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**Concept Tag**

- analysis (83)
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**File Type**

1 INTRODUCTION

Rock dynamics deals with the responses of rock (materials and masses) under dynamic stress fields, where an increased rate of loading (or impulsive loading) induces a change in the mechanical behaviour of the rock materials and rock masses (Zhou & Zhao 2011).

Dynamic loads include explosion, impact, and seismic, that are typically in the form of time histories of particle acceleration, velocity, or displacement. Distribution of dynamic stress field is in the form of propagating stress waves. Wave propagation in rock masses is governed by the wave transmission and transformation across the rock discontinuities in the rock masses, which forms a major topic of rock dynamics.

Response of rock materials and rock masses under dynamic stress are at different scales, including rock material fracturing and failure, sliding along the rock joints and rock block movements. Rock material fracturing, for example, is a dynamic micro-scale process leading to macro-scale deformation and failure. Rock fracturing is a dynamic process often associated with sudden energy release forming dynamic stress waves.

Rock dynamics has applications in civil, mining, energy and environmental engineering encountering dynamic loads and behaviours, e.g., rock excavation and fragmentation by blasting, tunnelling and slope stability and support under earthquakes, protection of rock falls, rock burst in deep mines, fracturing of hot rock in geothermal fields, hazard and risk control due to explosion and blast.

This keynote addresses advancements in some of the topics of rock dynamics and applications, specifically on numerical modelling methods, laboratory testing techniques and tunnel stability under explosive loading.

bar, coupling, discontinuum, Engineering, fracture, hydraulic fracturing, material, model, Multiscale, particle, Reservoir Characterization, reservoir description and dynamics, reservoir geomechanics, reservoir simulation, rock, rock dynamic, rock material, scaling method, SHPB, specimen, stress, Upstream Oil & Gas, Wave, well completion, Zhao

SPE Disciplines:

ABSTRACT: Iron ore mining was carried out in the Lorraine district in the north-east of France for several centuries. The predominant mining method was bord and pillar, with pillar extraction in some areas. The orebody consists of several layers and mining was done on multiple levels. There is no evidence today that a formal design method for pillar size was in use. Mining ceased in 1975. It is important to evaluate pillar stability and hence surface stability as the region has been extensively built up. It is an important input parameter in the surface stability risk analysis that is done for all historical mining areas in France by INERIS.

The method used to determine the optimal strength formula for coal pillars in South Africa has been used successfully for the iron ore pillars in the Lorraine basin in France. The method is based on obtaining the best possible distinction between cases of failed and stable pillars using the safety factor and arriving at a mean safety factor of 1.0 for the population of failed pillars.

anhydrite, anhydrite marl, Behavior, collapse, compaction, depletion, failure, formation, Gachsaran, Gachsaran Formation, interface, marl, overburden, Reservoir Characterization, Reservoir Compaction, reservoir description and dynamics, reservoir geomechanics, rock, sample, shear, shear stress, stress, Upstream Oil & Gas

SPE Disciplines: Reservoir Description and Dynamics > Reservoir Characterization > Reservoir geomechanics (1.00)

adsorption, change, coal bed methane, coal seam gas, coalbed methane, complex reservoir, criteria, criterion, diameter, effect, failure, fracture, Hoek, mechanical property, peak strength, Reservoir Characterization, reservoir description and dynamics, rock, Rock mechanics, sample, specimen, strength, stress, Upstream Oil & Gas, water

SPE Disciplines:

Behavior, compressive strength, crack, diagram, elasticity, Engineering, fracture characterization, granite, hydraulic fracturing, material, perpendicular, plane, property, relation, Reservoir Characterization, reservoir description and dynamics, rift plane, specimen, stress, tensile, tensile strength, Upstream Oil & Gas, variation, well completion

SPE Disciplines:

Mehinrad, A. (Bakhtiary Joint Venture Consultants (BJVC)) | Binazadeh, Kh. (Bakhtiary Joint Venture Consultants (BJVC)) | Gheshmipour, A. (Bakhtiary Joint Venture Consultants (BJVC)) | Hamzehpour, H. (Bakhtiary Joint Venture Consultants (BJVC)) | Chehreh, H. (Bakhtiary Joint Venture Consultants (BJVC)) | Haftani, M. (Bakhtiary Joint Venture Consultants (BJVC))

