The global economy continues its journey of evolution and progression driven by industrialism as its primary force. With such a fast pace of development and recovery from several recessions over a number of years, dependency on energy sources became inevitable to satisfy the rising demand. This paper represents a proposed global energy price model that has the flexibility of modeling the energy price, using data from specific regions of the world, as well as the global energy pricing equation. The ANM (Alternate Novel Model) is presented here.
The model focuses mainly on oil price modeling, since oil accounts for more than 84% of the current world energy supply. The model duration is 50 years; starting from 1980 to 2030, model matching period from 1980 to 2011, and the prediction period is from 2012to 2030.
The modeling approach used in ANM adopts weighted averaging of individual factors and it relies on line regression technique. Therefore, future trends are being predicted based on the cyclic nature of the market and historical data "the future is reflection of the past??. ANM can then preduct the future oil prices, depending on the factors and variables that have been placed in the process for the output results.
The paper aims to propose a reliable model that accounts for most governing factors in the global energy pricing equation. All steps followed and assumptions made will be discussed in detailto clarify the working mechanism for this model and pave the road for any future modifications.
Al Hamad, Abdullah (Halliburton) | Abdul-Razaq, Eman (KOC) | Al Bahrani, Hasan (KOC) | Surjaatmadja, Jim Basuki (Halliburton) | Bouland, Ali (Kuwait Oil Company) | Turkey, Naween (KOC) | Brand, Shannon (Halliburton) | Al-Saqabi, Mishari Bader (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Zankawi, Omran (Kuwait Oil Company) | Vishwanath, Chimmalgi (KOC) | Gazi, Naz H. (Kuwait Oil Company)
There are many ways to stimulate an unlined openhole horizontal well using acid. The simplest way is to just pump acid into the well (i.e., bullhead) without placement control. However, this can often be ineffective. Although still used, such approaches can create massive enlargements at the entry point or high injectivity area, thus causing ineffective treatments and re-entry issues. Wellbore collapse often follows. The use of coiled tubing (CT) as a "pin-point?? delivery method is therefore preferred. Using CT allows dispersal of the acid either uniformly or intermittently along the lateral, as desired. CT also allows acid washing to be performed, which is another common process that can improve stimulation without much additional expense to the operator. Using a jetting tool with many jets, acid can be sprayed onto the wellbore wall, and the active agitation caused by the acid-wash process increases the chemical reactivity of the acid at the desired locations.
Another beneficial approach of using CT is the hydrajet assisted acid fracturing (HJAAF) method. With focused jetting of acid at much higher pressures, the process initiates microfractures in the wellbore walls. When etched with acid, this approach effectively bypasses near-wellbore (NWB) damage much deeper than common washes, thus providing much better results. Further modification of the process by exerting high annular pressures offers the capability of delivering medium to large fractures.
This paper discusses two HJAAF processes uniquely combined into one process used in two large horizontal wells. Because of the large dimension of the inner diameter (ID) of the wells combined with the small production tubing the tool must pass through, the implementation had to be further improved by using a unique jetting mechanism, which positioned the jet nozzles closer to the target. Actual results of such stimulations are presented.
The objective was to conduct a rig-less tubular cutting operation in an onshore well in Bu Hasa field, operated by Abu Dhabi Company for Onshore Oil Operations (ADCO), for the purpose of retrieving the completion and ultimately re-completing the well.
The 382ft section of blast joints combined with scale build up in the 2-7/8?? completion tubing above the production packer made it difficult to jar and unset the packer and retrieve the completion. The decision was made to cut the blast joint as close to the packer as possible. Several challenges prevented the use of a conventional electric-line deployed chemical cutter service, which include the 85 degree deviation at cutting depth, scale build up preventing accessibility to the target cut zone, the Dual Completion design removed the ability for tubular tension and annular pressure which reduces the chances of noting the tell-tale indications of a successful cut.
A coiled tubing deployed motor-assisted tubing cutter assembly, preceded by a scale cleanout tool string, were mobilized and successfully completed the objective despite the challenges most notably the wall thickness of the blast joint and deviation at cutting depth. This allowed ADCO to proceed with their workover program.
