Najmah-Sargelu Formations of Kuwait show considerable potential as a new unconventional hydrocarbon play and produces mainly from fractures. The key uncertainties which affect the productivity are the nature and distribution of permeable fracture networks, and the limits of oil accumulation.
This paper presents the results from whole-rock elemental analysis of three cored wells in UG field. The main objectives of this study are to use high-resolution elemental chemostratigraphy to gain a better understanding of the detailed stratigraphy and correlation of the Najmah-Sargelu Formations, to assess the chemo-sedimentology for determining the intervals of high organic content, to estimate the mineralogy of the sequence using an algorithm developed for an analog formation in North America; and to determine the most likely intervals to contain fractures, using a brittleness algorithm.
A clear chemo stratigraphic zonation is recognized within the Najmah-Sargelu Formation. The larger divisions are driven mainly by inherent lithological variation. The finer divisions are delineated by more subtle chemo stratigraphic signals (K2O/Th and Rb/Al2O3 ratios) and preservation of organic matter (high V, Ni, Mo, and U abundances). Zones of alternating brittleness and ductility are clearly identified within the interbedded limestones and marlstones of Najmah-Sargelu Formation.
Two unexpected but important features of the Najmah-Sargelu limestones were elucidated by the elemental data. Brittle, high-silica spiculites, with virtually no clay or silt, are more common than previously recognized from petrophysical logs and core descriptions in the upper Najmah limestones. In addition, the limestones adjacent to the spiculites tend to contain bitumen as pore-filling are recognized by the trace metal proxies. Ternary plots of V, Ni, and Mo differentiate the combinations of kerogen and bitumen present in the Najmah-Sargelu Formations.
The clarity and sensitivity of the chemostratigraphic signals are sufficient to enhance formation evaluation, and can also assist borehole positioning using the RockWiseSM ED-XRF instrument at wellsite.
Ozyurtkan, Mustafa Hakan (Istanbul Technical University) | Altun, Gursat (Istanbul Technical University) | Ettehadi Osgouei, Ali (Istanbul Technical University) | Aydilsiz, Eda (Istanbul Technical University)
Static filtration of drilling fluids has long been recognized as an important parameter for drilling operations. Since the standard laboratory testing procedures only consider static conditions, the filtration and cake properties under continuous circulation and dynamic borehole conditions are not usually well determined. Therefore, the measurement of dynamic filtration is particularly important in order to mimic actual downhole conditions.
An experimental study has been carried out by the ITU/PNGE research group to characterize the dynamic filtration properties of clay based drilling fluids. This study is an impressive attempt to figure out the dynamic filtration phenomena of clay based muds. The experimental results obtained from a dynamic filtration apparatus (Fann Model 90) are reported in this study.
Bentonite and sepiolite clays based muds formulated with commercial additives have been investigated throughout the study. Numerous dynamic filtration histories with test duration of 45 to 60 minutes at temperature conditions ranging from 150 to 400 oF, and a differential pressure of 100 psi have been applied to muds. Three key parameters namely spurt loss volume, dynamic filtration rate (DFR), and cake deposition index (CDI) have been determined to characterize the dynamic filtration properties of mud samples.
Results have revealed that bentonite based muds have better dynamic filtration properties than those of sepiolite muds at temperatures up to 250 oF. However, they have lost their stability over 250 oF. Furthermore, formulated sepiolite based muds have remarkable dynamic filtration rates and cake depositions above 300 oF. To sum up, the experimental results of this study point out that sepiolite based muds might be a good alternative to drill wells experiencing high temperatures, particularly in deep oil, gas and geothermal wells.
Historically, shale instability is a challenging issue when drilling reactive formations using water-based muds (WBM). Shale instability leads to shale sloughing, stuck pipe, and shale disintegration causing an increase in fines that affects the rate of penetration. To characterize shale instability, laboratory tests including Linear Swell Meter (LSM), shale-erosion and slake-durability are conducted in industry. These laboratory tests, under different flow conditions, provide shale-fluid interaction parameters which are indicative of shale instability. The composition of WBM is designed to optimize these interaction parameters, so that when used in the field the fluid helps achieve efficient drilling.
This paper demonstrates modeling of shale-fluid interaction parameters obtained from the LSM test. In the standard LSM test, a laterally confined cylindrical shale sample is exposed to WBM at a specific temperature and its axial swelling is measured with time. The swelling reaches a plateau which is characterized by a shale-fluid interaction parameter called % final swelling volume (A). A typical LSM test runs for around 48-72 hours and many tests may be needed to optimize fluid composition.
In this work, a method/model is developed to predict final swelling volume (A) as a function of the Cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the shale and salt concentration in the fluid (prominent factors affecting shale swelling). An empirical model in the form of A = f(CEC)*f(salt) which describes the explicit dependence on the influencing variables is developed and validated for 16 different shale samples at various salt concentrations. This model would significantly reduce LSM laboratory trials saving time and money. It could also enable rig personnel to obtain quick measure of shale characteristics so that WBM composition could be adjusted immediately to avoid shale instability issues.
