Pressure maintenance support in mature fields where permeability heterogeneity is present requires proper distribution of injected water into the respective zones of interest. This process can be extremely challenging, if no method for allocating the proper amount of water into each zone is available. An operator in the South China Sea, who had initiated a water injection project using legacy single-string two-zone completion technologies, found himself in this predicament, since no selective control for pressure maintenance had been considered for the project.
During the past few years, the application of intelligent completion (IC) technology has increased rapidly. This acceptance has been due primarily to its proven capabilities for reservoir monitoring and corresponding optimization of well performance without well interventions. Historically, the majority of IC applications have been in production wells; however, an increasing number of operators have started adopting IC technology for their injector wells.
This paper presents a case study in which IC technology was successfully applied in an offshore field in the South China Sea to provide an efficient water-injection method for optimizing pressure support as well as sweep. The operator selected this technology, as it presented a solution for optimizing the water injection. In addition to eliminating problems experienced with the incapability of the legacy completion technology to monitor water allocation and pressure maintenance for each zone, the IC technology would allow selective well testing for each zone. By evaluating the reservoir properties and characteristics of each zone independently, an intelligent completion would provide another key benefit to the operator, since it would comply with the platform size restrictions for the pumping equipment.
The paper will discuss field objectives, the conceptual design, the design obstacles, and the operational challenges experienced during the job execution.
Shubham, Agrawal (Texas A&M University at Qatar) | Martavaltzi, Christina (Texas A&M University at Qatar) | Dakik, Ahmad Rafic (Texas A&M University at Qatar) | Gupta, Anuj (Texas A&M University at Qatar)
It is well known that the majority of carbonate reservoirs are neutral to oil-wet. This leads to much lower oil recovery during waterflooding since there is no spontaneous imbibition of water in heterogeneous reservoir displacement. It has been verified by a number of researchers that Adjustment of ion concentration in brine solutions, or adding surfactant solutions can enhance the oil recovery by altering the wettability. In the published literature, contact angle studies usually refer to measurement on calcite crystals and there are no results for the contact angle of carbonate porous media representative of reservoir rocks. Moreover, there are few studies on the effect of non-ionic surfactants, compared to those for ionic surfactants. Understanding the effect of various ions and their concentration in the injection brine on the wettability of the Limestone outcrop core samples is the first step for tailoring of the optimum injection brine. This will be followed by a study of the effect of surfactant on the wettability of calcite crystal samples. The evaluation of the results may provide guidelines for the design of injection brines for efficient enhanced oil recovery from carbonate reservoirs.
In this work, a procedure is established for the measurement of the contact angle on limestone outcrop core samples. Results showed that, at atmospheric conditions, low salinity CaCl2 solution induced the most significant improvement on the wettability of the outcrop sample. Moreover, among all the non-ionic surfactants studied, only the presence of the two first members of the 15S analogous series might lead to a slight decrease of the contact angle.
Abou Sayed, Nada (Petroleum Institute) | Shrestha, Reena (The Petroleum Institute) | Sarma, Hemanta Kumar (The Petroleum Institute) | Al Kindy, Nabeela (The Petroleum Institute) | Haroun, Muhammad (University of Southern California) | Abdul Kareem, Basma Ali (The Petroleum Institute) | Ansari, Arsalan Arshad (The Petroleum Institute)
EOR technologies such as CO2 flooding and chemical floods have been on the forefront of oil and gas R&D for the past 4 decades. While most of them are demonstrating very promising results in both lab scale and field pilots, the thrive for exploring additional EOR technologies while achieving full field application has yet to be achieved. Among the emerging EOR technologies is the surfactant EOR along with the application of electrically enhanced oil recovery (EEOR) which is gaining increased popularity due to a number of reservoir-related advantages such as reduction in fluid viscosity, water-cut and increased reservoir permeability.
