Khalimov, E. (Institute of Geology and Exploration of Combustible Fuels, Moscow) | Orudgeva, D. (Institute of Geology and Exploration of Combustible Fuels, Moscow) | Obukhov, A. (Institute of Geology and Exploration of Combustible Fuels, Moscow) | Lovelock, E. R. (Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij, Netherlands)
NEW PETROLEUM FIELDS AND OFFSHORE PROVINCES IN RUSSIA E. Khalimov, D. Orudgeva and A. Obukhov, Institute of Geology and Exploitation of Combustible Fuels, Moscow; P. E. R. Lovelock, Shell Internationale Petroleum Mij, B. V., The Hague Abstract. Russian sea shelves cover about 3.9 million sq. km (14% of total world area). The petroleum potential of the Russian shelves exceeds the hydrocarbon (HC) reserves of the North Sea more than tenfold. However, 82% of the HC resources of the Russian shelf are confined to the Arctic seas with an extremely severe environment (low temperatures, ice, high waves, storms and hurricanes, etc.). About 14% of the undiscovered resources lie in the Far East and 4%-in the Russian sectors of the Baltic and Caspian seas. Russian offshore HC resources are poorly developed. Oil reserves to resources ratio is about 1% in the Arctic seas and about 13% in the Far East seas. 30 oil and gas fields have been discovered and quite a few promising structures identified in the Russian sea shelves. Geologic structure and development conditions of the following fields are given in brief: Peschano- Ozerskoye (1982), Gulyayevskoye North (1986), Prirazlomnoye (1989) (the Barents Sea); Odoptu Offshore (1977), Chaivo Offshore (1979), Lunskoye Offshore (1984), Piltun-Astokhskoye (1986), Arkutun-Daginskoye (1989) (the Sea of Okhotsk). Oil discoveries are classified according to their commercial importance and development conditions. Oil production volume from new Russian offshore discoveries is forecasted. The importance of world experience, application of advanced technologies and up-to-date equipment for offshore oil exploration, production and drilling in Russia is evaluated.
The total area of the offshore provinces of Russia including both the outer seas (Arctic and Far East) and the inner seas (Caspian, Baltic, Rlack Seas and Sea of Azov) amounts to nearly four million km2, or 14% of the world's shallow water offshore regions. The water depth at the edge of the shelves reaches 240 m while the width varies greatly from 5 up to 1350 km. Numerous depositional basins are to be found within this vast offshore area, of which the largest are as follows : - East Barents, South Kara, Laptev, East Siberian and Chukchi in the Arctic - Anadyr, Navarin, Khatyrka, Olyutorsk- Komandor, North Sakhalin, Okhotsk-Kamchatka and South Okhotsk in the Far East The oil and gas potential of Russia's offshore prov- inces is 6 times larger than that of the North Sea. However, 82% of its resources are located within the Arctic Seas which feature the most harsh climatic conditions (i.e. low temperatures, thick sea ice for most of the year, high waves and storm force winds etc.). The Far Eastern seas account for 14% of the potential resources while 4% is to be found in the Baltic, Caspian, Black Sea and Azov provinces. Most of the hydrocarbons remain undiscovered. So far only about 1% of the potential reserves in the A
. --I-^-.<_._" .. . . . . DEGRADATION OF HYDROCARBON BASED DRILLING WASTES RESEARCH T. M. Macyk and S. A. Abboud, Alberta Research Council, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Abstract. Oil and gas drilling activities in Alberta generate a variety of wastes that must be disposed of in an environmentally acceptable manner. Diesel invert mud drilling wastes are one of the more difficult types to dispose of due to the presence of hydrocarbons and salts. In 1989 a joint research program funded by the Alberta Research Council and Alberta Land Conservation and Reclamation Council was initiated to develop environmentally acceptable land application rates of diesel invert wastes for soils in Alberta and to model the fate of these wastes. The work was undertaken as four individuai but closely linked experiments. The character- ization experiment included the sampling of the waste materials and indigenous soils from the field site and the subsequent analytical work provided the basis for the degradation, greenhouse, and field experiments. The degradation experiment established to determine the rates of decomposition of the oil fraction in the waste included three temperatures for incubation (5 "C, 15 "C, and 25 OC), six incubation periods (O, 1, 3, 9, 25 and 52 weeks), and five waste application rates (O, 0.5%, LO%, 1.5% and 3.0% oil and grease in the soil-waste mixture). The rate of oil degradation decreased with increasing oil content with optimum rates at 0.5% to 1.0%. The greenhouse experiment was undertaken to measure the relative impact of the oil materials and salts present in the waste on soil quality and plant growth and quality. The variables included one soil, two wastes (washed to remove salts and unwashed) eight application rates, one crop (brome grass) and three replicates. Yields declined from the control level as waste application rate increased. A replicated field plot experiment to validate and calibrate the results of the degradation and greenhouse experiments involving oil application rates of O, 1.0%, 2.0%, 3.0% and 4.0% was implemented. Frequency of application included single applications with and without a vegetation cover, and multiple application plots. Results based on three years of sampling and analysis indicate that oil degrades more rapidly when applied at the lower (1.0% and 2.0% oil) rates. Chlorides have moved rapidly down the soil profile with accumulations occurring below the 1 m depth. 1.