Viscosity and Density are important physical parameter of crude oil, closely related with the whole processes of production and transportation, and are very essential properties to the process design and petroleum industries simulation. As viscosity increases, a conventional measurement becomes progressively less accurate and more difficult to obtain. According to the literature survey, most published correlations that are used to predict density and viscosity of heavy crude oil are limited to certain temperatures, API values, and viscosity ranges. The objective of present work is to propose accurate models that can successfully predict two important fluid properties, viscosity and density covering a wide range of temperatures, API, and viscosities. Viscosity and density of more than 30 heavy oil samples of different API gravities collected from different oilfield were measured at temperature range 15oC to 160oC (60oF to 320oF), and the results were used to ensure the capability of proposed and published correlations to predict the experimental viscosity and density data. The proposed correlation can be summarized in two stages. The first step was to predict the heavy oil density from API and temperature for different crudes. The predicted values of the densities were used in the second step to develop the viscosity correlation model. A comparison of the predicted and actual viscosities data, concluded that the proposed model has successfully predict all data with average relative errors of less than 12% and with the correlation coefficient R2 of 0.97, and 0.92 at normal and high temperatures respectively. Meanwhile, the results of most of the available models has an average relative error above 40%, with R2 values between 0.19 to 0.95. These comparisons were made as a quality control to confirm the reliability of the proposed model to predict density and viscosity values of heavy crudes when compared with other models.
Cinar, Yildiray (The University of New South Wales) | Arns, Christoph (The University of New South Wales) | Dehghan Khalili, Ahmad (The University of New South Wales) | Yanici, Sefer (The University of New South Wales)
Resistivity measurements play a key role in hydrocarbon in place calculations for oil and gas reservoirs. They are a direct indi-cator of fluid saturation and connected pore space available in the formation. Carbonate rocks, which host around half of the world's hydrocarbons, exhibit a wide range of porosities with scales spanning from nanometres to centimetres. The often sig-nificant amount of microporosity displayed by Carbonate rocks emphasizes the necessity of an adequate characterization of their micro-features and their contribution to hydrocarbon in place. In this paper we examine upscaling methods to probe for-mation factor of a fully saturated carbonate sample using an X-ray CT based numerical approach and compare to experimental measurements.
Three-dimensional high-resolution X-ray CT enables the numerical calculation of petrophysical properties of interest at the pore scale with resolutions down to a few microns per voxel. For more complex and heterogeneous samples however, a direct calculation of petrophysical properties is not feasible, since the required resolution and a sufficient field of view cannot be obtained simultaneously. Thus an integration of measurements at different scale is required. In this study a carbonate sample of 38mm in diameter is first scanned using the X-ray CT method with a resolution of 26µm. After accompanying experimental measurements on the full plug, four 5mm plugs were drilled vertically from this sample and X-ray CT images of these plugs acquired at resolutions down to 2.74 µm. We calculate the porosity of the sample (macro- and micro-porosities) using the phase separation methods and then predict the formation factor of the sample at several scales using a Laplace solver. The formation factor is calculated by using a general value of m=2 as cementation factor for intermediate porosity voxels. We compare to experimental measurements of formation factor and porosity both at the small plug and full plug scale and find good agreement.
To assess the degree of uncertainty of the numerical estimate, we probe the extent of heterogeneity by investigating the size of a representative elementary volume (REV) for formation factor. We find that for the considered heterogeneous carbonate sam-ple, formation factor varies considerably over intervals less than a centimetre. Our results show that this variation could be explained by different cementation exponents applied at the micro-voxel scale, with the exemption of one plug, for which the cementation exponent would have to be unreasonably low. These cementation factors are derived by direct comparison be-tween numerical simulation and experiment. We conclude that for one plug an error in experimental measurement might have occurred. The numerical approach presented here therefore aids in quality control. Excluding this plug in the upscaling proce-dure improves the agreement with the experimental result for the whole core while still underestimating formation factor. Al-lowing for a constant m=2 in the simulation at the small scale and using directly the resulting relationship between porosity and formation factor in the upscaling process leads to an overestimation of formation factor.
Hruška, Marina (Chevron Energy Technology Company) | Bachtel, Steven (Chevron Energy Technology Company) | Archuleta, Bonny (Chevron Energy Technology Company) | Skalinski, Mark (Chevron Energy Technology Company)
In this integrated study using resistivity images, conventional openhole logs, and core data from a Middle Eastern reservoir, abundance and geometric configuration of bedded and nodular evaporite have been studied to help distinguish which nodular forms of evaporite may be related to a permeability suppression. Several logs have been calculated from the resistivity image log to quantify nodular evaporite and help predict the presence of corresponding core facies well. Compared with thin-section description, most samples of nodular evaporite were exhibiting fine-scale cementation as well, and their permeability was suppressed compared with samples with rare or no fine-scale cementation in thin sections.