Experiments were conducted on 1.5?? carbonate reservoir cores extracted from Abu Dhabi producing oil fields, which were saturated with medium crude oil in a specially designed EK core flood setup. Electrokinetics (DC voltage of 2V/cm) was applied on these oil saturated cores along with waterflooding simultaneously until the ultimate recovery was reached. In the second stage, the recovery was further enhanced by injecting non-ionic surfactant (APG) along with sequential application of EK. This was compared with simultaneous application of EK-assisted surfactant flooding. A smart Surfactant-EOR process was done in this study that allowed shifting from sequential to simultaneous Surfactant-EOR alongside EEOR
The experimental results at ambient conditions show that the application of waterflooding on the carbonate cores yields recovery of approximately 46-72% and an additional 8-14% incremental recovery resulted upon application of EK, which could be promising for water swept reservoirs. However, there was an additional 6-11% recovery enhanced by the application of EK-assisted surfactant flooding. In addition, EK was shown to enhance the carbonate reservoir's permeability by approximately 11-29%. Furthermore, this process can be engineered to be a greener approach as the water requirement can be reduced upto 20% in the presence of electrokinetics which is also economically feasible.
Turkey, Laila (KOC) | Hafez, Karam Mohamed (KOC) | Vigier, Louise (Beicip) | Chimmalgi, Vishvanath Shivappa (Kuwait Oil Company) | Dashti, Hameeda Hussain (Kuwait Oil Company) | Datta, Kalyanbrata (KOC) | Knight, Roger (KOC) | Lefebvre, Christian (Beicip-Franlab) | Bond, Deryck John (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-qattan, Abrar (KOC) | Al-Jadi, Manayer (Kuwait Oil Company) | De Medeiros, Maitre (Beicip) | Al-Kandari, Ibrahim (Kuwait Oil Company)
A pilot water flood was carried out in the Marrat reservoir in the Magwa Field. The main aim of this pilot was to allow an assessment of the ability to sustain injection, better understand reservoir characteristics. A sector model was built to help with this task.
An evaluation of the injectivity in Magwa Marrat reservoir was performed with particular attention to studying how injectivity varied as injected water quality was changed. This was done using modified Hall Plots, injection logs, flow logs and time lapse temperature logs.
Data acquisition during the course of the pilot was used to better understand reservoir heterogeneity. This included the acquisition of pressure transient and interference data, multiple production and injection logs, temperature logging, monitoring production water chemistry, the use of tracers and a re-evaluation of the log and core data to better understand to role of fractures.
A geological model using detailed reservoir characterization and a 3D discrete fracture network model was constructed. Fracture corridors were derived from fractured lineaments interpreted from different seismic attribute maps:
A sector model of the pilot flood area was then derived and used to integrate the results of the surveillance data. The main output is to develop an understanding of the natural fracture system occurring in the different units of the Marrat reservoir and to characterize their organization and distribution. The lessons learned from this sector modeling work will then be integrated in the Marrat full field study.
The work described here shows how pilot water flood results can be used to reduce risk related to both injectivity and to reservoir heterogeneity in the secondary development of a major reservoir.
Determining the optimum location of wells during waterflooding contributes significantly to efficient reservoir management. Often, Voidage Replacement Ratio (VRR) and Net Present Value (NPV) are used as indicators of performance of waterflood projects. In addition, VRR is used by regulatory and environmental agencies as a means of monitoring the impact of field development activities on the environment while NPV is used by investors as a measure of profitability of oil and gas projects. Over the years, well placement optimization has been done mainly to increase the NPV. However, regulatory measures call for operators to maintain a VRR of one (or close to one) during waterflooding.
A multiobjective approach incorporating NPV and VRR is proposed for solving the well placement optimization problem. We present the use of both NPV and VRR as objective functions in the determination of optimal location of wells. The combination of these two in a multiobjective optimization framework proves to be useful in identifying the trade-offs between the quest for high profitability of investment in oil and gas projects and the desire to satisfy regulatory and environmental requirements. We conducted the search for optimum well locations in three phases. In the first phase, only the NPV was used as the objective function. The second phase has the VRR as the sole objective function. In the third phase, the objective function was a weighted sum of the NPV and the VRR. A set of four weights were used in the third phase to describe the relative importance of the NPV and the VRR and a comparison of how these weights affect the optimized NPV and VRR values is provided.
