initial design of the mooring system.
Keywords: ice model test, dynamic ice-structure interaction, ice loadingmodel, mooring system optimization, Arctic MODU.
Hydrocarbon development in arctic regions presents formidable challenges tothe petroleum industry. The Centre for Arctic Resource Development (CARD)serves as focal point for planning, coordinating and conducting research tofill gaps in the knowledge, technology, methodology and training needed toovercome these barriers. CARD research programs have been organized into coreareas of Ice Mechanics, Ice Management and Station-Keeping in Ice, and arerelated through the common activities of Floating System Modelling andLarge-Scale Experiments.
A brief description of proposed research and development (R&D) plans inthe areas of Ice Mechanics, Ice Management, Large-Scale Experiments, FloatingSystem Modelling and Station-keeping in Ice is provided below. Three of theseare core areas, while the activities in Large-Scale Experiments and FloatingSystem Modelling will draw upon expertise from the core areas. Structures andvessels designed for arctic operations must have adequate structural strengthto allow for safe operations under the extreme ice loads expected during theiroperational lifetimes; research in this area is a strong focus of the plannedwork.
The initiatives described in this plan represent the major priorities andrange of activities that CARD will undertake with guidance from the CARDIndustry Advisory Committee (IAC) to overcome challenges associated with arctichydrocarbon development. It is expected that research programmes will befurther developed and refined as Principal Investigators are hired for each ofthe core research areas and they bring the full extent of their knowledge andexpertise into CARD.
A Joint Industry Project (JIP) was conducted in 2007 to determine the degreeof consensus of leading ice mechanics experts on the loads exerted bymulti-year ice on offshore platforms. Seven international experts on multi-yearice loads were asked to predict loads for three different ice loading scenariosinvolving multi-year ice floes: isolated floe, a multi-year floe in pack ice,and a multi-year hummock field in a sheet of first-year ice. The Experts wereasked to calculate the loads from these three ice conditions interacting with a150 m wide vertical caisson structure and a 45 degree conical-shapedstructure. There were significant differences in the methodologies usedand the assumptions made to estimate the loads. Load predictions variedconsiderably for each scenario with estimates differing by a factor of 4.6 forthe vertical caisson and 3.5 for the conical structure. In spite of the lowerratio of predicted loads for the conical structure, the Experts were moreconfident with loads on the vertical caisson. The key areas for furtherresearch were identified and these include improved knowledge of the icethickness and its variation for Old Ice, new and innovative techniques forobtaining ice loads, improved knowledge of pack ice driving forces, and betterunderstanding of the failure behavior of multi-year ice. This paper provides anoverview of the loading scenarios, details of the load predictions, andoutlines the areas identified for future research to help to provide morereliable load predictions.
The purpose of this paper is to introduce various offshore platform conceptsthat can be employed in ice infested waters, particularly shallow waters,depths varying from 65 ft to 500 ft. The paper illustrates five innovativeplatform concepts that for arctic drilling. The proposed platform conceptswould have ability to withstand extreme ice, wind, wave and temperatureconditions to extend the drilling seasons either near to winter sever storm orfor round the year operation. The platforms are designed to operate indifferent water depths in different part of the arctic by accommodating thedrilling structures and equipment on the deck. The emphasis is on theefficient of breaking, moving ice sheets around the structure and withholdingthe topside loads. Some of the platform concepts are fixed and others aredeveloped from the floating solution and the technical details are presented inthis paper.
Blunt, J.D. (ExxonMobil Upstream Research) | Garas, V.Y. (ExxonMobil Upstream Research) | Matskevitch , D.G. (ExxonMobil Upstream Research) | Hamilton, J.M. (ExxonMobil Upstream Research) | Kumaran, K. (ExxonMobil Corporate Strategic Research)
Safe and economic hydrocarbon exploration, development and productionoperations in the high arctic deepwater require a nuanced understanding of thesea ice environment. Robust image analysis techniques provide methods bywhich this nuance can be more objectively characterized and used for decisionmaking while in operations. Morphological segmentation and windowedstatistical analysis are proposed as two approaches that provide usefulinformation on the tactical scale by rapidly characterizing floe fieldmorphology and relative surface roughness. Their use is demonstratedwithin the context of actual high arctic field program data. Results fromthe method application are shown and the benefits and limitations of their useare discussed.