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**File Type**

In geotechnical engineering it is very important to know the surrounding soil and rock masses. In rocks the most useful are the rock mechanic properties. To get these drills should be made and the core should be gained from it intact. By getting a piece of the rock as it was in the original stat we can examine the jointing, the in fills, the weathering and a lot more. For the strength of the rock and deciding about the level of support the knowledge of the jointing is the most relevant. The RQD and the C methods are to make this property numerical. After presenting the two methods, the comparison is based on the drill data of preliminary exploration of the site of the Radioactive Repository at Bataapati. The data was given by Mecsekerc Ltd. RQD and C was always calculated at every drill.The calculationswere made by the same person therefore the subjective mistake can be regarded as constant. After several investigations the Central Hungarian Móragy basin was chosen for low and medium radioactive waste final disposal facility. The average high of the hilly land, which is covered by mostly forest, is around 260–280 above sea level while the deepest points of the valleys are approximately 160– 170m above sea level. The strata of the area can be easily described although highly jointed by tectonic influenced. The main stratum is the Palaeozoic granite from the carbon time. The upper part of this stratum (more than 10 meters) is differently weathered. Above this about 50–60mthick Pleistocene loess can be found (Galos et al. 2002). The allocated area (approximately 300×600 m) firstly was investigated with geophysical methods before the bores were carried out till different depth (300–500 m). In this comparison more than 3,000 meters of core from 20 drills are used to make the statistics to show the relation of them clearly.

SPE Disciplines:

Technology: Information Technology > Artificial Intelligence > Machine Learning > Statistical Learning (0.34)

Coggan, J.S. (Camborne School of Mines, University of Exeter ) | Wetherelt, A. (Camborne School of Mines, University of Exeter) | Gwynn, X.P. (Camborne School of Mines, University of Exeter.) | Flynn, Z.N. (Camborne School of Mines, University of Exeter.)

1 INTRODUCTION

In geotechnical engineering it is very important to know the surrounding soil and rock masses. In rocks the most useful are the rock mechanic properties. To get these drills should be made and the core should be gained from it intact. By getting a piece of the rock as it was in the original stat we can examine the jointing, the in fills, the weathering and a lot more. For the strength of the rock and deciding about the level of support the knowledge of the jointing is the most relevant. The RQD and the C methods are to make this property numerical. After presenting the two methods, the comparison is based on the drill data of preliminary exploration of the site of the Radioactive Repository at Bataapati. The data was given by Mecsekerc Ltd. RQD and C was always calculated at every drill.The calculationswere made by the same person therefore the subjective mistake can be regarded as constant. After several investigations the Central Hungarian Móragy basin was chosen for low and medium radioactive waste final disposal facility. The average high of the hilly land, which is covered by mostly forest, is around 260–280 above sea level while the deepest points of the valleys are approximately 160– 170m above sea level. The strata of the area can be easily described although highly jointed by tectonic influenced. The main stratum is the Palaeozoic granite from the carbon time. The upper part of this stratum (more than 10 meters) is differently weathered. Above this about 50–60mthick Pleistocene loess can be found (Galos et al. 2002). The allocated area (approximately 300×600 m) firstly was investigated with geophysical methods before the bores were carried out till different depth (300–500 m). In this comparison more than 3,000 meters of core from 20 drills are used to make the statistics to show the relation ofthem clearly.

analysis, Artificial Intelligence, capture, characterisation, collection, Comparison, face, feature, hand mapping, hydraulic fracturing, Laser, management and information, mapping, Mapping Technique, mass, orientation, photogrammetry, point, remote data capture, reservoir description and dynamics, rock, rock mass, scanner, technique, well completion

SPE Disciplines:

2.1

1. The rock mass behaves in a perfectly plastic manner.

2. Plasticity is coaxial.

3. The failure criterion may be non-linear.

4. Plane strain is assumed, when needed.

5. The rock mass is generally assumed to be weightless. (The bearing capacity of shallow foundations has also been studied and its main results are listed for rock masses that do have their own weight).

6. No inertial forces are acting

• The brittleness of many types of rocks, depending on its intrinsic characteristics.