Oil and gas drilling activities in Alberta, which is the main oil and gas producing province in Canada, generate a variety of wastes that must be disposed of in an environmentally acceptable manner. Diesel invert mud drilling wastes are one of the more diffi- cult types to dispose of due to the pesence of hydro- carbons and salts. In 1989 a joint research program funded by the Alberta Research Council and Alberta Land Conservation and Reclamation Council was initiated to develop environmentally acceptable land applicati
Grinde, P. (Elf Petroleum Norge AS, Norway) | Schnapper, D. (Elf Aquitaine Production, France) | Pabian-Goyheneche, C. (Elf Aquitaine Production, France) | Blanche, J. P. (Elf Aquitaine Production, France)
INTEGRATING SEISMIC AND RESERVOIR MONITORING IN A DYNAMIC MODEL TO REAPPRAISE THE HEIMDAL GAS FIELD (NORWAY) P. Grinde, ElfPetroleum Norge AS, Norway; D. Schnapper, C. Pabian-Goyheneche and J. P. Blanche, Elf Aquitaine Production, France. Abstract. A multidisciplinary team of geologists, geophysicists and reservoir specialists performed this study to reappraise the Heimdal Field which was suspected to be approaching its mid-life crisis. Using seismic attributes from 3D (mainly 2D amplitude versus offset AVO) and 2D repetitive seismic monitoring, a detailed structural and seismic stratigraphic interpretation provided the geometrical basis for the field model. A heterogenetic approach (identifying potential flow barriers) to detailed geology was then applied using regional experience and detailed field data including the production characteristics. The resulting reservoir simulation also incorporated the production history and depletion data of offset fields on common regional aquifers, to properly monitor and predict the dynamic pressure behaviour and aquifer energy in this series of connecting, Paleocene, turbiditic sands. Two repetitive seismic campaigns have been acquired since the pre-production 3D seismic survey. Mapping of the water encroachment was attempted using advanced interpretation techniques of 2D AVO and inversion. The results have been integrated into the dynamic matching process in the reservoir simulation. Forecast predic- tions of production plateau length and decline profiles as well as sweep efficiency were obtained and used in the reservoir management plan. These new techniques have so far ruled out the need for two infill wells, which older simulations suggested would be required to recover unswept gas. This work shows how an integrated study helped in the reappraisal of this mature gas field such that two infill wells, previously proposed by reservoir simulation, have been shown to be unnecessary. The Heimdal field is situated in block 25/4 in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. This Paleocene gas reservoir was discovered in 1971 and put on pro- duction in 1986. A total of 2 appraisal wells and 10 production wells (clustered at the top of the reservoir) have been drilled. The reservoir is subject to strong aquifer influx making the water encroach- ment of the field a key uncertainty with respect to final reserves. The initial reservoir model indicated the possibility of leaving behind a significant gas pool in the northern part of the field, if two infill wells were not drilled in order to drain this unswept gas. A seismic survey was shot in 1991 for water rise monitoring purposes. Mapping of the water encroachment was attempted using advanced inter- pretation techniques of 2D AVO and inversion. In the process of AVO interpretation it was discovered that the picking of the top reservoir could be improved. At the same time conventional water rise measurements in two observation wells showed inter- nal flo
CHALLENGES OF THE PETROLEUM REFINING INDUSTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF HIGH QUALITY FUELS FROM HEAVY CRUDE OIL PROCESSING Fernando Manzanilla, Petroleos Mexicanos (Mexico); Julian Castellanos, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexico) Abstract. The best scheme and product slate for a Mexican refinery, processing heavy sour crude, is defined through an analysis based not only on domestic demand projections, but also on an open market and interna- tional prices consideration, so being a valid approach for some other geographic areas. The distillates section has to be structured in accordance with the stringent international quality fuels specifi- cations, so requiring the production of low sulphur-aromatic-olefin components for reformulated gasoline and other ecological products, which demand gasoil deep desulphurization, cat-cracking feed desulphurization, light naphtha isomerization, alkylation and MTBE/TAME production. For the bottom of the barrel, carbon rejection and hydrogen addition technologies are analyzed, including residue hydrodesulphurization for low sulphur fuel oil production us. total fuel oil conversion by hydrocracking, delayed coking, or deep extraction. For all cases the tar or coke residues are used for steam and power co- generation by either fluidized bed boilers or gasification associated to combined cycle generation and hydrogen production, for internal refinery consumption only. A comparison of several alternatives is presented, showing that the best approach for the Mexican case is a combination of delayed coking and coke gasification. 1.