Permeability provides a measure of the ability of a porous medium to transmit fluid and is significant in evaluating reservoir productivity. A case study that compares different methods of permeability prediction in a complex carbonate reservoir is presented in this paper. Presence of siliciclastic fines and diagenetic minerals (e.g., dolomite) within carbonate breccias has resulted in a tight and heterogeneous carbonate reservoir in this case. Permeability estimations from different methods are discussed and compared. In the first part of the paper, permeability measurements from conventional core analysis (CCAL), mercury-injection capillary pressure (MICP) tests, modular formation dynamic tests (MDTs), and nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR) logs are discussed. Different combinations of methods can be helpful in permeability calculation, but depending on the nature and scale of each method, permeability assessment in heterogeneous reservoirs is a considerable challenge. Among these methods, the NMR log provides the most continuous permeability prediction. In the second part of the paper, the measured individual permeabilities are combined and calibrated with the NMR-derived permeability. The conventional NMR-based free-fluid (Timur-Coates) model is used to compute the permeability. The NMRestimated permeability is influenced by wettability effects, presence of isolated pores, and residual oil in the invaded zone. new modified Timur-Coates model is established on the basis of fluid saturations and isolated pore volumes (PV) of the rock. This model yields a reasonable correlation with the scaled core-derived permeabilities. However, because of the reservoir heterogeneity, particularly in the brecciated intervals, discrepancies between the core data and the modified permeability model are expected.
Profice, Sandra (I2M–TREFLE - Universite de Bordeaux) | Lasseux, Didier (I2M–TREFLE - Universite de Bordeaux) | Jannot, Yves (LEMTA - Nancy-Universite) | Jebara, Naime (TOTAL – CSTJF) | Hamon, Gerald (TOTAL – CSTJ)
Permeability estimation of poor permeable formations like tight or gas-shale reservoirs using a pulse-decay experiment performed on crushed samples has been shown in earlier works to be an interesting alternative for it is faster and less expensive than traditional transient tests performed on carefully prepared core plugs, although it is restricted to measurement in the absence of overburden pressure. Due to reservoir depletion during production, sample characterization over a wide range of pore-fluid pressure is essential. If the Darcy-Klinkenberg model is thought to be a satisfactory gas-flowmodel for these tight formations, the full characterization can be achieved by determining both the intrinsic permeability, kl, and Klinkenberg coefficient b.
In this work, the conditions under which reliable estimates of kl, b and porosity, ø can be expected from this type of measurement are carefully analyzed. Considering a bed of monodisperse-packed spheres and a complete physical model to carry out direct simulations and inversion of the pressure decay, important conclusions are drawn opening wide perspectives for significant operational improvement of the method. In particular, it is shown that:
i) The particle size of the crushed sample must be well selected for a reliable pressure-decay signal record.
ii) The simultaneous determination of both kl and b by inversion of the pressure-decay signal is very difficult because the sensitivities of the pressure decay to both coefficients are correlated
iii) The porosity of the particles can be accurately estimated when the experimental setup has been properly calibrated (volumes of the chambers and of the porous sample). The precision on the estimation of this parameter is however strongly dependent on a bias on the crushed sample volume.
iv) When identification of kl and b is possible, a very significant error may occur in the determination of the intrinsic permeability due to a bias on the porous sample volume. Errors on the estimated values of ø and kl due to a bias on the chamber volume are not very significant Moreover, b remains insensitive to bias on both the chamber and porous sample volumes.
This paper presents a method for determining the Archie saturation exponent, n, from a single, nonequilibrium centrifuge step. The input measurements include detailed 3D saturation distributions from magnetic resonance imaging and the DC conductivity of the sample under examination. The latter is obtained by making use of a patented 4-contact cell. The sample is modeled as a 3D conductivity network and a specially developed algorithm based on random walk (RW) is used to compute its overall conductivity in a very short time. The value of the n exponent is determined by matching the measured conductivity to the calculated one. The entire analysis takes one day. Examples demonstrate the method and details of the impedance cell and the RW algorithm are provided.
This paper describes the work undertaken to build a 3D static model of a Lower Cretaceous Carbonate Reservoir located in Kazakhstan called X-Field. This reservoir has been pervasively dolomitized, and presents several challenges for development optimization. This model will be used to support further appraisal and development activities, in order to tackle key uncertainties, such as reservoir quality distribution.
All of the available data were quality controlled, analyzed and interpreted (including data from logs and cores), to produce porosity, permeability and RRT (reservoir rock type) models. These are believed to be representative of the reservoir's behavior and connectivity.
In order to identify the main flow zones and understand the reservoir's complexity, Reservoir Rock Typing (RRT) was performed on two cored wells by analyzing CCAL and SCAL data, including thin sections, MICP measurements, porosity and permeability. A comprehensive RRT methodology using Winland R35 method and poro-perm plot was followed, which resulted in defining five rock types. The outcome from the RRT study was confirmed by poro-perm plot, which showed the presence of five flow units.
The 3D model was built by using corner point grids (CPG), and contains a total of 2,380,050 cells. Several models of porosity and RRT were generated, representing "low??, "mid??, and "high?? case scenarios of reservoir quality distribution. Finally, permeability models were created for each scenario, conditioned to their respective Winland R35 porosity-permeability relationships per RRT.
Comparison between the different porosity (F), permeability (k), and RRT models and scenarios, will allow a better management of the reservoir uncertainties during the appraisal and development stages for this reservoir.