Proper planning, effective application design and pre-job testing were paramount to the success of the operation. No previous history of any blast joint cuts, therefore this successful cut, coupled with the highly challenging well conditions, demonstrates the ability to conduct future rig-less thru-tubing cutting operations in a similar fashion, reducing operators rig time and associated costs. The technical contribution of this successful test and subsequent job application has potential to save operators a substantial amount of rig time as cost savings by conducting the pipe recover operations as described.
This article, written by Editorial Manager Adam Wilson, contains highlights of paper SPE 156992, "Novel Nanoparticle-Based Drilling Fluid With Improved Characteristics," by Mohammad F. Zakaria, Maen Husein, and Geir Hareland, SPE, University of Calgary, prepared for the 2012 SPE International Oilfield Nanotechnology Conference and Exhibition, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 12-14 June. The paper has not been peer reviewed.
This paper presents an analytical model for unconventional reservoirs with multiply-fractured horizontal wells. The model is an extension of the "tri-linear flow?? solution, but it subdivides the reservoir into five regions instead of three. This enables it to be used for more complex reservoirs. Accordingly, the model can simulate a fracture that is surrounded by a stimulated region of limited extent (branch-fracturing), while the remaining reservoir is un-stimulated. In addition to modeling flow within the fracture and flow within the stimulated region, the model takes into account flow from the surrounding un-stimulated region, both parallel to and perpendicular to the fracture.
The model can be used to simulate the flow in tight reservoirs with multi-frac horizontal wells. In many cases, the fractures do not have a simple bi-wing shape, but are branched. This effectively creates regions of higher permeability around each fracture, which obviously affect the production performance significantly. However, in many tight reservoirs, in spite of their low permeability, the surrounding un-stimulated region can also be a significant contributor to long-term production. The Five-Region Model accounts for this contribution. Thus it is particularly valuable when generating production forecasts for reserves evaluation.
The model was validated by comparing its results against numerical simulation. We found that analytical and numerical results are in good agreement only when the geometry of the system falls within certain limitations. However these limitations are met in most cases of interest. Therefore the model is useful for practical engineering purposes.
The results presented in this paper are based on computational experiments aimed at modeling nuclear well-logging tools. Well-logging services require not only development and characterization of nuclear logging tools but also development of algorithms for interpreting measured data with inclusion of various environmental corrections. With nuclear tools, the only feasible way of accomplishing those tasks is using computer simulations based on the radiation transport theory and Monte Carlo methods. Commonly, nuclear well-logging community uses the Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code (MCNP) for such modeling. However, MCNP is not universally available. Therefore, as an alternative, we consider the Geant4 platform developed under the auspices of European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) for modeling high-energy physics experiments. The results of various benchmarks of the amended version of Geant4 against MCNP5 are presented. These results clearly indicate that the modified version of Geant4 is capable of solving nuclear geophysics problems with the same accuracy as MCNP.
A procedure for upscaling CO2 buoyancy-driven upward migration in finite-difference simulation models is presented in this work. This upscaling procedure allows accounting for effects of capillary and buoyancy forces to enable CO2 upward migration modeling in coarser grids while preserving approximately dominant fine-scaled geological effects. The method has been used in 2D domain simulations with no-flow boundary conditions. The conceptual geological models are built by utilizing sequential Gaussian simulation for different correlation lengths and high level of heterogeneity, Dykstra-Parsons coefficient of 0.7.
Multiphase flow upscaling (MPF) has been improved by accounting for spatial connectivity (percolation), which enabled us to obtain more realistic rock-fluid pseudo-functions and capture effects of local capillary trapping at the fine scale (meso-scale trapping). In contrast with other MPF, e.g. Ekrann (1999) and van Duijn et al. (2002), calculation of rock-fluid functions of each cell has been conditioned by accessibility. Therefore, configuration of coinciding fine-scale cells in a coarse cell affects calculation of upscaled rock-fluid functions. In addition, the effective porous medium properties were estimated using mean field theory (the Maxwell approximation), which considers continuity and isolation of geological facies, responsible for macroscopic residual saturation. The upscaling method and estimation of rock-fluid functions were numerically tested and compared with currently accepted single- and multiphase-flow upscaling methods.