The Mexican oil industry will soon be facing a challenge to satisfy the demand of greater amounts of high quality fuels with stringent technical and environmental specifications, with at the same time an increasing relative availability of heavy sour crude oil with high levels of sulphur and metal content and low distillate yields. This is not only a particular situation in Mexico, but also a tendency that is expected to generalize in the next few years in most of the petroleum pro- cessing countries. The difficulty of attaining relatively higher yields of distillates for clean fuels production from heavy crude oils, will however be compensated by an expected higher price differential of distillates us. fuel oil and a cost differential between light and heavy crude oils. These differentials may permit the economical incorporation of high investment tech- nologies related to the bottom of the barrel pro- cessing, as well as the required downstream treating units. Mexico is already joining to the efforts of Europe, USA, Japan and some other countries towards a better environment, and this is now being reflected in several policies for the establishment of fuel specifi- cations. In general, the goals are oriented to reducing the sulphur content of all fuels, as shown in Table I and to producing reformulated unleaded gasoline with limited amounts of olefins and ar
EXPERIENCE WITH BIODEGRADABLE LUBRICANTS W. Baumann, ÖMV AG, Laboratory R & D, Mannswörtherstr. 28, A-2320 Schwechat, Austria; A. Hubmann, ÖMV AG, Laboratory R & D, Austria; P. Kotal, ÖMV AG, Application engineering ÖMV, Austria Abstract. Contamination of soil and water by lubricants is caused by loss lubrication, leakage, inefficient oper- ating conditions and accidents. A compiete and fast lubricant biodegradation is therefore, among other require- ments, a major demand especially in environmentally sensitive areas. Low mobility of the lubricant in soil also favours rapid degradation. These requirements can be met only by vegetable or animal oils and selected organic esters. In western Europe rape seed oil raffinates are used for base oils. In the beginning it was enthusiastically considered that all industrial lubricants could be formulated by the use of vegetable oils. But more severe operating conditions e.g. increased temperatures or the influence of emulsified water caused serious problems by the formation of deposits, corrosion, filter plugging and others. The first application of vegetable oil based lubricants therefore should be assessed by careful oil analysis and machine service. For these severe conditions the use of synthetic organic esters e.g. dicarboxylic acid esters or polyolesters is essential. But not ali of these base oils demonstrate satisfactory biodegradability. Seal compatibility and high prices too play an important role. But there are not only ecological advantages in the application of vegetable oils and synthetic esters, because existing recycling processes are negatively affected by the presence of esters. Biodegradable lubricants have obtained a fixed place in the lubricant market today. But it should be decided carefully from case to case whether the application of biodegradable lubricants is reasonable in terms of ecologi- cal and economical demands. 1.