• The discontinuities of rock masses. This calculation methodology can be very appropriate depending on the spacing of discontinuities, in a manner similar to the one suggested by Hoek (1983) for solving the stability problems on rock and the elastic-plastic behavior in tunnel opening operations. Figure 2 shows how the criterion is extended to be used in the design of shallow foundations (Serrano and Olalla, 1996a). Following Hoek and Brown recommendations, their non-linear failure criteria is only valid for the “intact rock”, “single discontinuity” and “jointed rock mass” situations, respectively.

SPE Disciplines: Reservoir Description and Dynamics > Reservoir Characterization > Reservoir geomechanics (0.48)

During the 20th Century, the main focus of engineers was to optimise the production of water, mineral ores, oil or gas. No, or little, interest was paid to the sustainability of these activities. Things have changed drastically. On one hand, concern for environmental protection has increased, especially in densely inhabited areas in Europe, where the long-term consequences of deep man-made openings appear long after the coal, iron ore or salt has been extracted. On the other hand, new projects have appeared in which the underground space is used, not for extracting minerals, but for the storage of oil, gas and compressed air or for the disposal of carbon dioxide, and industrial and radioactive wastes.

• An (international) scientific community is interested in the issue.

• Time is available to build a consensus; the process is iterative.

• Results are published in peer-reviewed papers and discussed in national and international forums.

• A large amount of high-quality laboratory data is available.

• Alarge amount of high quality in-situ data is available.Tests must be performed at scale 1 and be as long as reasonably possible.

• Long-term (historical and geological) observations are taken into account.

• Attention is paid to unexplained phenomena observed in the laboratory and in the field, even when their apparent link with the issue is small.

• Constitutive modelling must be based on first principles and an in-depth understanding of the micro-physical mechanisms, rather than on a purely phenomenological (“curve-fitting”) approach. Specifically, in the long term, deviatoric stresses, pore pressure gradients and temperature differences are much smaller than those currently observed during standard laboratory tests and cavern operation. Active mechanisms are suspected to be different qualitatively.

• Similar numerical results are reached by different groups.

• Results are not extremely sensitive to the remaining uncertainties in parameter values or constitutive modelling.

• Sufficiently long and dedicated in-situ tests have been performed, and their results correctly fit blind prediction made before the test. General rules are useful, but each problem exhibits specific features; for this reason, one interesting issue was selected as an example: abandonment of deep salt caverns.

Country:

- North America > United States (1.00)
- Europe (1.00)

SPE Disciplines: Reservoir Description and Dynamics > Reservoir Characterization > Reservoir geomechanics (1.00)

Over the last decades, the volume of constructions and design of structures on and in rock masses have increased significantly, even with respect to the complexity level. This fact has become a big challenge to the rock mechanic engineers, due to the requirement of more realistic and accurate tools to simulate these structures. Special attention is given to the underground structures in rock, because underground facilities have important roles to the modern society and may be used for a wide range of applications, including subways and railways, highways, material storage,water transport, etc (Hashasha et al. 2001). Therefore, underground structures built in areas subject to earthquake activity or subject to suddenly explosions must withstand both seismic and static loading (Fig. 1), i.e. it is essential to take into account the dynamic analysis of such structures. There are many cases where seismic effects should be considered in underground structures, such as referred by Hakala et al. In order to consider dynamic effects and to study the fundamental processes occurring in rock, suitable numerical models are essential for assessing the anticipated and actual performance of structures built on and in rock masses, and hence for supporting rock engineering design (Jing&Hudson 2002). Nowadays, there is a wide range of modelling approaches for rock mechanics problems, and the most commonly applied numerical methods are: the Finite Difference Method (FDM), the Finite Element Method (FEM), the Boundary Element Method (BEM), and the Discrete Element Method (DEM). The choice of the methods to be used depends on many variables and, as mentioned by Jing & Hudson (2002), there are no absolute advantages of one method over another. In most of the caseswhen dealing with seismic design loads, the interaction between the underground structures with the surrounding ground is neglected by the analysts. This important aspect can be considered by means of a reliable, accurate and efficient multi-region technique.