Bakhtiary dam site and its reservoir are located in the Folded Zagross tectono–sedimentary province. The dam site is completely placed on siliceous limestones of Sarvak formation (Cretaceous period), divided to 7 units from Sv1 to Sv7. Bakhtiary dam and hydropower plant project is unique for its outstanding characteristics. One of them is the extensive engineering geological and rock mechanics investigations carried out during its design studies. Subsurface exploration at Bakhtiary dam site consisted of the drilling of more than 178 boreholes with the total length of about 12,500mand excavation of 11 galleries with the total length of 2,850m for performing engineering geological investigations and in-situ rock mechanics tests. Geotechnical investigations performed in all the boreholes included RQD measurements, lithological and joint survey and analysis of permeability tests’ results.

A large number of laboratory rock mechanics tests were performed on rock samples selected from the drill cores of the exploratory boreholes including index tests, ultrasonic wave velocity measurements, unconfined compression tests, triaxial tests and direct shear tests. In order to make a realistic estimate on the geomechanical parameters of the existing rock masses at the dam site, an extensive in-situ rock mechanics test program was performed in the exploratory galleries excavated in the dam foundation and underground powerhouse areas. This test program consisted of deformability tests including Plate Load, Large Flat Jack and Dilatometer tests, in-situ stress measurement including Borehole Slotter and Hydraulic Fracturing tests and Direct Shear test for determining the shear strength parameters of the bedding planes as the most frequent and dominant discontinuity at the dam site. Since the Plate Load Tests provided the most reliable results for estimating the deformability characteristics of the rock masses therefore; a correlation was defined between the overall modulus of deformation of the rock masses and their ratings based on GSI classification system. Results of Hydraulic Fracturing tests at Bakhtiary dam site revealed that the average orientation of the major horizontal principal stress at the dam site (N57° ± 36° ENE) fitted well with the general stress regime by which the Zagross mountain ranges had been created, in the vicinity of the borderline of Arabian and Eurasian tectonic plates. Engineering classification of the existing rock masses at Bakhtiary dam site were performed based on the detail information gathered from engineering geological mapping and discontinuity survey data on the surface and in the exploratory galleries using RMR

bakhtiary dam, bakhtiary dam site, borehole, classification, discontinuity, foundation, hydropower plant project, investigation, Reservoir Characterization, reservoir description and dynamics, reservoir geomechanics, rock, rock mass, Rock mechanics, Rock mechanics Investigation, test, Upstream Oil & Gas

SPE Disciplines: Reservoir Description and Dynamics > Reservoir Characterization > Reservoir geomechanics (1.00)

analysis, aquifer, bottom aquifer, coal, effect, geological condition, hypothesis, lining, management and information, metals & mining, method, reinforcement, reservoir description and dynamics, safety factor, shaft, shaft lining, shaft lining rupture, shaft lining treatment, underground continuous impervious curtain

SPE Disciplines:

da Fontoura, S.A.B. (Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro) | Inoue, N. (Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro) | Martinez, I.M.R. (Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro) | Cogollo, C. (Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro) | Curry, D.A. (Baker Hughes Incorporated)

behaviour, bit selection, coarse mesh, Comparison, cutter, displacement, displacement curve, Drilling, fine mesh, material, mesh, model, numerical simulation, process, Reservoir Characterization, reservoir description and dynamics, reservoir geomechanics, rock, Rock mechanics, tool, Upstream Oil & Gas, workpiece

SPE Disciplines:

A concrete plug was to be built at the middle portion of the damaged tunnel and then the reservoir would be filled again, but maintaining the neighbor tunnel closed and empty for some time, before it also receives a concrete plug. The problem consisted in the assessment of the strength of the rock septum and its stability when subjected to a hydrostatic pressure of 18MPa, which could cause failure of the rock wall, leading to a disaster with the emptying of the reservoir again.

The paper describes the studies performed, comprising geological and geomechanical characterization of the rock septum, finite element analysis under diverse conditions and the conclusion derived as well as the protection measures taken. The concrete plugs were built, the reservoir was filled successfully and the project is in operation for some years now without any problem.

analysis, basaltic breccia, concrete plug, evaluation, failure, management and information, MPa, occur, program, renewable energy, reservoir again, Reservoir Characterization, reservoir description and dynamics, rock, rock mass, rock septum, stability, strength, stress, tunnel, uplift, Upstream Oil & Gas, wall

SPE Disciplines:

Thank you!