We applied the method to determine the optimum placement of wells using two sample reservoirs: one with a distributed permeability field and the other, a channel reservoir with four facies. Two evolutionary-type algorithms: the covariance matrix adaptation evolutionary strategy (CMA-ES) and differential evolution (DE), were used to solve the optimization problem. Significantly, the method illustrates the trade-off between maximizing the NPV and optimizing the VRR. It calls the attention of both investors and regulatory agencies to the need to consider the financial aspect (NPV) and the environmental aspect (VRR) of waterflooding during secondary oil recovery projects. The multiobjective optimization approach meets the economic needs of investors and the regulatory requirements of government and environmental agencies. This approach gives a realistic NPV estimation for companies operating in jurisdiction with requirement for meeting a VRR of one.
Alusta, Gamal Abdalla (Heriot-Watt University) | Mackay, Eric James (Heriot-Watt University) | Collins, Ian Ralph (BP Exploration) | Fennema, Julian (Heriot-Watt University) | Armih, Khari (Heriot-Watt University)
This study has focused on the development of a method to test the economic viability of Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) versus infill well drilling where the challenge is to compare polymer flooding scenarios with infill well drilling scenarios, not just based on incremental recovery, but on Net Present Value as well.
In a previous publication (Alusta et al., 2011, SPE143300) the method was developed to address polymer flooding, but it can be modified to suit any other EOR methods. The method has been applied to a synthetic scenario with constant economic parameters, which has demonstrated the impact that oil price can have on the decision making process.
The method was then applied and tested (Alusta et al., 2012, SPE150454) with varied operational and economic parameters to investigate the impact in delaying the start of polymer flooding to identify whether it is better to start polymer flooding earlier or later in the life of the project. Consideration was also given to the optimum polymer concentration, and the impact that factors such as oil price and polymer cost have on this decision. Due to the large number of combined reservoir engineering and economic scenarios, Monte Carlo Simulation and advanced analysis of large data sets and the resulting probability distributions had to be developed.
In this paper the methodology is applied to an offshore field where the choice has already been made to drill infill wells, but where we test the robustness of the method against a conventional decision making process for which there is historical data. We do this by performing calculations that compare the infill well scenario chosen with a range of polymer flooding scenarios that could have been selected instead, to identify whether or not the choice to drill infill wells was indeed the optimum choice from an economic perspective.
We conclude from all the reservoir simulations and subsequent economic calculations that the decision to drill infill wells was indeed the optimum choice from an economic perspective.
This paper will describe the state of art in active acoustic detection ofoil and gas in the water volume as well as the seafloor. Examples of real datawill be described with the relevance to the leakage detection challenges wheresurveillance and early detection is crucial. Active acoustic data will bepresented from several trials from various parts of the world, examples hereofis California natural seeps, Brazil leakage detection, Norway plume mixingphenomenon's and more.
Applications: Leakage detection on subsea assets, Site surveys of leakages,Oil response capabilities, Oil recovery capabilities, Dispersant efficiencyespecially sub surface, Quantification of leak flux both gas and fluid.
Results, Observations, and Conclusions: Expedition results will be reviewedbased on several real life tests and deployments of active acoustic systems.Conclusion of expected performance of active acoustic systems will be drawn.Miniaturization and adaptation of power requirement as well as uplink demand,combined with sufficient processing to avoid false alarms will bediscussed.
Significance of Subject Matter: Early subsea leakage detection is absolutelykey to any arctic project, quantifiable flux rates is an important key input toall decision-making during operation of oil fields in all regions.