the other hand oil quantities remain constant. More In Western European countries the slogan `biodegradable lubricants' summarises both, lubri- cants and their various properties, that minimise environmental impact (Table I). Regarding the various applications for lubricants we can estimate that most of the desired performance properties are met by fatty oils. But lubricants increasingly have to meet severe and also steadily increasing performance criteria of engine and machine manufacturers too. The specific thermal and oxidative stress on lubri- cants is increasing permanently due to higher tem- perature levels and increased oil drain intervals. On TABLE I Environmental compatibility of lubricants J renewable resources J environmentally unobjectionable process J J ecological compatible J readily biodegradable after use J no disposal and recycling problems (low energy demand, waste and emissions) non toxic (fresh and used oil) and more we become aware that increased per- formance requirements can be met only by synthetic fo
MANAGEMENT OF PIPELINE SAFETY BY THE NATIONAL ENERGY BOARD OF CANADA Roland Priddle*, Chairman, Jake Abes*, Safety Division, National Energy Board, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Abstract. The National Energy Board is an independent federal regulatory tribunal whose prime responsibility is to protect the Canadian public interest by regulating specific activities of the oil, natural gas and electric power industries. Pipeline safety, as a matter of public interest, is an important part of its mandate. The Board regu- lates the design, construction, and operation of oil and gas pipelines under its jurisdiction, and has developed a program which provides for the safety of the public and of pipeline employees and protects property and the environment. The framework of the Board`s pipeline safety strategy comprises three principal components : the development of regulations and technical standards; the monitoring and enforcement of compliance with those regulations and standards; and accident investigation. This paper discusses the main elements of each component and how all three interact to form a com- prehensive safety program. The paper includes a discussion of two public inquiries held by the Board to address specific safety issues and the processes by which these issues were resolved. 1.
to work together with the Board on safety-related initiatives. It is in this context of partnership and current safety program of the Board, as discussed in this paper, has been developed. In our society, a person carrying out industrial cooperation with the pipeline community that the activities is generally responsible for his or her safety. However, the safety of some activities may be depen- dent on external factors partly outside the control of that person or of the owner of the facility in which that person is working. And the potential conse- quences of the failure of certain facilities for the safety of the public and the security of the environ- ment may be particularly grave. In these circum- stances, a degree of governmental regulation may be called for. Such is the case with federally-regulated oil and gas pipelines in Canada. The National Energy Board`s (`the Board' or `the NEB ') pipeline safety program is directed at ensuring and enhancing safety in all activities related to the design, construction, and operation of pipelines. In pursuit of this goal, the Board works in partnership with other members of the pipeline community- owners, manufacturers, contractors, standards writing organizations, industry associations, and regulatory authorities, among others-and relies on them to assume their respective responsibilities and 2. ORGANIZATION AND RES PON SI BI LITIES The National Energy Board is an independent federal regulatory tribunal that was established in 1959 under the National Energy Board Act (`the NEB Act'). Its prime responsibility is to protect the Canadian public interest by regulating
THE GUADALAJARA CITY'S ACCIDENT-APRIL 1992 V. Alcerreca, General Director, Mexican Petroleum Institute, Mexico; D. G. Bilbao, Deputy Director, Industrial Transformation Technology, Mexican Petroleum Institute, Mexico. Abstract. The poster session will describe the applied methodology to the analysis of a series of explosions which occurred in the sewers of the city of Guadalajara, Mexico in April 1992. It will show the systematic approach used to find the probable causes for the explosions, through the analysis of gas and liquids samples from the sewers and soil samples to determine the presence of flammable solvents. Studies of the enormous damage originated from the explosions are shown, based on photographic evidence, and estimates of the required energy for the devastation were computed from material strength data, corrosion studies of the pipes involved and the probable volumes of fuels quantities. It will present as well, a conclusion based in the development of a water lock in the sewers, originated by modifications made in the sewer system itself, and the accumulation of flammable solvents upstream of the lock in the sewer, which contributed to the explosions. As the explosion over-pressure decayed, the top section of the sewage lines, earth in the fill and road structures collapsed back into the sewers, resulting in the collapse of buildings around the affected streets. The conclusion was validated using an experimental model to simulate the phenomena. The explosions caused structural damage in the above mentioned sewage, lifting the ground as well as the pavement on the streets along the system. The pipe collapsed, and the ground, pavement and every- thing on it went inside the pipe; the explosions impacted the land as an earthquake and with the col- lapse, they promoted the falling of buildings next to the streets along the system. The hydrocarbon-air mixture in the sewage came from flammable liquids admitted on it. Some modifi- cations to the system, mainly the blocking of the orient collector detouring the waters to the collector Rio San Juan to build a siphon at the crossing of line 2 with the city train system, caused the collector to be filled with water creating an hydraulic seal. This seal promoted the accumulation of flammable liquid and vapors. The analytical results available, known after the explosions, showed the presence of hexane and heptane, and some other compounds in less propor- tion in the sewage before the event. Those liquids might have promoted the explosions. Additionally, it was found that ten hours after the explosions, the poliduct of Pemex that was supplying fuels, was leaking in the Lazaro Cardenas Avenue. Gasoline Nova was admitted inside the same collector inter- medio oriente. Further findings showed damage to the poliduct caused by a water 3 inch piping laying on the pol- iduct. The cathodic protection on the poliduct, caused a corrosion in the water piping, by the pheno