Artificial Intelligence, boundary, displacement, domain, equation, formulation, impulse, interface, Laplace domain, matrix, media, method, problem, propagation, region, Reservoir Characterization, reservoir description and dynamics, reservoir geomechanics, rock, seismic processing and interpretation, traction, underground structure, Upstream Oil & Gas, wave propagation

SPE Disciplines:

Technology:

It is well-known that surface roughness of rock fractures is structurally non-stationary at small scales and the structural non-stationarity of surface roughness mainly affects accurate characterization of the morphological properties of rock joints (Fardin et al., 2001). Non-stationarity of natural fracture surfaces means that the roughness features change with respect to their position and mostly occur over a broad range of scales. This paper investigates the effect of scale on the surface damage and asperity degradation of rock joint by performing several mechanical shear tests on samples having different sizes.

2.1

asperity degradation, concrete fracture replica, contact, damage, direction, Fardin, mechanical property, Reservoir Characterization, reservoir description and dynamics, reservoir geomechanics, rock joint, roughness, sample, scale, shear, shear direction, surface, test, Upstream Oil & Gas, Wellbore Design, wellbore integrity

SPE Disciplines:

Presently, massive investments in infrastructure (railroad and road) rock tunnels are planned in Sweden. For railroads, new underground infrastructures (tunnels and stations) in the amount of approximately 4 billion euro are planned under the direction of Banverket, (the Swedish National Railroad Administration) for the next decade. Many of these tunnels will be constructed in urban environments and will be of relatively high complexity, which will necessitate stringent, robust, and reliable design procedures. The design of the load-bearing structure of rock tunnels is associated with uncertainties, which must be handled in the design process. The national standard for railroad tunnels,

3.1

A typical tunnel geometry for a railroad tunnel in Sweden was chosen for the analysis (Banverket 2005), see Figure 1. In this study the rock cover was set to 5m.

base case, case, Deformation property, model, outer-fiber stress, property, reinforcement, Reservoir Characterization, reservoir description and dynamics, reservoir geomechanics, rock, shotcrete, shotcrete reinforcement, stiffness, strength, stress, tensile, tensile strength, tunnel, tunnel face, Upstream Oil & Gas

SPE Disciplines: Reservoir Description and Dynamics > Reservoir Characterization > Reservoir geomechanics (0.70)

If a circular tunnel is created in a rock mass, annulus of plastic zone may be formed as shown in Figure 1. The extent of the zone, of cause, depends on the dimension of tunnel, the stress condition, and the strength of rock mass. Furthermore, the plastic zone may be divided into the strain-softening and residual plastic zones if the strain-softening behavior is considered. Linear elastic behavior is assumed for the pre-peak stress state.

4.1

analysis, approximation, circular tunnel, condition, displacement, distribution, elastic-brittle plastic, elastic-perfectly plastic, equation, increment, mass, method, plastic, radial displacement, Reservoir Characterization, reservoir description and dynamics, strain-softening rock mass, stress, Upstream Oil & Gas

To resolve the traffic jams, the underground train (subway) is the first solution. Among the various methods for the construction of the subway tunnels, the New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM) is the most favorite option for the rock mass. The following are also the most important points for successful design & construction of the tunnels using the method:

• Proper analysis of the tunnel stability under the temporary condition for the ground layers properties nearby the tunnels.

• The proper estimation of the loading and design of temporary support and its proper installation (Mair & Taylor 1996).

• The ground settlements due to the tunnel excavation and its effect on surrounding buildings.

• The latter point (settlement) is the most important factor in success of the tunneling in metropolitan areas which should always be monitored and kept under control (Atkinson 1977).

effect, excavation, ground, ground surface, ground surface settlement, Isfahan, management and information, plain strain, plain strain condition, Reservoir Characterization, reservoir description and dynamics, rock mass, settlement, Station, strength, subway twin, surface, tunnel, tunnel excavation, tunnel face

SPE Disciplines:

Before a tunnel excavation, the rock is considered as being constrained by initial strains, denoted by {

approach, boundary, circular tunnel, condition, displacement, displacement boundary, equation, plastic, problem, Reservoir Characterization, reservoir description and dynamics, reservoir geomechanics, rock, solution, strain, strain strength criterion, stress, tunnel, tunnel excavation, Upstream Oil & Gas

SPE Disciplines: Reservoir Description and Dynamics > Reservoir Characterization > Reservoir geomechanics (0.49)

Thank you!