In a layered, 2D heterogeneous sandpack with a 19:1 permeability contrast that was preferentially oil-wet, the recovery by waterflood was only 49.1% of original oil in place (OOIP) because of injected water flowing through the high-permeability zone, leaving the low-permeability zone unswept. To enhance oil recovery, an anionic surfactant blend (NI) was injected that altered the wettability and lowered the interfacial tension (IFT). Once IFT was reduced to ultralow values, the adverse effect of capillarity retaining oil was eliminated. Gravity-driven vertical countercurrent flow then exchanged fluids between high- and low-permeability zones during a 42-day system shut-in. Cumulative recovery after a subsequent foam flood was 94.6% OOIP, even though foam strength was weak. Recovery with chemical flood (incremental recovered oil/waterflood remaining oil) was 89.4%. An alternative method is to apply foam mobility control as a robust viscous-force-dominant process with no initial surfactant injection and shut-in. The light crude oil studied in this paper was extremely detrimental to foam generation. However, the addition of lauryl betaine to NI (NIB) at a weight ratio of 1:2 (NI:lauryl betaine) made the new blend a good foaming agent with and without the presence of the crude oil. NIB by itself as an IFT-reducing and foaming agent is shown to be effective in various secondary and tertiary alkaline/surfactant/foam (ASF) processes in water-wet 1D homogeneous sandpacks and in an oil-wet heterogeneous layered system with a 34:1 permeability ratio.
Oil and water production data are regularly measured in oilfield operations and vary from well to well and change with time. Theoretical models are often used to establish the production expectation for different recovery processes. A performance surveillance understanding can be developed by comparing the field production data with the production expectation. This comparison generates quantitative or qualitative signals to determine whether the producer meets production expectations or the producer is underperforming and appropriate operational action is required to address the underperformance. The case study is for the South Belridge diatomite in California. This hydraulically fractured diatomite reservoir is currently under waterflood and steamflood. A methodology is proposed to establish the production expectation from historical production data. For primary depletion, the formation linear and bilinear flow models are applied to producers with vertical hydraulic fractures. For waterflood, an analytical method derived from the Buckley-Leverett displacement theory is used. Those analytical methods can predict production and provide surveillance signals for producers in the primary and waterflood recovery stages. For steamflood, a semiquantitative performance/surveillance criterion is proposed on the basis of understanding the mechanistic oil banking concept and reservoir simulation results for steamflood and waterflood. With those models representing expected production performance, an integrated flow regime diagram is proposed for production surveillance. A performance expectation can be developed for an individual producer. A significant overperformance relative to the expectation normally indicates changes in the recovery mechanism or improvement in sweep efficiency. A significant underperformance usually signifies an operational issue that requires correction to optimize the production performance. In the case study, the surveillance methodology for producers under primary depletion, waterflood, or steamflood is demonstrated by use of historical production data. In addition, water channeling between injectors and producers and its impact on production performance are discussed. On the basis of this surveillance methodology, some operational actions were proposed, and successful results are demonstrated. Examples of forecast for an individual producer in the primary depletion stage and field scale prediction in the waterflood stage are provided. Application indicates that the proposed methodology can serve as a convenient and practical tool for reservoir surveillance and operational optimization.
Some coreflood literature points to the initial wettability state undergoing change during waterflooding, usually towards water-wetness. The current study aimed to directly probe the adsorbed/deposited oil components on model silicate substrates prior to and after flooding. Bare glass and kaolinite-coated glass in the initial brine were drained with crude oil and aged, after which the oil was displaced with the flooding brine. For a matrix of initial and flood brines (comprising sodium and calcium) of varying salinity and/or pH, the oil remaining on the substrates was analyzed by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy, contact angle and spectroscopy. On glass, the oil layer contacting it in the initial (aged) state retracts and detaches during flooding, to typically leave individual oil nanodroplets separated by clean substrate. Brines less able to overcome the oil-glass adhesion displayed a higher coverage of more irregularly shaped, semiretracted drop-lets and a higher frequency of larger microscopic residues. On kaolinite-coated glass, the added porosity and roughness increased the presence of these adhering, stranded residues. On bare glass, the residual deposit after high salinity floodingis generally least at intermediate flood pH 6, while residues decrease with decreasing pH of low salinity floods. However, on kaolinite-coated substrates, residual deposit is greatest after flooding at intermediate pH 6, and also increases on reduction of flood salinity