PROSPECT EVALUATION THROUGH COMBINED USE OF COMPOSITIOMAL CRACKING AND DENSITY AND VISCOSITY PR E DICTIO N S J. L. Rudkiewicz, F. Behar and S. Wolf, Institut Francais du Petrole, 1 et 4, avenue de Bois-Préau, F 92506, Rueil-Malmaison, Cedex, France. Abstract. Defining new prospects in exploration usually goes through an estimation of fluid maturity in source rocks, carriers and reservoirs. Experimental simulations now allow a description in a more precise way of the primary cracking of kerogen and the secondary cracking of oil. Hydrocarbons generated and expelled from the source rock are described with the same detailed kinetic compounds as the oil in reservoirs : heavy compounds, hydrocarbons, condensate, wet gas and dry gas. When compositional kinetics are applied to geological times and temperatures, oil seems to exhibit a higher thermal stability than was previously assumed, which results in a larger oil and gas window and also in a longer lifetime (2-10 Ma) for oils in reservoirs at temperatures between 150 and 200 "C. From this enhanced compositional description, density and viscosity can be calculated. in most geological situations, source rock fluids seem to remain in one single liquid phase, whereas, on the contrary, liquid-gas separation is likely to occur during transport or in the reservoir itself. A better knowledge of the thermal stability of oils thus could shift the definition of gas versus oil prospects toward larger depths, as will be shown based on an example from North Sea derived data. Being able to discuss the composition of fluids in source-rocks, carriers and reservoir leads to stronger constraints on the petroleum system in sedimentary basins, as migration, whether primary or secondary, is heavily dependent on the composi- tion and phase behaviour of the fluids. Defining new prospects in exploration usually goes through an estimation of fluid maturity in source rocks, carriers and reservoirs. Numerical generation and migration models are one of the ways to investi- gate these questions. Numerical models apply physi- cal and chemical laws to describe the evolution of sedimentary basins and fluid migration through geo- logical times. IFP has developed a consistent set of lD, 2D and 3D models. A new generation of some of these models has recently been set up. They are now able to predict the composition of hydrocarbon fluids, based on compositional kinetics. Closed system pyrolysis at temperatures ranging from 250 to 500°C and times from 1 to 1296 hrs have been performed on Type II and III kerogens and on saturated and aromatic oils (Behar et al., 1991). The experimental simulations now allow a description of the primary cracking of kerogen and the secondary cracking of oil. Hydrocarbons gener- ated and expelled from the source rocks are described with the same detailed kinetic compounds as the oil in reservoir: heavy compounds, hydrocar- bons, condensate, wet gas and dry gas. An additional separation between sat
Eidt, C. M. (Exxon Research and Engineering Company, New Jersey, USA) | Eisenberg, B. (Exxon Research and Engineering Company, New Jersey, USA) | Bauman, R. F. (Exxon Research and Development Laboratories, Louisiana, USA) | Hochman, J. M. (Esso Singapore Private Ltd., Singapore) | Lahn, G. C. (Imperial Oil, Canada)
CURRENT DEVELOPMENTS IN NATURAL GAS CONVERSION TECHNOLOGY Clarence M. Eidt, Jr., President, Exxon Research and Engineering Company, P.O. Box 101, Florham Park, New Jersey 07932; R. F. Bauman, Exxon Research and Development Laboratories, P.O. Box 2226, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70821 ; B. Eisenberg, Exxon Research and Engineering Company, P.O. Box 101, Florham Park, New Jersey 07932; J. M. Hochman, Esso Singapore Private Ltd., OUB Centre, No. I Rafles Place, Singapore 0104; G. C. Lahn, Imperial Oil, Products, P.O. Box 3022; Sarnia, Ontario N7T 7M1, Canada Abstract. LNG has long been the primary route to the development and utilization of natural gas resources remote from major markets. More recently, considerable research has been devoted to alternative pathways for converting static gas into other transportable and higher value liquid forms. These include both `indirect routes' as typified by Fischer-Tropsch chemistry, as well as so-called `direct' approaches involving catalytic redox reactions, etc. Most of the ongoing research related to the latter approach is at the exploratory stage while first generation technology utilizing the `indirect' approach has advanced to semi-works and initial commercial plants. Second generation `indirect' technologies are now emerging4f which Exxon's AGC-21 process is a forerunner. This new process features unique, new reactor and catalyst technology for synthesis gas generation and hydrocarbon synthesis and can produce a variety of hydrocarbon liquids ranging from a high quality refinery feedstock to finished fuel and specialty products. Further enhancement of AGC-21 plus improvements in other second generation technologies and advances in `direct' approaches are anticipated to provide addi- tional, new attractive paths to the utilization of remote gas reserves. 1.