Our results show that single-phase flow upscaling and Maxwell approximation fail to adequately predict mobility and residual saturation. Those upscaling approximations predict gas travel time 7 fold faster. Therefore multiphase flow upscaling should be employed. Significant improvement in gas travel time (representative of mobility) and trapped CO2 saturation (representative of trapped saturation) are observed when spatial connectivity (percolation) is included. Implementation of percolation, improves prediction of gas travel time and residual saturation 21% and 50% respectively.
The developed upscaling scheme lowers simulation execution time 17 fold through upscaling and noticeably enhances the prediction of phases mobilities and macroscopic trapped saturation. This speedup will enable simulating 3D CO2 sequestration simulation scenarios. The scheme can also serve to scale up other subsurface multiphase flow displacement where capillary force is dominant one.
Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) has been proposed as a viable approach to mitigate CO2 emissions from concentrated point-sources. One of the key tools for planning and evaluation of CCS scenarios is reservoir simulation. However, given the size of the geologic bodies and the multiplicity of scales involved, proper simulation of multiphase flow mechanisms remains challenging.
Oil price prediction is one of the vital processes in every oil producing and operating company for current running projects and future new explorations, the whole different segments of industries and commodities would be also interested in knowing the future of oil prices, and we shall not ignore the interest that each country by itself shows to know the effect of future prices on their development plans. The oil price today is somehow far away from the control of any of the world powers, not under the control of the major consumers like the United States, Europe, Japan, Russia & China, nor the Super Majors like BP, Total, Exxon, Shell and Chevron, and not even OPEC majors like Saudi, Iraq, Iran, Kuwait and UAE for several reasons. The Consumers are not any more controlling the tap of oil as it was before the 1960's. While the Super majors are not any more having the major reserves as it was before the 1970's, while for OPEC the Excess Capacity of oil production that they have during 1970's, 80's, and 90's has diminished with maturing fields and failing to find new reserves. Therefore, the oil price control become mainly in the hand of supply and demand trends, hence the ability to capture the supply and demand trend model and anticipate the future of them, the oil price shall be known with reasonable confidence. Therefore, several attempts have been conducted throughout the years to estimate the oil prices as early as 1960's. In this paper, a new oil price projection modeling is built and called POMVSD (Price of Oil Modeling with Variables of Supply and Demand). A model reflects the new economic changes happening worldwide. The details of this model will be described in this paper in addition to a review and analysis of historical and modern literature that support this new model structure.
There is an increasing need to limit the use of chemical treating agents during oil and gas production and to search for safer and cost effective ones mainly due to environmental constraints. Therefore the use and performance of demulsifiers have to be improved from the application and cost as well as from the environmental issues. This means that new formulations must be less toxic and efficient compared to the general classical chemical families of demulsifiers which contain toxic molecules like phenol groups.
This paper is on the performance and the comparison of four chemical demulsifiers (local and foreign) on their demulsification of four crude oil emulsions of different asphaltene contents from different oil wells in the Niger Delta.The chemical families of these demulsifiers were screened with effective separation ability of different surfactants using classical "Bottle test??. The Bottle test helped to determine the type of demulsifier that will most effectively break the emulsion of the crude samples. The basic aim of this screening was to compare and rank the efficiency of the various demulsifiers both local and foreign (V4404 of Nigeria, 92LTM174 of USA, EN/82/2 of France and DS 964 of Canada) in terms of percentage (%) volume of water that will be separated out of the samples. The results showed that the viscosity of the emulsions increased as the water content increased with an assumption that only oil and water were present. The nature of the emulsions were subject to changes, therefore no treatment method was conclusively generalized as best for every emulsion problem. Finally from the preliminary screening, the result also revealed that V4404 a local demulsifier exhibited very interesting performance and was also environmentally friendly compared to the imported ones.