Natural gas is a clean-burning hydrocarbon fuel which is efficiently used in homes, industries, and electric power generation. It is relatively abundant and readily transportable by pipeline to population centers within economic reach of natural gas reserves. However, it is costly to transport in gaseous or liquefied form when reserves are remote from user-customers. In fact, about half of the 140 Tm3 (4900 trillion cubic feet (TCF)) of proven natural gas reserves' are distant from any sizeable market and uneconomic to develop at current prices. 2. REMOTE NATURAL GAS RESERVES Remote or static natural gas is distributed around the world in diverse locationsdeserts, deep water, and arctic environments. Figure 1 displays a current assessment of these reserves by geographical area. As used in this paper, the term `remote' refers to reserves that are distant from a market and not readily accessible by pipeline for economic or techni- cal reasons. The FSU and Middle East hold the largest reserves as shown by the bars in the figure. For reference, one TCF of gas is equivalent t
MULTIPHASE HYDROCARBON PRODUCTION: FROM RESEARCH TO FIELD APPLICATION P. Tassini, AGIP SPA, Italy; V. Mezzedimi, Nuovo Pignone, Italy A. Mazzoli, Snamprogetti, Italy. Abstract. Hydrocarbons are, and will be for many years to come, one of the major sources of energy and the oil industry is committed to secure it in a safe and economic manner. Unfortunately, today new hydrocarbon reserves are normally located in hostile conditions (remote geographical regions, deep waters) or, in mature areas, are small accumulations. In both cases we can consider such kind of fields as marginal. In order to cope with the technical difficulties imposed by harsh environments and to meet the higher efficiency required for economically developing small reservoirs, specific technologies for production and transport of hydrocarbons have been implemented. Among them an important role is played by multiphase hydrocarbon transportation. During the last decade a part of the oil industry has pioneered this technology, investing heavily in a venture that at the very beginning had a high degree of risk and uncertainty. Nevertheless today the results obtained are rewarding and the whole industry is starting to think in terms of multiphase production. The poster will present the experiences gained in about eight years of work by three companies of the ENI Group together with a forecast of the possible future applications of multiphase pumping systems. Moreover, a discussion on advan- tages and limitations of this new technology will be possible, based on the results obtained from the tests of different pumping systems and on the comparison, for several reference cases, of cost figures of traditional solutions versus multiphase systems. Hydrocarbons are, and will be for many years to come, one of the major sources of energy and the oil industry is committed to secure it in a safe and eco- nomic manner. Unfortunately, today new hydrocar- bon reserves are normally located in hostile conditions (remote geographical regions, deep water) or, when in mature areas, are small accumulations. In order to cope with the technical difficulties imposed by harsh environments and to meet the higher efficiency required for economically developing small reservoirs, specific technologies for production and transport of hydrocarbons have been implemented. Among them an important role is played by the multiphase hydrocarbon transporta- tion. ENI Group has been devoting great attention to multiphase production and boosting since 1985 and in eight years of work different concepts of multi- phase boosting equipment have been developed, manufactured and extensively tested. Up to now, important results have been achieved on multiphase pumps for onshore as well as subsea application. Starting from four pump concepts based on various pumping principle, the selection of the best candi- dates for the multiphase service was performed. A twin-screw pump (positive displacement principle) and a diaphragm pu